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The history of the ancient and moderne estate of the principality of Wales, dutchy of Cornewall, and earldome of Chester Collected out of the records of the Tower of London, and diuers ancient authours. By Sir Iohn Dodridge Knight, one of his Maiesties iudges in the Kings Bench. And by himselfe dedicated to King Iames of euer blessed memory.
Doddridge, John, Sir, 1555-1628.
STC 6982; ESTC S109765
any greater number In euery of the said Shires where the said Commission of the Peace is established There is also a Clarke of the Peace for the entring and ingrossing of all proceedings before the said Iustices and this Officer is appointed by the Custos Rotulorum Euery of the said Shires hath his Sheriffe which word being of the Saxon English is as much to say as a Sbire Reeue or minister or Bayliffe of the Countie his Function or Office is two fold Ministeriall or Iudiciall As touching his Ministeriall office he is the Minister and executioner of all the proces and precepts of the Courts of Law and thereof ought to make return or certificate And as touching his Iudiciall office he hath authority to hold two seuerall Courts of distinct natures the one called the Tourne because he keepeth a Tourne or Circuit about his shire holding the same in seuerall places wherein he doth inquire of all offences perpetrated against the Common Law and not forbidden by any Statute or Act of Parliament And the Iurisdiction of this Court is deriued from Iustice distributiue and is for criminall offences The other is called the County Court where he doth determine all petty and small causes Ciuill vnder the value of forty shillings arising within the said County and thereof it is called the Countie Court And the iutisdiction of this Court is drawne from Iustice Commutatiue and is held euery moneth The office of the Sheriffe is Annuall and by the Statute of 34. h. 8. it is ordained that the Lord President Councell and Iustices of Wales or three of them at the least where of the President to be one shall yeerely nominate three fit persons for that office of whom the Kings Maiestie may elect and chose one who thereupon shall haue his Patent and be Sheriffe of the said shire Euery of the said Shires hath an Officer called an Escheator which is an officer to attend the Kings reuenue and to seaze into his Maiesties hands all lands either escheated goods or lands for seited and therefore he is called Escheator and he is to enquire by good enquest of the death of the Kings Tenants and to whom their lands are descended and to seaze their bodies and lands for ward if they be within age and is accountable for the same And this Officer in Wales is named by the Lord Treasurer of England by the aduice of the Lord President Councell and Iustices or three of them at the least whereof the Lord President to be one There are also in euery of the said shires two Officers called Coroners they are to enquire by inquest in what manner and by whom euery person dying of a violent death came to his death and to enter the same of Record which is matter criminall and a plea of the Crowne and thereof they are called Coroners or Crowners as one hath written because their enquiries ought to be publique in corona populi These Officers are chosen by the Free-holders of the Shire by vertue of a Writ out of the Chauncery de Coronatore eligendo and of them I need not to speake more because these Officers are elsewhere Forasmuch as euery shire is diuided into hundreds there are also by the said Statute of 34. h. 8. cap. 26. ordained that two sufficient Gentlemen or Yeomen shall be appointed Constables of euery hundred Also there is in euery Shire one Goale or Prison appointed for the restraint of liberty of such persons as for their offences are therunto committed vntill they shall be deliuered by course of law Finally in euery hundred of euery of the said shires the Sheriffes thereof shall nominate sufficient persons to be Bayliffes of that hundred and Vnderministers of the Sheriffe and they are to attend vpon the Iustices in euery of their Courts and Sessions The Gouernment of the Marches of VVales after the Statutes of an 27. 34. H. 8. BY the said Statute of 34. H. 8. ca. 26. it is further ordayned that the President and Councell in the said Dominion and Principality of Wales and the Marches of the same with all Officers Clarks and incidents thereunto should continue and remaine in manner and forme as was then formerly vsed and accustomed And therefore the said Rowland Lee spoken of before being Lord President of the Councell of the Marches of Wales at the time of the making of the said Statute so continued after the making thereof vntill his death being in the foure and thirtieth yeere of the said King Henry the eight After whom succeeded in the office of the said President Richard Samson Bishop first of Chester and after remoued to Couentry and Litchfield who continued Lord President vntill the second yeere of King Edward the sixt at what time Iohn Dâdley then Earle of Warwick and after Duke of Northumberland was President of the said Councell who so continued vntill the fourth yeere of the said King And after him succeeded Sir William Herbert Knight of the noble Order of the Garter and after Earle of Pembrooke who continued President vntill the first yeere of Queene Mary Next succeeded Nicholas Heath then Bishop of Worcester and after Archbishop of Yorke and Lord Chancellor of England And vpon the remouing of the said Archbishop the said Sir William Herbert againe succeded as President of the said Councell vntill the sixt yeere of the said Queene Mary at what time followed him Gilbert Browne Bishop of Bath and VVels who so continued vntill the death of the same Queene In the beginning of the reigne of the late Queene Elizabeth Sir Iohn VVilliams Lord VVilliams of Tame of whom the Lord Norris is descended was appointed President of the said Councell and died the same yeere And after him succeeded Sir Henry Sidney Knight of the noble Order of the Garter whose loue to learning fauour to learned men need not here to be spoken he continued Lord President of Wales about foure and twenty yeeres and six moneths he serued in Ireland eight yeeres and six months being there three seuerall times Lord Deputy generall in that Country During some part of the time of the aboade in Ireland of the said Sir Henry Sidney there serued in Ireland as President or Vice-President Iohn Bishop of VVorcester and now Lord Archbishop of Canterbury After this succeeded Henry Earle of Pembrooke sonne in law to the said Sir Henry Sidney and father to the right honorable the Earle of Pembrooke that now is And after him Edward Lord Zouch now present Lord President of that Councell The President and Councell of the Marches of Wales haue power and authority to heare and determine by their wisdomes and discretions such causes and matters as bee or shall bee assigned to them by the Kings Maiesty and in such manner as shall be so prescribed vnto them by instruction signed with his hand The Councell assisting the Lord Prince consisteth of these the chiefe Iustice of Chester together
Edward the Fourth hauing thus gained the Crowne which had beene thus shaken from his head did by his Charter dated the 26. of âune in the eleuenth yeere of his raigne create Edward of VVestminster his sonne heire apparant Prince of VVales and Earle of Chester And by another like Charter of the same yeere gaue vnto him the Lands and reuenues of the said Principality and Earledome To haue and to hold to him and his heires Kings of England This Edward the Prince being of tender yeeres was borne in the Sanctuary of VVestminster whither the Queene his Mother was fled for her security and during the time that the King her husband had auoided the Realme Afterwards the said King by his letters Patents bearing date the eight day of Iuly in the said eleuenth yeere of his raigne ordained his Queene the then Lord Archbishop of Canterbury George Duke of Clarence Richard Duke of Gloucester brothers to the said king The then Bishops of Bath and VVels and Durham Anthony Earle Riuers the then Abbot of VVestminster Chancellor to the Prince VVilliam Hastings knight Lord Chamberlaine to the king Richard Fynes Lord Dacres Steward of the said Prince Iohn Fogge Iohn Scot knights Thomas Vaughan Chamberlaine to the Prince Iohn Alcocke and Richard Fowler to be of Councell vnto the said Prince giuing vnto them and euery foure of them thereby with the aduice and expresse consent of the Queene large power to aduise and counsaile the said Prince and to order and dispose the Lands reuenues and possessions of the said Prince and the nomination of Officers belonging to the said Prince when they should happen to become void or that the parties were insufficient The said authority thus giuen vnto the said Councellors to continue vntill the said Prince should accomplish the age of fourteene yeeres which was performed by them accordingly in all Leases Dispositions and Grants of the reuenues of the said Prince The said king Edward the Fourth by one other Charter composed in English and bearing date the tenth of Nouember in the thirteenth yeere of his raigne appointed the said Earle Riuers being brother vnto the Queene to be the Gouernour of the person of the said Prince and to haue the education and the institution of him in all vertues worthy his birth and to haue the gouernement and direction of his seruants King Edward the Fourth hauing raigned full two and twenty yeeres in the foure and twentieth yeere of his raigne left this mortall life ended his dayes at VVestminster was enterred at VVindsor Edward the Prince his sonne and heire then being at Ludlow necre the Marches of Wales for the better ordering of the Welsh vnder the gouernment of the said Lord Riuers his vncle on the Mothers side and vpon the death of his father drawing towards London to prepare for his Coronation fell into the hands of his vncle by the father Richard Duke of Glocester and the said Lord Riuers being vpon the way towards London was intercepted and lost his head at Pomfret for what cause I know not other then this that hee was thought to be too great an obstacle betweene a thirsty tyrannous desire and the thing that was so thirstily and tyrannously desired Edward King of England the fist of that name for so he was although he enioyed it not long being thus surprized vnder the power of his naturall vncle and yet his mortall enemy was brought to London with great solemnity and pompe and with the great applause of the people flocking about to behold his person as the manner of the English Nation is to doe whose new ioyes cannot endure to be âettred with any bonds His said vncle calling himselfe Lord Protector of the King and his Realme but indeed was the woolfe to whom the Lambe was committed for hauing thus surprized the Kings person hee laboured by all meanes to get into his possession also the yonger brother being Duke of Yorke knowing that they both being sundred the safety of the yonger would be a meanes to preserue the elder and therefore by all sinister perswasions and faire pretences hauing obtained the yonger Duke from his mother the King and the Duke both for a time remained in the Tower of London and there shortly after both in one bed were in the night smothered to death and buried in an obscure and secret place vnknowne how and where vntill one of the executioners thereof after many yeeres being condemned to die for other his manifold crimes confessed also his guilty fact in this pitifully tragedy and the circumstance thereof of which by reason of the secrecy and incertainty diuers had before that diuersly coniectured And by this meanes all the prouision for the coronation of innocent Edward serued the turne to set the Crowne vpon the head of tyrannous Richard Out of which by the way I cannot but obserue how hatefull a bloody hand is to almighty God the King of Kings who reuenged the bloodshed of those ciuill broiles whereof Edward the father had beene the occasion and the breach of his oath vpon those his two innocent infants This tyrant and staine of the English Story Richard Duke of Glocester vsurped the Kingdome by the name of Richard the third and became King yet as our records of Law witnesse de facto sed non de iure And in the first yeere of his reigne created Edward his sonne being a child of ten yeeres of age Prince of Wales Lieutenant of the Realme of Ireland But for that the prosperity of the wicked is but as the florishing of a greene tree which whiles a man passes by is blasted dead at the roots and his place knoweth it no more So shortly afterwards God raised vp Henry Earle of Richmond the next heire of the house of Lancaster to exteute iustice vpon that vnnaturall and bloody vsurper and to cast him that had beene the rod of Gods iudgements vpon others into the fire also For in the third yeere of the reigne of the said Richard at the battell of Bosworth whereinto the said Richard entred in the morning crowned in all Kingly pompe he was slaine and his naked carkasse with as much despight as could be deuised was carried out thereof at night and the said Henry Earle of Richmond the Solomon of England father to Margaret your Maiesties great Grandmother reigned in his stead by the name of King Henry the seuenth This King Henry the seuenth tooke to wife Elizabeth the eldest daughter and after the death of her brothers the relict heire of King Edward the fourth by which mariage all occasions of further contention-betweene those noble families of Yorke and Lancaster were taken away and vtterly quenched and the red rose conioyned with the white The said King Henry the seuenth by his letters patents dated the first day of December in the fift yeere of his reigne created Arthur his eldest sonne and heire apparant being then about the age of three yeeres Prince of Wales
l. 13. s. 4. d. The fee of the Steward and keeper of the Courts of the Mannors in the County of Cornewall which sometimes were the Marquesse of Exceter and now parcell of the lands annexed vnto the said Dutchy 46. s. 8. d. The fee of the Bailiffe Itinerant of the said Dutchie of Cornewall 3. l. 10. d. The fee of the Woodward of the said Dutchie of Cornewall yeerely 5. l. The summe totall of the fees of the Officers of the said Dutchie of Cornewall 138. l. 3. s. 4. d. Money paid vnto the Captaine of the Castle of Saint Mawes 118. l. 12. s. 6. d. Money paid to the Captaine of the Castle of Pendynas both which Castles are for the defence of the Hauen of Falmouth 118. l. 12. s. 6. d. Summe totall 237. l. 5. s. Paid yeerely to the Bishop of Exceter for the tenth of the coynage of Tynne in Deuon and Cornewall 16. l. 13. s. 4. d. Paid yeerely vnto the Barons of the Exchequer forth examination of the accounts belonging to the said Dutchie 5. l. The summe totall of all the charges and reprizes taken out thereof amounted vnto 615. l. 9. s. 6. d. Which being deducted out of the generall summe of the reuenues of the said Dutchie being by estimation 4569. l. 12. s. 2. d. q. there may remaine of cleere reuenue the summe of 3954. l. 2s 8 d. q. which cannot be cast into a certaine yeerely value by reason of the casuall profits and casuall expences which may happen yeerely And thus much of the Dutchie of Cornewall THE EARLEDOME OF CHESTER The third reuenue is the Earledome of Chester whereunto is annexed the Countie of Flint belonging to the Prince as Earle of Chester THe Earledome of Chester is the third reuenue before spoken of this Earledome bordering vpon North-Wales for the better defence of that Country and that the Inhabitants should not be thence withdrawne in sutes of law was made Palatyne and conferred by the Conquerour vpon his kinsman Hugh sirnamed Loupe or Lupus sonne to the Earle of Awrenches in Normandy to whom hee gaue this Earledome To haue and to hold to him and his heires as the words of the first donation import It a libere adgladium sicut ipse Rex tenebat Angliam Coronam This Earledome for the more honour thereof and for the better accomplishment of the Palatyne iurisdiction therin hath certaine substitute Baronyes vnder it who doe acknowledge the Earle Palatyne to be their superiour Lord as 1 The Baron of Halton 2 The Baron of Mountalt 3 The Baron of Maâbanâk 4 The Baron of Shibrooke 5 The Baron of Malpas 6 The Baron of Mascey 7 The Baron of Kinderton 8 The Baron of Stockport This Earledome from the said Hugh Lupus discended in his bloud and kândred by sundry descents vnto Iohn sirnamed Scot Earle of Chester Anguise Galway and Huntingdon who in the time of King Henry the Third dying without issue the said King Henry the Third seized the same into his hands giuing the Aunts and next coheires of the said Iohn other Lands by exchange which thing the said King was induced to doe as the Record saith netanta haereditas inter colos diduceretur not willing that so great a patrimony should beâ parted amongst disttaffs Afterward King Edward the first was by his father the said King Henry the third created Earle of Chester But the same Earldome being afterwards conferred vpon Simon de Monford by his attainder it came the Crowne After that Edward the third in the life-time of his father and before he tooke vpon him the Kingdome had the said Earledome but afterwards hee being King gaue the same to his eldest sonne Edward surnamed the Black Prince by his Charter bearing date at Pomfret the eighteenth day of March in the seuenth yeere of his reigne and inrolled of record in the Exchequer anno 33. of the same King By which Charter the said King did grant vnto the said Earle of Chester the Castles of Chester Beston Rothlan and Flint and all his lands there And also the cantred and lands of Englefield together with the Knights fees aduousons liberties franchises forrests chaces parks woods warrens and other the appurtenances thereunto belonging to haue and to hold to him and to his heires Kings of England And the same King by another Charter bearing date the ninteenth of March in the seuenth yeere of his reigne granted vnto the said Earle of Chester all his goods chattels stock of cattell then being in or vpon the said lands of the said Earldome formerly granted Moreouer all the Kings of England succeeding when they created their sonnes and heires apparant Princes of Wales did also create them Earles of Chester to haue and to hold the same vnto him so created and his heires Kings of England in such manner as the Principality of Wales was giuen vnto him And did by their seuerall Charters giue vnto the said Earle the said Earledome and lands as namely the said Castles of Chester Beston Rothlan and Flint and the Castle also of Hope and the Mannors of Hope and Hopedall and of Foreshaâ and the said Cantred and lands of Englefield and other their lands in the said Counties of Chester Flint and elsewhere belonging vnto the said Earledome And the Aduouson of the Cathedrall Church of Saint Asaph in Wales and the auoydance issues and profits of the temporalities of the Bishopricks of Chester and Saint Asaph aforesaid together with all aduousons pentions portions corrodies offices prizes customes liberties franchises lordships comots hundreds escheats forfeitures and hereditaments vnto the said Earldome belonging And to the intent that it may the better appeare both what the ancient reuenewes were of the said Earledome and also what it is at this present I shall according to the order before pursued set downe the ancient reuenew thereof as it was in the latter time of King Edward the third and also how it now standeth in charge to your Maiestie The ancient reuenews of the Earldome of Chester as it was taken vpon the suruey thereof made in the fiftieth of Edward the third The County of Chester The fee farme of the City of Chester 100. l. For other profits out of the said Citie 4 l The farme of the towne of Medwick 64. l The Farme of the Milles vpon the Riuer of Dee 240 l The Manner of Dracklow in yeerly rent 49. l. 22. d. The farme of the Mannor of Dummarsh 15. l The Forrest of Mara the issues and profits thereof 51. l. 7. s. The rents and profits of Norwich are 66 l The Mannor of Shotwick the rents are 30. l. 14. s. 1. d. The Mannor of Eordsham in yeerly rent 56. l. 13. s. 4. d. The profits of the office of the Sheriffe of the said County 124. l. 7. s. 4. d. The perquisits of Courts holden by the Iustice of Chester 180. l. The profits of the office of the Escheator 100 l The summe totall of the reuenew of the said Earldome