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A59089 John Selden, Of the judicature in parliaments a posthumous treatise, wherein the controveries and precedents belonging to that title are methodically handled. Selden, John, 1584-1654. 1681 (1681) Wing S2433; ESTC R10657 68,725 208

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the Particulars in form of a Charge they were sent to the Lord Chancellor and his answer required to each particular In the same manner in the same Parliament they accused John Bennet Judge of the Prerogative Court of Bribery and Corruption in his Office In the same manner they accused and impeached Lyonel Earl of Middlesex and Lord Treasurer of England of Bribery and Extortion and Impositions on French Wines and Grocery which being reported to the House a Committee was appointed to consider of the Commons complaint and also of a Committee who had reported to the House a great want of Powder in the Stores through the Lord Treasurer's negligence A Committee appointed to consider thereof did after many Examinations taken draw up out of the whole Complaint of the Commons a Charge against him as also out of the Report of the Committee for Munition touching the want of Powder and of a Complaint made to the House by Sir Thomas Dallison and of some Misdemeanors whereof they are informed in the great Wardrobe and Court of Wards Which Charge the House sent unto the Treasurer and required his Answer 21 Jac. In eodem Parl. 21 Jac. The Commons at a Conference accused and impeached by word of Mouth the Bishop of Norwich of some Misdemeanors which being reported to the House the said Bishop made a present Answer thereunto as it was In the Parliament 1 Car. 1. Febr. 6. The Commons at a Conference accused and impeached George Duke of Buckingham of many Misdemeanors and delivered their Declaration in Writing that the said Duke might be put to his Answer § 2. The second manner of Accusation is Ex parte Domini Regis which is threefold The two first are immediately from the King and the third from the Commandment of the Lords by a formal Information exhibited in Parliament by the King's Attorney or Council learned as was that of E. 3. against Roger Mortimer Earl of March and divers others and 4 R. 2. against Sir Ralph Ferrers K t and 1 Car. 1. against the Earl of Bristol By the King's Commandment either upon the Petition of the Delinquent and upon the return and view of any the Proceedings taken elsewhere as against the Earl of Northumberland and Lord Bardolph upon former Proceedings against them in the Court of Chancery And 2 H. 6. upon request of the Commons against Sir John Mortimer Knight indicted in London In these Cases no Articles are exhibited Ex parte Domini Regis as in the former By Articles exhibited Ex parte Domini Regis Ex parte Dominorum against such as the Complaint is made upon in general by the Commons prout 1 R. 2. against Gomeniz Weston and Alice Peirce 7 R. 2. against the Bishop of Norwich and divers others Which Articles though drawn and exhibited Per mandatum Dominorum yet were the Parties charged therewith Ex parte Domini Regis Of Accusation by Information Ex parte Domini Regis In Rot. claus 4 E. 3. There is a Proclamation of the death of Edmond Earl of Kent where it is said certain Letters of his containing Treason were shewed to the King wherefore he was Arrested and freely acknowledged the same before the Earls Barons and other Grandees and Nobles of the Realm in the Parliament at Winchester 4 E. 3. Here appears plainly that Articles of Treason are exhibited in Parliament against the Earl of Kent In the next Parliament in the same year Edmond Son and Heir of the said Edmond exhibited his Petition praying the King that the Record and Process whereupon the said Earl was put to death might be brought before him in Parliament and if Errors be found that Right be done Numb 11. The which being read before the King Prelates Earls Barons and other Grandees in the said Parliament the King by his Royal Power and Dignity by assent in Parlialiament repealed the said Judgment Numb 12. Note That in this Repeal no Error was alledged nor any Exceptions taken for this that the Lords proceeded upon the Articles only which were objected against him the said Earl This is out of the Close Roll. The first Precedents recorded in our Parliament Rolls of Accusations in this kind are these of 4 E. 3. in the Parliament at Westminster which are added at large amongst divers others at the end of this Discourse the effect whereof doth follow viz. These are the Treasons Felonies and ill Deeds done to our Lord the King and to his People by Roger de Mortimer and others of his Covin reciting them all and concludeth thus Whereas our Lord the King doth charge you the Earls Barons and other Peers of this Realm that for as much as these things touch him principally and you and all the People of this Realm That you do unto the said Roger right and lawful Judgment as is fit for such an one to have who is very guilty of all the crimes above written for that he believed the said things are notorious and known for truth unto you and to all the People of the Realm Numb 1. The followeth the Judgment against him Item In the said manner our Lord the King charged the said Earls Barons and Peeres to give right and lawful Judgment on Simon de Bereford Knight who was ayding and counselling unto the said Roger de Mortimer in all treasons and ill deeds for which the said Roger was so awarded and done to death as the thing that is known and notorious to the said Peers as the King believeth Then followeth the Judgment against him also Then followeth the Judgment against John Matrevers Thomas de Gurney and William de Ogle Numb 5. But no particular accusations are recorded against any of them unless they were comprised in those general words of that against Mortimer viz. And other of his Coyn. For some of the same Crimes are mentioned in the Judgments yet no doubt but the Kings Attourny did exhibit Articles against every of them upon which the Lords proceeded to Judgment Here I do ingenuously confess my own Error when I said that this Judgment against Roger de Mortimer was afterwards reversed for that he was put to death without any Accusation which I conceived to be so upon first view of the Repeal thereof Anno 21. E. 3. Numb 10. Where the Petitioners Roger de Mortimer the Grandchild assigneth for that the said Earl was put to death and he disinhereted Sans Accusament Et sans estre masone in Judgment ou en Respons By which words sans accusament I gave you to understand that the Articles were no accusation whereas now upon better Consideration I do find that these words do intend no accusation by witnesses or otherwise to prove the said Articles objected against him For these Articles are a legal accusation in Parliment and frequently used as appears by many Precedents of the like nature But there was no other proof offered by the Lords to prove the same then that the King believeth them
against Henry late Earl of Northumberland and Tho. Bardolph late Lord Baron for certain ill deeds which they had lately committed contrary to their Allegiance At their meeting the Constable of England shewed them the Process made in the Court of Chivalry against Henry de Peircy upon the Articles of Treason committed by him and others of his Covyn In which Articles are named the Arch-Bishop of York Tho. Newberry Earl Marshal the said Earl of Northumberland the said Lord Bardolph and many others and their several Treasons are therein contained The Lords having advised therein and considered the proofs delivered their opinion to the King touching the said Earl of Northumberland and the said Lord Bardolph only and proceeded to Judgment against them Then the King caused to be demanded of the Lords Temporal Peers of the Realm what they would say touching the Act of the said late Arch-Bishop of York and of the said Earl Marshal who lately with a great multitude of people were armed and trained in the field within the Realm of England with Banners displayed c. Unto which demand the said Lords Temporal said That according to the Information to them given by the said Constable It seemeth unto them to be Treason yet notwithstanding the Lords desired that with good deliberation when they next returned to the Parliament they might speak thereof unto our Lord the King as no error might be found in their doings in time to come This was done on that day the Parliament was adjorned Here the Lords had no other Accusation against those two Peers but the Kings commandment upon view of former Process against them in the Court of Chivalry And the Lords declared their opinion touching the Archbishop of York and the Earl Marshal though their Treasons were contained in the same Process also least Error might be found in their doings hereafter But whether they thought their Error to be that the King had not commanded them first to advise thereon touching the said Archbishop and the Earl Marshal as he had done touching the others Let the Reader Judge For my part I think that would have been error Could the Lords proceed upon Process elsewhere unless the King commands them 2 H. 6. The Judgment against John Mortimer is drawn up very briefly by John Hales one of the Justices of the Kings Bench wherein he first shews that the said Sir John Mortimer was Indicted in London sitting the Parliament before the Lord Mayor of London and other Commissioners appointed by the King For that the said Sir John being committed to the Tower for suspition of Treason corrupted his keeper and broke Prison That the said Indictment was returned into Chancery Ex mandato Dom. Regis and by the Chancery brought into the Parliament before the Duke of Gloucester the Kings Protector and the Lords Temporal the King being then an Infant And the Protector being Authorized by Commission to hold the Parliament de Precepto Dom. Regis That the said Sir John Mortymer by Vertue of the Writs was brought before the said Duke and Lords and Commons That the said Commons affirmed the said Indictment to be true and desired Judgment against him as convict of Treason and Felony And lastly That he was thereupon adjudged In this is set down all the essential parts of the Lords proceedings against Mortymer The Ceremonious or formal parts thereof are omitted as who complained of or accused Mortymer to the Parliament The King or the Commons did not for then there needed no Indictment And therefore it must move for the King either before the Indictment or rather upon the Return thereof unto the House For had the Accusation been before the Indictment it had been a shorter way to Arraign him also before the Commissioners in London he being no Member nor Peer of Parliament then to return the Indictment into the Chancery and then be brought into the Parliament Here is also omitted the Conference before hand between the Lords and Commons touching this matter For it is very unlikely that the Lords did suddainly send for the Commons and then abruptly read the Information before them and they as suddainly affirm the same all these are necessarily understood That the Commons affirmed the Indictment e. It appears that the Lords cannot of themselves Judge a Common Person for an Offence for he is no Peer according to that of 4 E. 3. Numb 26. The manner of Accusation by Information Ex parte Dom. Regis is when the Commons as any other private Person accuse any man unto the Lords in general but do not declare the Offences in particular other then by the Commandment of the King Articles are drawn up against the Delinquent Ex parte Dom. Regis The Precedents are these 2 R. 2. The Constable of the Tower was commanded to bring Gomeniz and Weston whose Offences were complained of in general by the Commons that they named before the Lords in Parliament to Answer to the Articles objected against them on the behalf of the King and they were severally arrained at the Commandment of the Lords c. Eodem anno Alice Pierce being complained of by the Commons was accused and commanded to come before the Lords in Parliament to Answer to certain things objected against her on the Kings behalf And here upon Sir Richard le Scroope Chief Steward of the Kings House by Comandment of the Lords rehersed in Parliment in the presence of the said Alice a certain Ordinance c. Made in the Parliament of 50 E. 3. against her And this Rehersal being made the said Steward surmised unto the said Alice That it seemed to the Lords of the Parliament that she had incurred the pain comprised in the said Ordinance in certain points and especially in two That is to say c. By these two Precedents it appears plain enough that the Lords commanded the Articles to be drawn and exhibited though ex parte Dom. Regis for all these are said to be done by their Commandment And the practise at this day is that out of the Complaints of the Commons as of Mompesson The Lord Chancellor and the Lord Tresurer and a Committee of the Lords did draw up the Charges But they wanted the words Ex parte Dom. Regis The reason why in this Cause the Articles are Ex parte Dom. Regis seemed to be this The Commons complain but impeach not Notwithstanding the Impeachment the Lords cannot proceed neither can they Impeach any to themselves So it rests that the party is to be Impeached at the Kings Suit It may be lawful for me to examine the proceedings of the Lords in the Complaint against Mompesson and to compare them with ancient Proceedings in like Cases And they will appear to differ much And touching Mompesson the Commons did not only complain but accuse him He fled in his absence they ought to have proceeded to Judgment against him before Proclamation first made for him to appear before the
the King and Lords deliberated The Judges of the Common Law and the Sages of the Civil Law were charged by the King to give their best Counsel to the Lords of the Parliament how to proceed in their Appeal rightly Who after long Consultation answered the Lords That the Appeal is in no point made and declared according to the Order of the Common or Civil Law The Lords after long Debate declared by the Assent of the King that the Offences being committed by the Peers the Cause should be determined in Parliament only and that by the Law and Order of Parliament only and adjudged the said Appeal with the Process thereon depending to be good according to the Laws and Course of Parliaments And the Default of Appearance was Recorded and Judgment given c. against those who made their default After which Sir Nicholas Brembre a Commoner was brought Prisoner before the King and the Lords at the request of the said Appellants And the said Articles being read he pleaded Not Guilty which he was ready to defend with his Body Whereupon the Commons of the Parliament said that they had seen and considered all the said Articles which they found to be true and that they likewise as much as in them lay did also accuse the said Appellees which they would have done and it appertained to them to have done had not the aforesaid Appellants pursued the said Appeals Whereupon was answered by the Lords of Parliament That the Battel doth not lie in this Case but that they upon examination of the Articles would proceed to Judgment Here I note That the Lords cannot proceed against a Commoner but upon a Complaint of the Commons But here is not expressed how the Commons came daily to have a sight of these Articles I deny not but after they were read in their presence for their presence is always understood in Judicature upon Life and Death prout postea they demanded a sight of the Articles and considered of them apart and then supplied the Defects thereof And this also is to be observed that the Commons accuse Commoners as the Lords do their own Peers I suppse that Brambre was denied the Battel because the Commons accused him also otherwise he ought to have it granted upon an Appeal Afterwards the Commons themselves accused and impeached divers Commoners prout 2 Mar. Sir Rob. Belknap L. Chief Justice of the Common Pleas Sir John Carey late Chief Baron and other Justices c. The Records were brought into the Parliament at the Demand of the Commons and the Commons accused the Justices for their untrue Answer made unto sundry Questions before the King at Nottingham to the emboldning of the aforesaid Offenders in their traiterous Designs and Attempts c. Unto which they answered c. were adjudged c. And then follows another Impeachment of the Commons thus The Accusements and Impeachments made by the Commons of the Realm against Simon de Burle Sir John Beauchamp Sir John Salisbury and Sir James Berners Knights do ensue underwritten whereof the Commons pray Judgment in this present Parliament Thus much touching the Appeal of 11 R. 2. But this begot another Appeal in the 21th of the said K. R. 2. in the Parliament begun Sept. 14. being the Feast of St. Oswald Edmond Earl of Rutland Tho. Earl of Kent John Earl of Hunt Tho. Earl of Nottingh Joh. Earl of Somerset Jo. Earl of Salisbury the Lord Despencer and William Scroop Chancellor unto our Lord the King in their proper persons delivered unto our Lord the King then sitting in the great Hall within the Castle at Nottingh in his Royal Estate with a Crown on his Head a Bill of Appeal against Tho. Duke of Gloucester Richard Earl of Arundel and Tho. Earl of Warwick The which Bill of Appeal is recited in that Parliament and as it seems per Copiam verborum inde was penned by the Advice of some Civil Lawyer It seems also they were very careful herein to avoid all Errors of the former Appeals For in that of 11 R. 2. they appealed divers Commoners but here the Lords appealed none but Peers then it was done by word of mouth they being called to the King upon some other occasion but now it was done solemnly in writing and was delivered to the King sitting in his Throne of State There they offer'd to prove their Accusation by Battel a thing not meet for the Parliament or in what course his Majesty would ordain it but here the Bill was read in Parliament and they said they have been and are ready to prove c. as you our thrice Redoubted King and this Honourable Court of Parliament should ordain Nor were they less careful in their proceeding to Judgment to avoid the Errors in the former prout in the Answer But these Appeals are now abolished by 1 H. 4. c. 14. and not without cause for as this Accusation was extraordinary so were the Proceedings carried with a strong hand the former by the Lords this by the King prout ex Chroniculis in quinto comparet cum Codice 1 Maij A Brief whereof so much as concerns this Appeal follows hereafter at large with the Precedents of 21 R. 2. Ad quod Parliamentum convenire jussit Rex omnes Dominos sibi adhaerentes cum Sagittariis viris armatis tanquam ad bellum contra hostes omnino progressuri fuissent Ipse vero Rex ut efficacius proficere possit nequam conceptus malefactores de Comit ' Cestr ' congregari fecit ad velandum locum stramine c. Erexerat autem Rex quandam domum amplissimam in Palatio Westmonaster ' quae pene totum Palatii spatium occupavit in qua sibi Thronus parabatur altissimus pro cunctis Regni Statibus locus largus pro Appellantibus in uno latere locus specialiter deputatus in alio latere locus largus pro Responsu assignatus seorsim vero pro Nobilitatibus Parliamenti qui non fuerunt electi per Communitatem Et Forale nuncupatur Parliamentum Thus much of Accusation by Appeal which when any of the Lords accused others out of Parliament was summoned but God be thanked they are abolished 1 H. 4. c. 14. CHAP. III. The Parties Answer THe Party accused is to be brought to his Answer otherwise the whole Judgment will be erroneous as was Mortym 23 E. 3. Numb 10. and Spencer's 15 E. 2. and John Matrevers 21 E. 3. Numb 65. dors Although the Party be absent yet the Parliament hath used all means possible to have his Answer prout 21 R. 2. where the Lords Appellants and the Commons also accused Tho. Mortymer of Treason and the Commons said That it was notoriously known unto them that the King had sent his Mandate by W. D. a Serjeant at Arms unto the said Mortymer in Ireland commanding him upon his Allegiance to come before the King in all haste to answer c. And that the
that Judgment 21 H. 6. against Sir Jo. Mortymer upon an Indictment of Escape out of Prison being committed upon suspition of Treason the said Mortymer's Answer is not recorded yet it is said he was brought before the Lords and the said Indictment read in his presence that he made an Answer unto it though not mentioned And this proves that the Party is to be brought to his Answer else Mortymer's presence had not been necessary Anno 7 R. 2. Numb 2. The Duke of Lancaster and Gloucester complained to the King That Sir Tho. Talbot with others conspired the Death of the said two Dukes and prayed the Parliament to judge thereof The Fact is judged High Treason and Writs sent to divers Sheriffs to apprehend him which Writs were retornable into the King's-Bench And upon Proclamation made in Westminster-Hall That upon the Sheriffs Return and the not-Appearance of the said Thomas he should be convicted of Treason and forfeit c. This was extraordinary in terrorem But what may not the whole Parliament do They may alter Law much easier than Form In the Answer is to be considered First In what Causes the Party is to answer as a Prisoner and in what as a Freeman Secondly When Councel shall be allowed him and when not Touching the First The Parliament hath guided their Proccedings therein secundum Legem terrae Judicium Parium According to the 2th Chapter of Magna Charta Nullus liber homo capietur vel imprisonetur c. nisi per legale judicium Parium suorum vel per legem Terrae And therefore in Causes Capital whether the Party accused be a Lord of the Parliament or a Commoner he is brought a Prisoner to his Answer secundum legem terrae prout 4 E. 3. Numb 1. c. The Lord Berkley accused by the King for Murder of E. 2. Anno 1 R. 1. Jo. Lo. Gomeniz and W. Weston Upon the Demand of the Commons for surrendring Forts beyond the Seas An. 4. R. 2. Sir Ra. Ferrers Knight was apprehended for suspition of Treason Anno 28 H. 6. Although the Lords refused to commit the Duke of Suffolk upon the Commons complaint of him of a common Fame of Treason yet when they accused him of particular Treason he was Committed and brought Prisoner to his Answer But in Cases of Misdemeanors it is otherwise then the Party accused whether Lord or Commoner answers as a Freeman The Lord within his Place the Commoner at the Bar and they are not committed till Judgment unless upon the Answer of a Commoner the Lords find cause to commit him till he find Sureties to attend c. lest he should fly prout Jo. Cavendish upon the Lord Chancellor's Demand of Justice against him for his false Accusation was Committed after his Answer until he put in Bail Anno 7 R. 2. And before Judgment And so Michael de la Poole the said Chancellor 10 R. 2. after his Answer and many Replies of the Commons was Committed and presently Bayled Anno 50 E. 3. William Lord Latymer and John Lord Nevill being impeached by the Commons answered in their Place so did the Bishop of Norwich and the Lord Chancellor 7 R. 2. And the said Lord Chancellor too 10 R. 2. answered in his Place though afterwards he was committed before Judgment upon Request of the Commons The Bishop of Bristol 1 Jac. and the Duke of Buck. 1 Car. 1. All these answered as Freemen in their Places their Offences not being Capital And the like Precedents there are of Commoners Anno 50 E. 3. Richard Lyons William Ellis and John Beecher did answer as Freemen being impeached by the Commons And whereas the Commons did that year also accuse Adam de Bury who was absent the Lords sent for him to come but he contemned their Authority and came not Then the Lords as it seemeth by the Record sent to apprehend him and he could not be found wherefore they awarded that all his Goods should be put in Arrest Ibid. N. 17. It is briefly entred Adam was sent unto to come and answer in Parliament he came not nor could be found Wherefore it was awarded c. Which is sufficient to prove A Commoner is not to be brought a Prisoner to his Answer for a Misdemeanor if he will appear 5 R. 2. The Mayor and Bayliffs by name and the Townsmen of Cambridge were complained of in Parliament for many Outrages against the Scholars there and the Lords sent one Writ to the Mayor and Bayliffs that then were and to the Commonalty to appear and answer and another Writ to the Mayor and Bayliffs that did the Outrage and they appeared in person and the Commonalty by their Attorney This was the Ancient Course Yet even in these Days viz. 15 R. 2. the Peer of Holland complained of a great Riot committed by Henry Tibb and divers others in the Parsonage-House of one Williams Whereupon a Sergeant at Arms by vertue of a Commission to him made brought up the said Tibb and one more only the principal doers therein before the Lords in Parliament who upon the Return of the Examination confessed nhe whole Matter and were committed But I suppose the Sergeant at Arms was sent for haply they would have obeyed no Writ and yet he was sent for two of the principal Offenders only At this Day if the Commons accuse a Commoner of Misdemeanors in such a state of Liberty or restraint as he is in when the Commons complain of him in such he is to answer prout 18 Jac. Sir Francis Michell and Sir John Bennet were both committed by the Commons before their complaint to the Lords and so they answered as Prisoners But that in a sort may be called Judicium Parium suorum 18 Jac. The Earl of Middlesex being then Lord Treasurer and accused of Misdemeanors only absented himself from the House His Charge was sent to him in writing and he answered in writing At the Day prefixed for his Trial he was summoned by the great Usher to appear He came without his Staff and kneeled until the Lord Keeper willed him to stand up There he protested That he ought not to answer in that Place and desired others might not be prejudiced thereby And I hope they will not The Earl did himself the first wrong by absenting himself from the House for he might have stayed there until Judgment unless when his own Cause came in agitation §. 2. Touching Councel In all Causes of Felony Treason c. Councel antiently was denied to the Party accused prout Anno 4. R. 2. Numb 21. Sir Ralph Ferrers was brought to the Parliament under the Guard of the Marshal of England and arraigned at the King's behalf for suspition of Treason who prayed to the King and to the Lords to have Councel in that Case Unto whom it was said That in all Matters wherein Councel ought to be granted by the Law of the Land the King or Lords would allow it And it was further
Conferences wherein his Majesty by Testimony becometh a Witness and in case the Earl should be convicted his Commission cometh to the Crown c. he desired their Lordships to put his Majesty in mind thereof for the declining his Accusation and Testimony 9 Maij These Questions were proposed to the Judges 1. Whether in Treason or Felony the King's Testimony is to be admitted or not 2. Whether Words spoken to the Prince who afterwards is King make any alteration in the Case And the Judges were to deliver their Opinion therein on the 13th Day of the said Month of May. And on Saturday Morning being the said 13th Day the Judges were desired to deliver their Opinions The Lord Chief Justice said They appointed to meet and to consider thereof and Mr. Attorney desired to know the time of their Meeting and before that time he brought them a Message from the King viz. That his Majesty was so sensible of his Honour that he would not suffer the Right of his Crown which may justly be preserved to be dampnified in his time That they might deliver their opinion in any particular Questions concerning the Earl of Bristol but not in the general Questions whereof his Majesty could not discern the consequence which might happen to rhe prejudice of the Crown Every particular Case varying according to the circumstances 4 E. 3. The Articles were read against Roger Mortimer and it followeth thus Wherefore our Lord the King doth charge our Earls and Barons Peers of this Realm That forasmuch as these touch him principally and all the People of this Realm That you do unto the said Roger Mortimer right and lawful Judgment such as appertaineth to such an one to have who of all the faults abovesaid is very guilty as he believeth And for that the said things are notorious and known to be true unto you and to all the People of the Realm This was all the Proof produced against Roger Mortimer The Lords hereupon judged him But afterwards Anno 28 E. 3. Numb 10. they reversed it as erroneous so that although the King's Testimony confirmed by the common Fame was 4 E. 3. received against Roger Mortimer yet it was afterwards adjudged Nul Accusament in the 28th of the said King E. 3. In that Parliament of 18 Jac. divers Witnesses were examined in open House in the Causes of Mompesson and the Lord Chancellor upon Interrogatories agreed on beforehand and divers at a Committee And it was resolved That none might be examined upon any thing that might accuse Whereupon the Earl of Southampton one of the said Committee signified That a Scruple did arise Whether Sir Ralph Horsey should be examined what Bribe he gave to the Lord Chancellor and upon the Vote it was agreed he should dissentiente Comite Dorset Eodem Anno The Lords did find that the Testimony of divers of the House of Commons was necessary touching the Complaint against Mompesson and therefore sent a Message to this effect The House of Commons before their Complaint exhibited against the Lord Cobham and Doctor Feild for a Bribe concerning Egerton's Case 18 Jac. examined one Davenport but not upon Oath The Lords when they had examined Davenport found that the Case was not so foul as he related it unto the Commons and therefore sent his Examination again unto them and then punished him for his false Relation CHAP. V. The Judgment FIrst Unto whom the Judgment belongeth and the King's Assent and of the Presence of the Spiritual Lords the Commons and the Judges Secondly The Judgment it self and by whom it was demanded and by whom rendred In making of our Antient Laws the Commons did Petere the Lords Assentire and the King Concludere So in Judgments on Delinquents in Parliament the Commons might accusare petere Judicium the King assentire and the Lords only did judicare §. 1. That the Judgment belongeth only to the Lords appeareth by all the old Records that I have seen prout 4 E. 3. against Mortymer The Earls Barons and Peers did Award and Judge by assent of the King c. 7 H. 4. In the Case of the Earl of Northumberland Protestation was made by the Lords That the Judgment belonged unto them only For the clearing of this Point That the Judgment belongeth to the Lords only vide the Protestation of the Commons 1 H. 7. which excludes the Commons from any Right thereunto viz. On Monday Novemb. 3. The Commons made their Protestation in manner as they did in the beginning of this Parliament and then further declared to the King That no Record in Parliament be made against the Commons That they are or shall be Parties to any Judgment given or hereafter to be given in Parliament Unto which it was then answered by the Archbishop of Canterbury by Command of the King That the Commons are Petitioners and not Demanders and that the King and the Lords have ever had and of Right shall have the Judgment in Parliament in manner as the Commons themselves have declared saving in Statutes to be made and in Grants of Subsidies and the like though to be done for the common profit of the Realm the King will have especially their Advice and Assent And that this Order be held and kept at all times to come This excludes the Commons from all Right to Judgment But whereas it faith the Judgments in Parliament belong only to the King and Lords That is to be understood touching the King's Assent only as apppeareth by the Replication of the Parliament in this Point in 2. H. 5. which was thus In the Parliament at Leicester 2 H. 5. Numb 11. Tho. Earl of Salisbury Petitioneth to reverse a Judgment in Parliament against John Earl of Salisbury his Father in 2 H. 4. and one of the Errors assigned was for that the Judgment was not given by the King but by the Lords Temporal only whereupon the Earls of the Parliament at the King's Commandment gave Copies of the said Judgment of 2 H. 4. and of the said Errors assigned unto the Kings Serjeants at Law then present Ad sequentem solutionem Juris Regni in hac parte avisarentur Super quod Servientes ad Legem crastino die Domino Regi ac Dominis Spiritualibus Temporalibus praedictis hoc in Parliamento petierunt scrutinium pro Domino Rege in hac parte Quibus dictum erat ex parte Domini Regis Quod ipsi procederent ulterius absque aliquo scrutinio habendo quoad declarationem judicium super supradicta c. And afterwards Day was given at the next Parliament which was held at Westminster eodem Anno 2 H. 5. In which Parliament the said Judgment of 2 H. 4. being examined and discussed at full videbatur tam dicto Domino nostro Regi quam etiam Dominis suis antedictis c. quod idem Judicium Declaratio praedicta versus eundem Johannem c. sunt fuerunt bona legalia
Declaratio Judicium Per quod cousider atum fuit in praesenti Parliamento per praedictos Dominos tunc ibidem existentes de assensu dicti Domini Regis quod praefatus nunc Comes nihil capiat per Petitionem aut Prosecutionem suam praedictam Et ulterius tam Domini Spirituales quam Temporales praedicti Judicium Declarationem praedictam versus dictum Johannem quondam Comitem Sarum ut praemittitur habita sive reddita de assensu ipsius Domini Regis asserunt fore esse bona justa legalia Et ea pro hujusmodi ex abundanti decreverunt adjudicaverunt Out of the last recited Precedent of 2 H. 5. may be observed That the Temporal Lords by Assent of the King may give Judgment on Offenders for capital Crimes and therefore Whereas it is said 2 H. 4. That the Judgment belongs only to the King and Lords that is herein explained The King's Assent ought to be to Capital Judgments and the Lords Temporal to be only Judges therein and not the Lords Spiritual But in Misdemeanors the Lords Spiritual and Temporal are equal Judges and the King's Assent is not necessary as shall appear §. 2. In what Cases the King's Assent is necessarily required Touching the King's Assent it is expressed in divers Judgments on Capital Offences 4 E. 3. against Mortimer Anno eodem against Simon de Bereford And there be divers other Judgments that year of this Nature wherein the King's Assent is not expressed but against John Matrevers Les Judices Peeres de la terre Judges de Parlement adjudgent agardant que le dit John be drawn hanged c. not mentioning the King's Assent And there are two other Precedents of the same Nature briefly Recorded Estre ou tiel Judgment est accorde que soit sait de Burges de Bayons John Dever And Item outiel Judgment est accorde de Tho. de Gurney W. de Ogle not mentioning by whom the said Judgments of Death were given 2 H. 4. The Judgment against the Earl of Salisbury and others for Treason is by the King's Assent and so is the Judgment of H. 4. against the Earl of Northumberland and 11 21 R. 2. upon those several Appeals In all which the King's Assent is recorded And so the Articles objected against Simon de Burley without the King's Assent and against his will which I shall here recite Item The aforesaid Dukes Earls of Arundel and Warwick Anno 50 E. 3. Richard Lyons pleading a Warrant from the King which he could not shew followeth thus c. And Tho. Mortimer continueth his traiterous purpose and by force of men took and imprisoned divers men your Liege c. Amongst others Simon de Burley Knight and him they carried in the Parliament at Westminster held the Morrow after the Purification of our Lady in the 11th year of your Reign and there were surmised against him divers points of Crime and Treason and thereupon was demanded of every Lord there present in Parliament his Advice of the said Simon touching the said Crime And afterwards the said Dukes and Earls of Arundel and Warwick would know your Advice Thrice Redoubted Lord. You answer plainly That the said Simon de Burley was not guilty of any the said Points and then they took upon them traiterously to have constrained you to have given your Assent to the Judgment which they have purchased against the said Simon upon the Points aforesaid And you Thrice Redoughted Lord would not consent to any Judgment to be given against the said Simon And yet notwithstanding the aforesaid Dukes and Earls took upon them Royal Power in prejudice of you and derogation of your Crown and without your Assent and against your Will and in your Absence and in the Absence of many other Peers of Parliament and without their Assent and against their Will awarded that that said Simon should be drawn c. and thereupon caused him to be beheaded but traiterously against your Crown Peace and Dignity This I have recited at large Unto which the Duke of Gloucester made no Answer being dead before the said Earl of Arundel pleaded the King's Pardon which was not allowed him The said Earl of Warwick confessed all the Articles in the said Appeal and put himself upon the King's Grace and the said Tho. Mortimer could not be found This Parliament begun at Westminster Die Lunae post Festum Exaltationis Sanctae Crucis and was adjourned to Shrewsbury And on Tuesday 28 January the Parliament there shewed unto the King how that they in the said Parliament at Westminster had accused and impeached John de Cobham in the 11th year of the King's Reign with others convicted in this Parliament accroaching to himself Royal Power in Judgment Awarded that the Lieges of the King Simon de Burley and James de Barners Knights should be Drawn Hanged and Beheaded without Assent of the King and against his will and in his absence and in the absence of many other Peers of Parliament who with held themselves and would not sit in such Judgment and against their will traiterously against the Peace of the King his Crown and Dignity And prayed our Lord the King to cause the said John de Cobham to joyn in this present Parliament to answer to the things aforesaid and to ordain such Judgment against the said John de Cobham as the Cause demands The said Jo. de Cobham was brought c. And touching the said Judgment awarded against the said Simon and James the said Joh. de Cobham said That it was told him by them who were present then That it was the King's Will to make such Judgment against the said Simon and James convicted of the said Judgment and Award which he had so given against the said Simon and James notwithstanding his Answer Whereupon c. Judgment was given against him and he adjudged a Traytor Here is objected That the Judgment against Simon de Burley was given by the Lords without the King's consent Secondly Against his Will Thirdly In the King's Absence Fourthly In the Absence of many of the Peers and against their wills Touching the First viz. The King 's not Assenting It may be Objected That the Lords gave Judgment against Weston 1 R. 2. without the King's Assent but yet not against the King's Will for they respited the Execution until the King might be informed thereof And the Reason then given for the said Respite was For that the King is not yet informed of the manner of this Judgment But whether the Lords proceeded to that Judgment against Weston before they informed the King because the King's Assent is not necessary or for that it being the last Day of the Parliament they had no leisure to inform his Majesty thereof let the Reader judge yet it seemeth to me that the King's Assent is necessarily required in Capital Causes and Judgments for these two Reasons First For that all
private persons where the party might have his Remedy at the Common Law prout Botheil Cooper Anno 50 E. 3. accused William Ellis for extorting 17 Nobles from certain Merchants at Pruse and also for their wrong Imprisonment by the false Suggestion of William Ellis to the King And the Lords referred the taking of the 17 Nobles to the Common Law But upon the Examination of the Imprisonment it was proved That Ellis did write his Letters to one of the King's Bed-Chamber falsly suggesting against Botheil and Cooper which Letters were shewn to the King his Majesty then commanded them to be Committed This the Lords expounded to be false Suggestion in Ellis The King himself judged him for the same Had that Point been cleared in the Statute of False Suggestions haply the Lords would have referred it to its proper place So also Anno 5. E. 2. The Lords referred the Accusation of Clingdon to be Tried at the Common Law Secondly Touching the Demand That verily belongs to the Party at whose Suit it is To the King's Councel for the King if the Articles were de part le Roy and to the Commons against an Impeached Delinquent By whom Judgment ought to be Rendred It appeareth plainly by many Precedents That all Iudgments for Life and Death are to be rendred by the Steward of England or by the Steward of the King's House and this is the Reason why at every Parliament the King makes a Lord Steward of his House though he hath none out of Parliament And at such Arraignment the Steward is to sit in the Chancellor's place And all Judgments for Misdemeanors by the Chancellor or by him who supplies the Chancellor's place CHAP. VI. The Precedents for Life and Death ANno 10 R. 2. John Lord Gome 〈…〉 and William Weston were brought by the Constable of the Tower before the Lords in Full Parliament sitting in the White Chamber where they were severally Arraigned at the Commandment of the Lords by