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A42557 The History of the Church of Great Britain from the birth of our Saviour untill the year of our Lord, 1667 with an exact succession of the bishops and the memorable acts of many of them : together with an addition of all the English cardinals, and the several orders of English monks, friars and nuns in former ages. Geaves, William.; Geaves, George.; Gearing, William.; G. G. 1674 (1674) Wing G440; ESTC R40443 405,120 476

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XIX year of the Reign of Kymbeline King of Britain Divers Writers of note do tell us that the Gospel Baron Annal. Tom. 1. An. 61. Usser de Brit. Eccles primord c. 1. p. 7. Parker de vet●st Eccl. Britan. p. 2 3. Fo● Act. Monum v●l 1. Sir H. Spelm. Concil Tom. 1. P●r Josephum 〈◊〉 l●c●rna primum in Britania accensa est Georg. Major was preached and received in this Land even in the days of the Apostles Baronius and the Learned Archbishop Vsher tell us that St. Peter came into Britain in the twelfth year of the Emperour Nero and staid a long time here many being by him illightned Nicephorus saith that Simon Zelotes carried the Doctrine of the Gospel unto the Western Sea and to the Britannick Islands The Learned Archbishop Matthew Parker Bishop Godwin Mr. Camden and others do assert that St. Paul himself that great Apostle of the Gentiles Preached the Gospel to this Island after his enlargement from his first captivity at Rome where some say he continued Preaching five years And this say they he did at the instigation of Claudia a Noble British Woman Gildas our own Countrey-man Polydor Virgil Mr. Fox Sir Henry Spelman and many others tell us that Joseph of Arimathea that Holy Man after he had buried the body of Christ in his own Tomb came into this Island and Preached the Gospel here being sent hither by Philip and James the Apostles That he wa●●n this Land is confirmed not onely by divers Histories but also by Antient Monuments Bale●s alledgeth many other witnesses It doth not appear that the first Preachers of the Gospel in Britain did so much as touch at Rome much less that they received any command or commission thence to convert Britain which should lay an Eternal obligation of gratitude on this Island to the Sea of Rome Insomuch that Parsons himself flyes at last to this slight and slender shift That albeit St. Joseph came not immediately from Rome yet he taught in this Island the Roman Faith whereof St. Paul h●th written to the Romans themselves that your Faith is spoken of through the whole World Rom. 1. 8. Hereby the Jesuite hopes to keep on ●●ot the engagement of this Island to Rome for her first conversion But why should he call the Christian Fuller Church Histor ●i● 1. Religion the Roman Faith rather than the Faith of Jerusalem or the Faith of Antioch seeing it issued from the former and was received and first named in the latter City before any spark of Christianity was kindled at Rome as Dr. Fuller well observeth CENT II. WE read that the Gospel in our Land had the countenance of publick Authority through the gratious providence of God very early A Learned Writer speaking of the dignity of this Nation Omnium Provinciarum prima Britannia publicitus Christi nomen recepit Sabel●l● Enn. 7. l. 5. saith That of all the Pr●vinces of the Roman Empire yea it seemeth of the whole World this Island of Great Britain did first receive the Gospel by publick Authority Lucius King of Britain was the first Christian King we read of in Ecclesiastical Stories He embraced the Faith about an hundred and fifty years after the death of Christ It is said of this King Lucius that at first he shewed himself an enemy to the Christians but observing the holiness of their lives he was enclined to embrace the Christian Faith but was held off for a time partly by the Heathenish superstition of his Ancestors wherein he had been bred up and partly because he found the Christians reputed infamous by the Romans then the Lords of a great part of the World under whom it seemeth he was a tributary King but being afterward informed that many of the Nobles or Senators of the Romans had embraced the Christian Religion he made an open profession of it and made a notable reformation in his Dominions Moreover he being much taken with the Miracles which he beheld truly wrought by pious Christians was the more drawn to embrace their Religion and sent Elvanus and Meduinus men of known Piety and Learning in the S●riptures to Eleutherius Bishop of Rome with a Letter requesting several things of him but principally that he might be ●●s●ructed in the Christian Faith Eleutherius returneth him this Answer That having received in his Kingdom the Law and Faith of Christ Holinsh des●rof Brit. c. 7. Annals of England by John Stow. and having now the Old and New Testaments he should by a Council of his Realm take Laws from thence to govern thereby That he was the Vicar of God in his Kingdomes That the People and Nations of the Kingdom of Britain were His even His children That such as were divided he should gather them together unto the Law of Christ his holy Church unto peace and concord and should cherish maintain protect govern and defend them c. When Christian Religion first was publickly received and established in this Land by King Lucius here were then of Heathen institution eight and twenty Flamines and three Archflamines The places of the Flamines the King turned to so many Bishopricks the places of the Archflamines to so many Archbishopricks the one at London translated afterward to Canterbury the other at York the third at Caerleon in Wales where seaven of those Bishopricks with this Archbishoprick were remaining when Austin the Monk came into England Here were Temples also builded for the worship of Paynim-gods of which he made Churches for the service of Jesus Christ Thomas Rudbourn a Monk of Winchester Moratus an old British Writer and others testifie that Denotus was Bishop of Winchester and all the possessions of the Pagan Flamines there were conferred upon him and his Clergy which were so ample that even about the City all the Lands within twelve miles of it on all sides were belonging unto it containing in number 32 Villages And thus the Britains had for their greatest glory the happiness to see and enjoy the first Christian Prince in the World It is reported that King Lucius was the Founder of St. Peter's Church at Cornhil in London placing therein one Thean an Archbishop and that the Metropolitan See continued in a succession of Archbishops there about 400 years until the coming of Austin the Monk who translated the Archbishop's seat from London to Canterbury In that Church was a Table wherein is written that King Lucius founded the same Church to be an Archbishop's See and that it so endured the space of 400 years There are the name of these Archbishops of London Thean Elvanus Cadar Obinus Conan Paladius Stephen Iltut Theodwyn or Dedwin Thedrid Hilary Restitutus Guertelinus or Guitelinus Fastidius Vodinus Theonus c. Elvanus built a Library near St. Peter's Church in Cornhil he was a Godly Learned and Grave Man brought up in the School of Joseph of Arimathea and Converted many of the Druydes to the Christian Faith Bishop Godwin saith That the
from certain San osatenian Hereticks in Poland and became infected therewith Hereupon he set sorth two Books the one entitled TRACTATVS THEOLOGICVS DE DEO dedicated to the Land-grave of HESSEN the other EXEGESIS APOLOGETICA dedicated to the States both of them stuffed with many dangerous Positions concerning the Deity This Wretch debased the Purity of God assigning him a material body confining his Immensity as not being every where shaking his Immutability as if his Will were subject to change darkening his Omnisciency as uncertain in future contingents with many more monstrous Opinions Notwithstanding all this the said Vorstius was chosen by the Curators of the University of Leyden to be their publick Divinity-Professor in the place of Arminius lately deceased and to that end the States General by their Letters sent and sued to the Count of TECKLENBOVRGH and obtained of him that Vorstius should come from Steinford and become publick Professor in Leyden King James being this Aucumn in his hunting Progress did light upon and perused the aforesaid Books of Vorstius he observed the dangerous Positions therein determining speedily to oppose them Hereupon he presently dispatched a Letter to Sir Ralph Winwood his Ambassador Relident with the States requiring him to let them understand how highly he should be displeased if such a Monster as Vorstius should be advanced in their Church This was seconded with a large Letter of his Majesties to the States dated October the sixth to the same effect But the States entertain not the motion of King James against Vorstius according to expectation They said That if Vorstius had formerly been faulty in offensive expressions he had since cleared himself in a n●w Declaration For lately he set forth a Book entitled A Christan and modest Answer but he gave no satisfaction in his new Declaration King James therefore gave Instructions to his Ambassador to make publick protestation against their proceedings which Sir Ralph Winwood most solemnly performed And after his Majesties Request Letter and Protestation had missed their desired effect he wrote in French a Declaration against Vorstius which since by his leave hath been translated into English among his other Works Vorstius his Books were also by the King's Command publickly burnt at St. Paul's-cross in London and in both Universities The same year in March Bartholomew Legate an Arrian was burnt in Smithfield for denying the Deity of the Son of God and holding that there are no Persons in the Godhead with many other damnable Tenets In the next month Eaward Wightman of Burton upon Trent was burnt at Litchfield for holding ten several Heresies viz. those of Ebion Cerinthus Valentinian Arrius Macedonius Simon Magus Manes Manicheus Photinus and of the Anabaptists Only a Spanish Arrian who was condemned to die was notwithstanding suffered to linger out his Life in Newgate where he ended the same This year died Richard Sutton the Founder of Charter-house Hospital Esquire The Manors which in several Counties he setled for the maintenance of this Hospital were these 1. Balsham Mannor in Cambridge-shire 2. Blastingthorp Mannor in Lincoln-shire 3. Black-grove Mannor in Wilt-shire 4. Broad-Hi●ton Land in Wilt-shire 5. Castle-Camps Mannor in Cambridge-shire 6. Chilton Mannor in Wilt-shire 7. Dunby Mannor in Lincoln-shire 8. Elcomb Mannor and Park in Wilt-shire 9. Hackney Land in Middlesex 10. Hallingbury-Bouchers Mannor in Essex 11. Missunden Mannor in Wilt-shire 12. Much-Stanbridge Mannor in Essex 13. Norton Mannor in Essex 14. Salthrop Mannor in Wilt-shire 15. South-minster Mannor in Essex 16. Tottenham Land in Middlesex 17. Vfford Mannor in Wilt-shire 18. Watelscot Mannor in Wilt-shire 19. Westcot Mannor in Wilt-shire 20. Wroughton Mannor in Wilt-shire Anno 1612. On November the sixth died Prince Henry of a burning Fever He was generally lamented of the whole Land both Universities publishing their Verses in print Prince Henry's Funerals are followed with the Prince Palatine's Nuptials solemnized with great state Anno 1613. Nicholas Wadham Esquire of Merrifield in the County of Sommerset bequeathed by his Will four hundred pounds per annum and six thousand pounds in Money to the building of a Colledge in Oxford leaving the care of the Whole to Dorothy his Wife This year the same was finished built in a place where formerly stood a Monastery of the Augustine Friars This year Anthony Rudd Bishop of St. Davids ended his Life Some three years since on the death of King Henry the Fourth Isaac Causabon that learned Critick was fetcht out of France by King James and preferred Prebendary of Canterbury Presently he wrote First to Fr●nto Duraeus his learned Friend then to Cardinal Perron in the just vindication of our English Church After these he began his Exercitations on Baronius his Ecclesiastical Annals which more truly may be termed The Annals of the Church of Rome He died and was buried in the South-Isle of Westminster-Abby His Monument was erected at the cost of Thomas Morton Bishop of Durham Anno 1614. Mr. John Selden set forth his Book of Tithes wherein he Historically proveth that they were payable jure humano and not otherwise Many wrote in answer to his Book Anno 1616. Mr. Andrew Melvin was freed from his imprisonment in the Tower whither he had been committed for writing some Satyrical Verses against the Ornaments on the Altar in the King's Chappel He afterwards became a Professor at Sedan in the Duke of Bovillon's Country Here he traduced the Church of England against which he wrote a Scroll of Saphicks entitled TAMI-CHAMI-CATEGERI● When first brought into the Tower he first found Sir William Seymour afterwards Marquess of Hertford and Duke of Sommerset there imprisoned for marrying the Lady Arabella so nearly allyed to the Crown without the King's consent To whom Melvin sent this Distick Causa mihi tecum communis carceris Ara Regia Bella tibi Regia sacra mihi Anno 1615. died Thomas Bilson Bishop of Winchester a profound Scholar well read in the Fathers Anno 1616. Marcus Antonius de Dominis Archbishop of Spalato came over into England The same year King James went into Scotland with a Princely Train to visit his native Country This year died Doctor William James Bishop of Durham Two other prime Prelats also followed him viz. Doctor Henry Robinson Bishop of Carlisle and Robert Bennet Bishop of Hereford termed saith Mr. Fuller Erudit us Benedictus Doctor Mocket Warden of All-Souls in Oxford set forth a Book in pure Latin containing The Apology of the Church of England The greater and lesser Catechism The nine and thirty Articles The Common-prayer The Ordination of Bishops Priests and Deacons The Polity or Government of the Church of England He epitomized the Homilies into certain Propositions faithfully extracted The Book fared the worse for the Author the Author had for his Patron the Archbishop against whom many Bishops began then to combine Dr. Mocket's Book was censured to be burnt which was done accordingly soon after he ended his life Anno 1617. died Robert Abbot Bishop of Salisbury
His Death 236 The French Massacre 238 The Millenary Petition 269 Richard Middleton entitled Doctor Fundatissimus 107 Sir Thomas Moor a Great enemy to the Protestants he was beheaded the next moneth after Bishop Fisher 149 Moratus an old British writer 3 N THe Names of those that were Archbishops of Lo●don 3 Numbers of the Bishops Abbots Priors c. that were deprived in the beginning of Queen Elizabeth's Reign 213 George Nevil Archbishop of York his Prodigious Feast his Estate seized and his person Imprisoned 1●3 The Numbers of Colledges and Chaunteries Demolished in the Reign of King Henry the eighth 154 Kingdom of Northumberland subdivided into two Kingdoms viz. of Bernicia and Deira 10 Nuns of the Abbey of Ambresbury Convicted for Incontinency 51 Non-conformists in Queen Eliz●beth's time of two sorts 229 231 James Nailor the Ring-leader of the Quakers publickly whipped pillored and Stigmatized 359 O OFfa King of Mercia founder of the Monastery of S. Albans bestoweth great lands upon it he was buried at Bedford 23 Osmond Bishop of Sarum deviser of that Service which after was observed in the whole Realm all Service Ordered to be secundum usum Sarum 39 Oswald second son of King Ethelfred converted by Aidan he disdained not to Preach to his Subjects and Nobles in the English Tongue 15 Oswald Bishop of Worcester Oswald●s Law 31 William Occham the Author of the Sect called Nominales 112 The first use of Oaths in Ecclesiastical Courts in England 78 Oath of the King's Supremacy established 145 Writers for and against the Oath of Allegiance 272 The form of the Oa●h framed in the Convocation Anno 1640 319 The form of the Oath taken by every Student admitted into the Popish Seminaries 235 Oak of Reformation 167 Oliver Cromwel his Sory from 350 ad 361 The form of the Oath taken unto the Pope by every Popish Bishop at the taking of his Pall 139 Ordal for the trial of guilty persons 35 P PAtern Preacher at Lanpatern in 〈◊〉 shire 11 P●l●gius born in B●itain broacheth his Heresies publickly 7 Pelagi●●●sm condemned in Britain in two Synods 8 S. Petrock Captain of the Cornish Saints 11 Pau●●us baptizeth King Edwyn with all ●is Nobles and much people at York 15 P●●d● King of Mercia embraceth Christianity 16 Ple●g●●und Consecrateth seven Bishops in one day Mathew Parker Consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury Divers Bishop● Consecrated him 212 Kellison's and Parson's slandering him to be Consecrated at the Nag's Head-tavern in Cheap-side 214 His Story 223 S. Paul's Church and Steeple in London burnt 222 Pope Pius Excommunicates Q. Elizabeth 235 The first setled Presbytery in England at Wandsworth in Surrey 237 Popish Priests and Jesuites executed 242 The Little Parliament 353 The Humble Petition and Advice Framed 358 Statute of Praemunire when enacted 117 Players forbidden by Proclamation in King Edward the sixth his time 161 Piers Gavesion surprized by Guy Earl of Wa●wick who caused him to be beheaded 106 The first Patent of a Commenda Retinere granted by the King to any Bishop Elect 84 Geoffry Plantaginet Archbishop of York his Story 52 53 Per●wigs and long hair forbidden in the Clergy 77 Priests forced to forgo their wives 42 When the Pope made his first encroachment on the Liberties of the English Crown 38 Cardinal Pooles reception into England 191 He absolveth the Parliament and whole Kingdom for withdrawing their obedience to the Church of Rome 192 Consecrated to the See of Canterbury next Sunday after Cranmer's death 202 English Ambassadours sent to Rome arrived there on the first day of the Papacy of Pope Paul the fourth Pembrock-colledge in Oxford founded 296 Pinckney the Provincial of the Augustine-friars and Dr. Shaa onely of all the Clergy engage for King Richard the third 134 135 Parsonages not exceeding ten Marks and Vicaridges ten pounds freed from First-fruits 152 King Philip Married to Queen Mary 190 A Great Plague in London 381 Hugh Pudsey Bishop of Durham made Earl of Northumberland by King Richard the first 48 Penry Barrow and Greenwood condemned and executed 256 John Piers Archbishop of York derided by Martin Mar-prelate 256 Q QVeen's-colledge in Oxford when and by whom founded 111 Queen of Scots assumeth to her self the Style and Title of Queen of England 213 She flies into England and endeth her doleful life at Fatheringhay Castle She is buried in the Quire at Peterborough and twenty years after removed to Westminster 249 Queen Eleanor a solemn Anniversary instituted to be kept for her by King Edward the first her Husband 97 R ROmans forsake the Isle of of Britain 7 Rumold called M●chlinensis Apostolus 16 King Richard the first his Story 48 49 50 George Ripley a great Mathematitian 140 John Rouse a great Antiquary 140 King Richard the second his Story from 114 ad 118 Philip Rippinton of a Professour became a cruel persecutor of the Gospel He is made Bishop of Lincoln 121 Master John Rogers burnt in Smithfield the first Martyr in Queen Marie's 194 Cardinal Richlieu an Incendiary between King Charles the first and the Scots 313 When the word Recusant first came up 236 Reformed Religion advanced in Ireland 217 The Rites of the Church of England for a time remained the onely form of Worship for the Kirk of Scotland 216 Thomas Rudbourn a Monk of Winchester an old Writer 3 The R●mish Translation cometh forth 247 Rogers his exposition on the thirty nine Articles of the Church of England 247 Roger a Monk of Chester and an Historiographer 113 Doctor Fulk and M. Cartwright their answer to the Rhemish Translation 247 Richard Cromwel his Story 361 362 S THat cruel Statute pro Haeretico comburendo first hanselled on William Sautre Priest 119 120 See of Sarum had five Bishops in five years space 94 Scotland when freed from the See of York 133 Secular Priests ejected 31 A Survay taken of all the Glebe-land of the Clergy 110 Severus cometh into Britain and assisteth in condemning Pelagianism 8 Sampson Scholar to Iltutus being made Archbishop of Dole he carrieth away the Monuments of British Antiquity 11 S●bert King of Essex embraceth Christianity by the Ministry of Mellitus 14 Sigebert King of East-Angles enters into a Monastery 21 Saxons invade Britain 8 South-saxons converted to Christianity the last of the seven Kingdoms 19 A Survay taken of all the Revenues and Dignities Ecclesiastical in England returned in a Book to be kept in the Exchequer 152 John Spottiswood Archbishop of S. Andrews his death 314 John Story a great persecutor executed 234 A Statute made that all Convocations should be called by the King's Writ 146 The bloody Statute for the six Popish Articles enacted 155 A Statute made for the recovery of Tithes 156 Edward Seymour Duke of Sommerset Lord Protector of the Realm in the Reign of King Edward the sixth his story from 159 ad 174 Sommerset-house how and when erected 165 The Sweating-sickness 174 Richard Sutton the Founder of Charter-house Hospital 280 M. Antonius de Dominis Archbishop
honorem Armipotens Alfred dedit probit asque laborem Perpetuumque labor nomen immixta dolori Gaudia semper erant spes semper mixta timori c. Englished by Mr. Flemming Nobility by birth to thee O Alfred strong in Armes Of goodness hath thy honour given And honour toilsome harmes And toilsome harmes an endless name Whose joyes ere alwayes mixt With sorrow and whose hope with fear Was evermore perplext If this day thou wast Conqueror The next day's War thou dread'st If this day thou wast Conquered To next day's War thou spread'st Whose cloathing wet with a daily swet Whose blade with bloody stain Do prove how great a burden 't is In Royalty to reign There hath not been in any part Of all the World so wide One that was able breath to take And troubles such abide And yet with Weapons weary would Not Weapons lay aside Or with the Sword the toilsomness Of Life by Death divide Now after labours past of Realm And Life which he did spend Christ is to him true quietness And Scepter voyd of end In this King's reign flourished Johannes Scotus Erigena with addition sometimes of Sophista born in Ireland for distinction from a former born at M●lrose and another in the XIII Century born in Duns otherwise called S●b●●lis he was a man of pregnant Judgement wondrous Eloquence and in those days rare knowledge of the Greek Chaldean and Arabian Languages He wrote a Book De corpore sanguine Domini against the Opinion of Carnal presence which was condemned at the Synod of Vercelles Bellarmine saith This man was the first who wrote doubtingly of this matter He was the Counsellor to King Alfred and Teacher of his Children afterwards he retired to the Abbey at Malmesbury where his disciples Murthered him with their Pen-knives being enticed thereunto by the Monks because he spake against the carnal presence and was accounted a Martyr as was recorded by William of Malmesbury de gest Reg. Ang. lib. 2. cap. 4. CENT X. AT this time there was no Bishop in all the West parts of England Pope Formosus being offended hereat interdicted King and Kingdom But Pleigmund Archbishop of Canterbury posted to Rome informing the Pope that Edward called the Elder the Son of King Alfred had in a late summoned Synod founded some new and supplied all old vacant Bishoprickes and carying with him honorifica munera the Pope turned his curse into a blessing and ratified their election The names of the seven Bishops which Pleigmund consecrated in one day were Fridstan Bishop of Winchester Werstan of Shireburn Kenulph of Dorchester Beornege of Selsey Athelme of Wells Eadulfe of Crediton in Devon and Athelstan in Cornwall of St. Petrocks These three last Western Bishops were in this Council newly erected A Synod was called at Intingford where Edward the elder and Guthurn King of the Danes in that part of England which formerly belonged to the East Angles onely confirmed the same Ecclesiastical constitutions which King Alured had made before King Edward remembring the Pious example of his Father Alfred in founding of Oxford began to repair and restore the University of Cambridge J●h Ressi●s in lib. de Regi● for the Danes who kept the Kingdom of the East Angles for their home had banished all Learning from that place This King Edward the elder expelled the Danes out of Essex Mercia and Northumberland At that time the authority of investing Bishops and other Ecclesiastical Benefices as also of prescribing Lawes unto Church-men as well as unto the Laity was in the power of the King not of the Pope but the Pope would be medling in such matters by way of Confirmation Athelstan his Son succeeded King Edward being much devoted to St. John of Beverley on whose Church he bestowed large priviledges Many Councils were kept in this King's Reign at Excester Feversha● Thunderfield and London But one held at Greatlea is of greatest account for the Lawes therein enacted especially that concerning the payment of Tithes which is thus Written I Athelstan King by advice Spelman in Concil p. 405. of Viselm my Archbishop and of other Bishops command all the Prelates of my Kingdom in the name of our Lord and of all the Saints that first of all they out of my own things pay the Tithes unto God as well of ●he living Beasts as of the Corn of the ground and the Bishops to do the like in their property and the Presbyters This I will that Bishops and other Head-men declare the same unto such as be under their subjection c. He ordained that in every Burrough all measures and weights should be confirmed by the Bishop's advice and testimony About that time Hoel King of Wales made a Law That no Church-man should be a Judge in Civil affairs Now St. Dunstan appeareth in Court born at Glastonbury of Noble Parentage yea Kinsman remote to Athelstane himself His eminencies were Painting and Graving an excellent Musician and an admirable worker in Brass and Iron After a while he is accused for a Magician and banished the Court But after the Death of King Athelstane he was re-called to Court in the Reign of King Edmond Athelstan's brother and flourished for a time in great favour but his old crime of being a Magician and a wanton with Women being laid to his charge he is re-banished the Court. But King Edmond being slain by one Leoff a Thief Edred his Brother succeeding to the Crown Dunstan is made the King's Treasurer Chancellor Councellor Confessor Secu●ar Priests were thrust out of their Convents and Monks substituted in their rooms But after Edred's death Dunstan falls into disgrace with King Edwin his Successor and being expelled the Kingdom flie●h into Flanders Mean-time all the Monks in England of Dunstan's plantation are rooted up and Secular Priests set in their places Soon after many commotions happened in England especially in Mercia and Northumberland King Edwin died in the flower of his age Edgar succeedeth him and recalls Dunstan home who hath two Bishopricks Fuller Church History given him Worcester and London King Edgar gave over his Soul Body and Estate to be ordered by Dunstan and two more then the Triumvirate who ruled England viz. Ethelwald Bishop of Winchester and Oswald afterward Bishop of Worcester This Oswald was the man who procured by the Kings Authority the ejection of all secular Priests out of Worcester which Act was called Oswald's Law In that Age Dunstan being made Archbishop of Canterbury Secular Priests were 〈◊〉 hist ●● 1● part 3. ●● ● thrown out and Monks every where fixed in their rooms Many did dispute and preach against Dunstan And Alfred Prince of Mercia took part with the Priests Fuller makes mention of a fair and authentick guilded Manuscript wherein he stileth himself God's Vicar in England for the ordering Ecclesiastical matters a Title which at this day the Pope will hardly vouchsafe to any Christian Princes Hoel-Dha then held a National Council
made containing an exact survay of the Houses and Lands in the Kingdom which took up some years before it was compleated King William called a Council of his Bishops at Winchester wherein he was personally present with two Cardinals sent from Rome Here Stigand Archbishop of Canterbury was deposed and Lanfrank a Lombard substituted in his room A learned Lawyer hath observed that the first encroachment of the Sir Jo●● Dav●s in his Irish report Pope upon the Liberties of the Crown of England was made in the time of King William the Conqueror For the Conqueror came in with the Pope's Banner and under it won the battel which got him the Garland and therefore the Pope presumed he might boldly pluck some flowers from it being partly gained by his countenance and blessing Although this politick Prince was complementally courteous to the See of Rome yet 1. He retained the ancient custom of the Saxon Kings investing Bishops and Abbots by delivering them a Ring and a Staff whereby without more ado they were put into plenary possession of the power and profit of their place He said He would keep all Pastoral Staves in his own hand 2. Being demanded to do Fealty for his Crown of England unto Pope Gregory the Seventh he wrote thus unto him That he would not do Fealty unto the Pope because neither had he promised it nor did he find his Predecessors had performed it 3. This King would in no wise suffer any one in his Dominion to acknowledge the Bishop of Rome for Apostolical without his command or to receive the Pope's Letters except first they had been shewed unto him And although the Archbishop of Canterbury by his own Authority might congregate Councils and sit as President therein yet the King permitted him to appoint or prohibit nothing but what was according to hi● own will and what the King had ordained before 4. The King suffered no Bishop to excommunicate any of his Barons or Officers for Adultery Incest or any such hainous crime except by the King's command first made acquainted with the same This King gave unto the Bishops an entire Jurisdiction by themselves to judge all causes relating to Religion for before that time the Sheriff and Bishop kept their Court together He granted the Clergy throughout England Tithes of Calves Colts Lambs Milk Butter Cheese Woods Meadows Mills c. Then Thomas a Norman was preferred to the Archbishoprick of York Betwixt Lanfrank Archbishop of Canterbury and this Thomas there grew great contention for the Oath of Obedience but in the end Thomas subscribed obedience to the other Then it was decreed that York for that time should be subject to Canterbury in matters appertaining to the Church so that wheresoever within England the Archbishop of Canterbury would hold his Council the Bishops of York should resort thither with their Bishops and be obedient to his Decrees Canonical Then were divers Bishops Seats altered from Villages to great Cities as of Sealsey to Chichester out of Cornwall to Exeter from Wells to Bath from Shirburn to Salisbury from Dorchester in Oxford-shire to Lincoln from Lichfield to Chester which Bishoprick of Chester Robert then Bishop reduced from Chester to Coventry At this time several Liturgies were used in England which caused confusion and much disturbed mens devotions A brawl happened betwixt the English Monks of Glastonbury and Thurstan their Norman Abbot in their very Church obtruding a Service upon them which they disliked eight Monks were wounded and two slain near the steps of the high Altar This ill accident occasioned a settlement and uniformity of An uniformity of Liturgy all over England Liturgy all over England for hereupon Osmund Bishop of Salisbury devised that form of Service which hereafter was observed in the whole Realm Henceforward the most ignorant Parish-Priest in England understood the meaning of Secundum usum Sarum that all Service must be ordered According to the course and custom of Salisbury Church King William brought many Jews into England for before his reign I find none in this Land from Roan in Normandy and setled them in London Norwich Cambridge Northampton In the dayes of Lanfrank Waltelm Bishop of Winchester had placed about forty Canons instead of Monks but it held not for Lanfrank cast out secular Priests and substituted Monks in their rooms He also contested with Odo Bishop of Bayeux though half-Brother to King William and Earl of Kent and in a legal Trial regained many Lordships which Odo had unjustly invaded Although in this King's time there was almost no English-man that bare Office of honour or rule yet he favoured the City of London and granted them the first Charter that ever they had written in the Saxon tongue and sealed with green Wax expressed in eight or nine lines King William died in Normandy and William Rufus his second Son Anno 1●8● was crowned King of England He began very bountifully to some Churches he gave ten Marks to others six to every Countrey-Village five shillings besides an hundred pounds to every County to be distributed among the poor But afterward he proved very parcimonious though no man more prodigal of never performed Promises This year died Lanfrank Archbishop of Canterbury after whose death the King seized the profits of that See into his own hand and kept the Church vacant for some years He kept at the same time the Archbishoprick of Canterbury the Bishopricks of Winchester and Durham and thirteen Abbies in his hand and brought a mass of Money into his Exchequer All places which he parted with was upon present payment He quarrelled with Remigius Bishop of Lincoln about the founding of his Cathedral and forced him to buy his peace And without a sum of Money paid to the King John Bishop of Wells could not remove his Seat to Bath King Rufus coming to Glocester fell very sick hereupon he made Anselm the Abbot of Beck in Normandy one of eminent learning and strictness of life Archbishop of Canterbury The King soon after sent to him for a thousand pounds which Anselm refused to pay Then Herbert Bishop of Thetford removed his Episcopal Seat from Herbert Bishop of Thetford founded the Cathedral at Norwich Thetford to Norwich where he first founded the Cathedral Then died Wolstan Bishop of Worcester an English-man born a mortified man Near this time began the holy War Robert Duke of Normandy to fit himself for that Voyage sold his Dukedome to King William Rufus for ten thousand Marks To pay this money King Rufus laid a grievous Tax over all the Realm extorting it with such severity that the Monks were fain to sell the Church-plate and very Chalices for discharging thereof And when the Clergy desired to be eased of their burdens I beseech you said he have ye not Coffins of gold and Silver for dead mens bones intimating that the same Treasure might otherwise be better employed At this time there was contention at Rome between two Popes Vrban
Oath to Mawd solemnly Crowned Stephen shewing himself thereby perjured to his God disloyal to his Princess and ingrateful to his Patroness by whose special favour he had been preserved The rest of the Bishops to their shame followed his example hoping to obtain from an Usurper what they could not get from a Lawful King traiterously avowing That it was baseness for so many and so great Peers to be subject to a Woman King Stephen sealed a Charter at Oxford Anno 1136. the Tenor whereof is That all Liberties Customs and Possessions granted to the Speeds Chron. Church should be firm and in force That all Persons and Causes Ecclesiastical should appertain onely to Ecclesiastical Judicature That none but Clergy-men should ever intermeddle with the Vacancies of Churches or any Church-mens goods That all bad usages in the Land touching Forrests Exactions c. should be utterly extirpate the antient Laws restored c. The Clergy perceiving that King Stephen performed little of his large promises to them were not formerly so forward in setting him up but now more ready to pluck him down and sided effectually with Mawd against him Stephen fell violently on the Bishops who then were most powerful in the Land He imprisoned Roger Bishop of Sarisbury till he had surrendered unto him the two Castles of Shirburn and the Devizes for the which Roger took such thought that he died shortly after and left in ready Coin forty thousand Marks which after his Death came to the King's Coffers he also uncastled Alexande● of Lincoln and Nigellus of Ely taking a great Mass of Treasure from them The Dean and Canons of Pauls for crossing him in the choice of their Bishop tasted of his fury for he took their Focariaes and cast them into the Tower of London where they continued many dayes till at last their liberty was purchased by the Canons at a great price Roger Hoveden tells us plainly that these Focariae were those Canons Concubines See here the fruit of forbidding Marriage to the Clergy against the Law of God and Nature Albericus Bishop of Hostia was sent by Pope Innocent into England called a Synod at Westminster where 18 Bishops and thirty Abbots met together Here was concluded That no Priest Deacon or-sub-deacon Fuller Church History should hold a Wife or Woman within his House under pain of degrading from his Christendom and plain sending to Hell That no Priest's Son should claim any Spiritual Living by heritage That none should take a Benefice of any Lay-man That none should be admitted to Cure which had not the letters of his Orders That Priests should do no bodily labour And that their Transubstantiated God should dwell but eight dayes in the Box for fear of worm-eating moulding or stinking In this Synod Theobald Abbot of Becco was chosen Archbishop of Canterbury in the place of William lately Deceased The most considerable Clergy-man of England in this Age for Birth Wealth and Learning was Henry of Blois Bishop of Winchester and Brother to King Stephen He was made by the Pope his Legat for Britain In this Council where William of Malmesbury was present there were three parties assembled with their attendance 1. Roger of Sarisbury with the rest of the Bishops grievously complaining of their Castles taken from them 2. Henry Bishop of Winchester the Pope's Legat and President of the Council with Theobald Archbishop of Canterbury pretending to Umpire matters moderately 3. Hugh Archbishop of Roan and Aubery de Vere Ancestor to the Earl of Oxford as Advocate for King Stephen This Aubery de Vere was Learned in the Laws being charactered by my Author Homo causarum varietatibus exercitatus a man well versed in the windings of Causes This Synod brake up without any extraordinary matter effected For soon after Queen Mawd came with her Navy and Army out of Normandy which turned Debates into Deeds and Consulations into Actions There were many Religious Foundations built and endowed in the troublesom Reign of King Stephen not to speak of the Monastery of St. Mary de Pratis founded by Robert Earl of Leicester and many others of this time the goodly Hospital of St. Katherines nigh London was founded by Mawd Wife to King Stephen So stately was the Quire of this Hospital that it was not much inferior to that of St. Pauls in London when taken down in the dayes of Queen Elizab●th by Doctor Thomas Wilson the Master thereof and Secretary of State Yea King Stephen himself erected St. Stephen's Chappel in Westmins●e● He buil● also the Cistertians Monastery in Feversham with an Hospital n●ar the West-gate in York The King earnestly urged Theobald Archbishop of Canterbury to Crown his Son Eustace But Theobald stoutly refused though proscribed for the same and forced to fly the Land till after some time he was reconciled to the King Eustace the King's Son died of a Frenzy as going to plunder the Lands of Bury-Abbey Hereupon an agreement was made between King Stephen and Henry Duke of Normandy Son of Mawd the Empress the former holding the Crown during his Life and after his Death setling the same on Henry his adopted Son and Successor At this time Nicholas Breakspear an English-man born near Vxbridge 〈◊〉 i● Adriano IV. came to be Pope called Adrian the fourth he was not inferior to Hildebrand in Pride Shortly after he had Excomunicated the Emperor he walked with his Cardinals to refresh himself in the Fields of Anagnia and coming to a Spring of Water he would taste of it and with the Water a Fly entreth into his Throat and choaketh him In the latter end of his Dayes he was wont to say There is not a more wretched Life than to be Pope To come into the seat of St. Peter by Ambition is not to succeed Matth. Paris Peter in Feeding the Flock but unto Romulus in Paracide seeing that Seat is never obtained without some Brother's Blood King Stephen died and was buried with his Son and Wife at Feversham in Kent in a Monastery which himself had Erected At the Demolishing whereof some to gain the Lead wherein he was wrapped cast his Corpse into the Sea King Henry the second succeeded him a Prince Wise Valiant and generally Fortunate He presently chose a Privy-Counsel of Clergy and Temporalty and refined the Common Laws yea toward the latter end of his Reign began the use of our Itinerant Judges He parcelled England into six divisions and appointed three Judges to every Circuit He razed most of the Castles of England to the ground the Bishops being then the greatest Traders in those Fortifications He disclaimed all the Authority of the Pope refused to pay Peter-pence and interdicted all Appeals to Rome At that time Phil●p de Brok a Canon of B●dford was questioned for Murther he used reproachful speeches to the King's Justices for which he was Censured and the Judges complained unto the King that there were many Robberies and Rapes and Murthers to the number of an
Excommunications of Pope Gregory IX against him in England and all other Kingdoms and Churches endeavoured to vindicate himself and his innocency against the Pope's calumnies by dispatching Letters into all parts and particularly into England These proceedings of the Pope against the Emperor so exasperated the Citizens of Rome that they expelled the Pope from the City and chased him to Perusium Anno 1228. died Stephen Langton Archbishop of Canterbury after whose death there grew a new contest between the King and Monks of Canterbury about the Election of a new Archbishop The Monks chose Walter de Hevesham a Monk whom the King refused to allow of resolving to make Richard his Chancellor Archbishop Walter posting to Rome to get Confirmation and Consecration from the Pope and the King's Proctors there excepting against him pressing the vacating of his Election and making Richard Archbishop with much importunity they could not prevail with the Pope or Cardinals to stop Walter 's Confirmation or promote Richard till they had promised in the behalf of the King unto the Pope the tenths of all things moveable from both his Kingdomes of England and Ireland Whereupon the Pope and Cardinals forthwith vacated Walter 's Election for his insufficiency and made Richard Archbishop So the Pope got two years payment of his annual pension granted by King John and a Tenth in promise Yet where the King gave his Royal assent to Bishops duly Elected by his License where there was no competition the Pope interposed not This Archbishop Richard going to Rome to complain against the King that all affairs of his Kingdom were disposed by the counsel of his chief Justice Hubert when he had there accomplished his designes against the King was presently taken away by sudden Death Then the King issued out a prohibition to