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A true and exact history of the succession of the crown of England collected out of records, and the best historians, written for the information of such as have been deluded and seduced by the pamphlet, called, The brief history of the succession, &c., pretended to have been written for the satisfaction of the Earl of H.
Brady, Robert, 1627?-1700.
Wing B4195; ESTC R19500
King of Spain Duke of Guise in France Duke D'Alva in the Netherlands the Fugitive English c. abroad And at home frequent Conspiracies to deliver the Queen of Scots out of Prison Attempts upon the Queen's Person the Rebellion in the North by the Earls of Northumberland and Westmerland the Match of the Duke of Norfolk with the Queen of Scots her Usurpation of the Crown of England with the Title and Arms thereof and the Bull of Pope Pius the Fifth by which he declared her a Heretick c. and impiously and without any Authority other than Papal Tyranny deprived her of her Title Dominions and Kingdoms and absolved all her Subjects from their Obedience and Allegiance All these but more particularly the Pope's Bull and the Conspiracy of Norfolk created much trouble in the mind of Queen Elizabeth And she sent to the Queen of Scots Cecyl and Sir Walter Mildmay to consult with her by what means most conveniently the Dissentions of Scotland might be compounded her self restored and Queen Elizabeth and her young Son safe and secure Amongst the Propositions made to obtain these ends these were two That the Queen of Scots should renounce her Title and Claim as long as Queen Elizabeth and the Children lawfully born of her Body should live That if the Queen of Scots should attempt any thing by her self or any other against Queen Elizabeth she should ipso facto forfeit all her Right and Title she claimed to England To which the Deputies of the Queen of Scots Lieutenants answered That the Title should be renounced as long as Queen Elizabeth lived And That the Queen of Scots should be excluded from all Right of Succession in England if she attempted any thing against the Queen of England ' s Right so as if the Queen of England would be likewise bound in some equivalent Penalty if she should attempt any thing against the Queen of Scots There was no Agreement upon these and other Propositions then made because the Scots-Deputies thought thorn too hard and severe and not to be assented unto without the greatest Inconveniencies imaginable And thence followed new Designs and Contrivances for the Relief of the Queen of Scots c. The Marriage of the Duke of Norfolk with the Queen of Scots was first propounded by her great Enemy the Regent Murray and afterwards carried on by the Earls of Arundel Northumberland Westmerland Sussex Pembroke and Southampton with many Barons and by the Earl of Leicester himself who with his own hand drew up Articles which he sent to the Queen of Scots in number six two whereof were That she should do nothing which might be prejudicial to the Queen of England or to the Children born of her in the Succession of the Kingdom of England That she should revoke her Assignment of the Kingdom of England to the Duke of Anjou The occasion of this Article was that Murray had reported that the Queen of Scots had made over her Title to England to the Duke of Anjou and that her Conveyance was confirmed at Rome which the Queen utterly denied And it was afterwards discovered to be an invention of Murray's to alienate Queen Elizabeths mind from her To obviate all these Mischiefs and Designs The Queen and her private Ministers the Earl of Leicester Lord Burleigh and Sir Francis Walsingham thought fit to improve the insinuation and Overture of a Match made by the Queen Mother of France but not very vigorously pursued untill the Year 1571. 13 Eliz. and in the time of the Sitting of the Parliament of that Year though 't was not in that Assembly or their Journals taken notice of it being secretly managed by order of the Queen by her two then great Confidents the Earl of Leycester and the Lord Burleigh by the Mediation of Sir Francis Walsingham then Embassador in France Whether Leycester meant honestly and seriously in this Affair I cannot determine he made great Professions that he did the then Posture of Affairs being represented to him by Walsingham in a Letter dated from Paris May 14. 1571. in these Words MY very good Lord The Protestants here do so earnestly desire this Match and on the other side the Papists do so earnestly seek to impeach the same as it maketh me the more earnest in furthering of the same Besides when I particularly consider her Majesties Estate both at home and abroad so far forth as my poor Eye-sight can discern and how she is beset with Forreign Peril the Execution whereof stayeth only upon the Event of this Match I do not see how she can stand if this Matter break off No particular Respect as God is my Witness moveth me to write thus earnestly but only the Regard I have to God's Glory and Her Majesties Safety Your Lordships to command Fr. Walsingham How necessary this Match was at this time for the safety of the Queen and Nation we have the Opinion of this great Statesman and Minister with whom Leycester and Burleigh concurred in Opinion as appears by their several Letters relating to these Transactions And since the French in the Sixth Article delivered in by the French Ambassador the Thirteenth of April 1571. propounded the Succession to be secured to the Issue of this Marriage according to the Laws and Customs of the Realms to which Queen Elizabeth according to the common Opinion of the Understanding Men of those Times not having Right by Inheritance or Proximity of Blood might think by this Act of Parliament that in effect doth grant the general Surmise to make good her Title and by this way and means to notifie it to be according to the Laws and Customs of the Realm For the Duke of Anjou could not but have notice of the pretended Defectiveness of her Claim though not mentioned in the Treaty and therefore this might haply be done as much as could be to meet with and satisfie that Objection if it should be made and that this might be a private though none of the great Considerations of procuring and passing this Act. He that will but observe these Particulars of History and will take the pains to compare them with this Act may easily perceive it was made as a Provision against such things pretences and attempts for the future during Queen Elizabeths Reign as had then been done used and practised it being then doubted whether the Laws and Statutes of this Realm then in force were sufficient for the Preservation of the Queens Person The Title of the Act is An Act whereby certain Offences are made Treason And the Bill in the Commons Journal was called A Bill for Treasons The Preamble upon the Parliament-Roll is Forasmuch as it is of some doubted whether the Laws and Statutes of this Realm remaining at this present in force are vailable and sufficient enough for the Surety and Preservation of the Queens most Royal Person in whom consisteth all the Happiness and Comfort of the whole
and that her Majesty minded not by any Implication or drawing of Words to have the Scotish Queen either inabled or disinabled to or from any manner of Title to the Crown of England and willed That the Bill be drawn and penned by her Learned Counsel before the same be treated of in the House and that in the mean time of bringing in of that Bill the House enter not into any Speeches or Arguments of that Matter With the Journal agrees a Passage in the Lord Burleigh's Letter to Sir Francis Walsingham the Queens Embassador in France July 2. 1572. two days after the Parliament was Prorogued Now for our Parliament I cannot write patiently All that we laboured for and had with full Consent brought to fashion I mean a Law to make the Scotish Queen unable and unworthy of Succession of the Crown was by her Majesty neither assented to nor rejected but deferred until the Feast of All Saints But what all other good and wise Men may think thereof you may guess Some here have it seemeth abused their Favour about her Majesty to make her self her most Enemy God amend them I will not write to you who were suspected I am sorry for them and so would you also if you thought the suspicion to be true Your assured Loving Friend Will. Burleigh This Parliament did not meet again until the Eighth of February in the Eighteenth year of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth unless there be any better Authority than Mr. Pulton's in his Statutes to make it appear that it did And although there never was greater fear and danger of the Introduction of Popery and Arbitrary Power by reason of the Queen of Scots Religion her Pretences and Practices and the expectation of great Assistance from abroad and at home than at this time yet we find not those that were suspected to have advised the Queen this great Affair to have been branded by Publick Vote as Betrayers of the Queen the Protestant Religion and the Kingdom of England Promoters of the Scottish Interest and Pensioners to Scotland This is a faithful Relation of the Succession Whether I have fairly or partially cited the Records and Histories I have used any Man if he please may inform himself Whether it be expedient just or lawful to go about to interrupt the lawful Succession by Birth-right or to endeavour to break or vacate the Laws and Customs of the Nation by which it is Established and Governed without any Motion Sollicitation Procurement or Intention of the present true and lawful King by Birth-right for and upon the Suggestions in the Bill mentioned I leave to the Consideration of Wiser Men than my self In smaller Matters than this it was said Nolumus Leges Angliae mutare A Paralel or Comparison between some Citations in the Author of the Brief History of Succession c. And the Words of the Authors themselves Author of the Brief Hist fol. 1. in the Margin EDwardum Elegerunt Electum consecraverunt in Regem unxerunt Sim. Dunelm An. 975. f. 160. Fol. 3. in the Margin Hic Robertus semper contrarius adeo innaturalis extiterat Baronibus Regni Angliae quod plenario consensu Consilio totius Comunitatis Regni ipsum refutaverunt pre Rege omnino recusaverunt Henricum fratrem in Regem erexerunt Hen. de Knighton c. 8. 2374. Fol. 4. In the Notes in the middle of the Folio In Conventu Episcoporium aliorum de Regno optimatum Mat. Westm f. 246. an 1153. Fol. 4. In the Margin Convenerunt interim die Statuto ex Mandato Regis ad Londoniam totius Angliae Episcopi Abbates Comites Barones Vice-Comites Praepositi Aldermanni cum Fidejussoribus Gervas Hen. 2 fol. 1412. And fol. 4. in the Body of his History says This was a Parliament in which Henry the Second procured his Son Henry to he declared King together with himself by their consent Brief History fol. 5. in the Margin Post tam Cleri quam Populi solennem debitam electionem Rad. de Diceto fol. 647. Ibid. f. 5. In the Body of the History King John applies himself to the People for a more sure Title d who being summoned together chose him King Ibid. in the Margin d Praelatorum Comitum aliorum Nobilium infinita a multitudine Brompt 1281. Fol. 10. in the Body of the History Please it your Grace to understand the Consideration Election and Petition of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons c. Cot. Rec. fol. 709. This is all considerable which he cites out of this Record Fol. 11. in the Body of the History In the 25th Year of Henry the Eighth an Act passed wherein the Parliament in the Preamble say They were BOUNDEN to provide for the perfect Surety of the Succession They did not certainly reckon themselves bound to do a thing that was not in their Power Stat. 25 H. 8. c. 22. Sim. Dunelm Anno 975. col 160. n. 40. EDwardum UT PATER SUUS PRAECEPERAT Elegerunt Electum consecraverunt in Regem unxerunt Hen. de Knighton col 2374. c. 8. n. 10. Iste Robertus semper contrarius adeo innaturalis extiterat Baronibus Regni Angliae quod plenario Consensu Consilio totius Comunitatis Regni IMPOSUERUNT EI ILLEGITIMITATEM QUOD NON FUERAT PROCREATUS DE LEGITIMO THORO WILLIELMI CONQUESTORIS UNDE UNANIMI ASSENSU SUO ipsum refutaverunt pro Rege omnino recusaverunt Henricum fratrem ejus in Regem erexerunt Mat. Westm f. 246. an 1153. n. 10. Rex Stephanus omni haerede viduatus praeter solumodo Henricum Ducem recognovit in Conventu Episcoporum aliorum de Regno optimatum Quod Dux Henricus jus haereditarium in Regnum Angliae habebat Dux benigne concessit ut Rex Stephanus tota vita sua suum Regnum pacifice possideret Chronica Gervasii col 1412. lin 4. Convenerunt interim die Statuto ex Mandato Regis ad Londoniam totius Angliae Episcopi Abbates Comites Barones Vice-Comites praepositi Aldermani cum Fidejussoribus suis timentes valde omnes Quisque juxta conscientiam suam metuebat nesciebunt enim Quid Rex statuere decrevisset ipsa die Henricum filium suum qui eadem septimana de Normannia venerat militem fecit statimque eum stupentibus cunctis mirantibus in Regem ungi praecepit coronari Not one word here or in all this story of this Author of their declaring him King Rad. de Diceto Imagines historiarum col 647. n. 40. Comes Itaque Pictavorum Ricardus HAEREDITARIO JURE PRAEMOVENDUS IN REGEM post tam Cleri quam Populi solempnem debitam electionem c. Chron. Johan Brompt col 1281. n. 40 50. Johannes ab Huberto Archiepiscopo Cantuariensi in Ecclesia B. Petri Westmonasterii INUNGITUR ET IN REGEM ANGLIAE CORONATUR ASSISTENT Prelatorum Comitum BARONUM aliorum Nobilium infinita multitudine Exact Abridgment of Records in the Tower fol 709 710 711
be true he was Testamentary Heir and had a Testamentary Right and in that Right he was made King But be this story true or false his Advancement to the Throne was as followeth Notwithstanding all the Nobility and amongst them King Stephen himself had sworn Fealty to Maud the Empress yet by the Interest of his Brother Henry Bishop of Winchester and the Pope's Legat without which he could have done nothing he was made King he brought off Roger Bishop of Salisbury a great and powerful Prelate also William de Pout-Arch Keeper of King Henry's Treasure which was 100000 l. in Money And by his own Dexterity the Artifice of his Brother and Roger Bishop of Salisbury and the advantage of this Money he inclined the minds of the Noble Men much towards him and to secure himself raised an Army mostly of Flemings and Britains At his Coronation were only three Bishops the Arch-Bishop of Canterbury the Bishops of Winchester and Salisbury no Abbots and few Noble-men I think this looks not like an Election yet he in his Charter of Liberties which he chiefly granted to the Church says he was elected by the Assent of the Clergy and Laity and confirmed by the Pope Afterwards Stephen using the Bishops roughly lost his Brother Henry's favour who by his Legantine Power called a Council of the Clergy at Winchester to consult of the Peace of the Kingdom Where they conclude that the Right of chusing and ordaining Kings chiefly belonged to them And therefore having first called upon God they chose Maud the Empress Queen Ad Cleri ius potissimum spectat principem eligere ordinare invocata itaque in auxilium Divinitate filiam Regis in Angliae Normanni aeque Dominam eligimus c. But not long after being displeased with Maud he entred into a Confederacy against her and as Legat called another Council at Westminister in which was read the Pope's Bull in favour of Stephen who was then advanced to the Throne again And the Kingdom being wasted and destroyed with continual Wars the Arch-Bishop this Legat and the Bishops mediate a Peace between Stephen and Henry Duke of Anjou Son to the Empress by which it was agreed that Stephen should adopt Henry his Son who after his death should enjoy the Crown and Stephen quietly to wear it during his Life c. Which Agreement is most fully and clearly related by Matthew of Westminister Rex Stephanus omni horede viduatus praeter solummodo Ducem Henricum recognovit in Conventu Episcoporum aliorum de Regno optimatum quod Dux Henricus jus haereditarium in Regnum Angliae habebat Dux benigne concessit ut Rex Stephanus tota vita sua suum Regnum pacifice possideret Ita tamen confirmatum est quod ipse Rex Episcopi tunc praesentes cum caeteris Regni optimatibus jurarent quod Dux Henricus post mortem Regis si illum superviverct Regnum sine aliqua contradictione obtineret that is King Stephen not having an Heir except only Duke Henry did acknowledge in an Assembly of the Bishops and other Chief Men of the Kingdom That Duke Henry had the Hereditary Right to the Kingdom of England and the Duke kindly granted that King Stephen should during his life peaceably enjoy his Kingdom The Agreement was so confirmed that the King himself and the Bishops then present with the rest of the best Men of the Kingdom sware that Duke Henry after the death of the King if he should out-live him should enjoy the Kingdom without all contradiction This Accord afforded Quiet and Tranquillity both to Henry and the Nation with certain Confidence of enjoying the Kingdom after the death of Stephen which he did But as to his Right and Title it added nothing to that it being Hereditary for he was acknowledged the true Heir by his Adversary Stephen in the presence of the Bishops and the best Men of the Kingdom who all likewise acknowledged it by owning the Accord and swearing to observe it On the 24th of October the Year following King Stephen died and on the 19th of December following Henry was Crowned at Westminster by Theobald Arch-Bishop of Canterbury And Maud the Empress being satisfied with the Enthroning of her Son quitted her Pretensions King Henry the Second dying in France July 7. 1189 his eldest Son and Heir Richard was by Walter Arch-Bishop of Roven girt with the Sword of the Dukedom of Normandy on the 20th of the same Month in the presence of the Bishops Earls and Barons of Normandy And before his coming into England every Free-man of the whole Kingdom by the Command of his Mother Alienor sware Fealty to Richard King of England Son of King Henry as to their Liege Lord against all Men. Afterwards coming to London Congregatis ibi Archiepiscopis Episcopis Comitibus Baronibus copiosa Militum multitudine in occursum ejus quorum Consilio assensu ipse Dux 3. Nonas Septembris Consecratus Coronatus est apud Westmonasterium in Regem Angliae a Baldwino Cantuariensi Archiepiscopo c. The Arch-Bishops Bishops Earls Barons and a copious multitude of Knights met him by whose Advice and Assent the Duke was Crowned King of England by Baldwin Arch-Bishop of Canterbury many other Bishops there named assisting Et omnibus fere Abbatibus Prioribus Comitibus Baronibus Angliae astantibus Almost all the Abbots Priors Earls and Barons of England being Spectators Ralph de Diceto then Dean of St. Paul's London who in the Vacancy of that Church and Bishoprick supplied the Office of the Bishop at King Richard's Coronation hath this passage Comes itaque Pictavorum Richardus HAEREDITARIO JURE PRAEMOVENDUS in Ragem post tam Cleri quam Populi solemnem debitam Electionem involutus est triplici Sacramento c. Therefore Richard Earl of Poictou being by Hereditary Right to be made King after the solemn and due Election as well of the Clergy as the Laity sware to three things Scilicet Quod opem impendet pro viribus ut Ecclesia Dei populusque Christianus veram pacem obtinent quod interdicet omnibus Rapacitatem quod in judiciis equitatem praecipiet misericordiam That is to say That he would use his utmost power that the Church of God and Christian People might enjoy true Peace That he would interdict Rapine to all Men That he would command Mercy and Equity to be done in Judgments What can this solemn and due Election signifie here what can it mean further than that Richard being King by Hereditary Right was so owned and recognized by the Clergy and Laity John in his Brother Richard's Life-time had a mind to be King and taking advantage or his Absence in the Holy Land and his Imprisonment in Germany practised with the Nobility and Londoners to that purpose The last sware faithful Service to their Lord King Richard and to
his Heirs and if he should die without Issue Vt reciperent Comitem Johannem fratrem Richardi Regis in Regem Dominum That they would receive Earl John the Brother of King Richard for their King and Lord and swore Fealty to him against all Men saving their Fealty to his Brother King Richard Two Years afterward confederating with the King of France against his Brother and being assisted by him he returned into England and brought many Strangers with him and coming to London demanded the Kingdom of the Arch-Bishop of Roven who was then Justiciary and the other Justiciaries of England Fidelitates Hominum Angliae affirming the King of England his Brother was dead But not believing him they and the other great Men of the Kingdom rejected him Then swelling with Fury he fortified his Castles and places of Strength and seized the Crown-Lands Many came in unto him but being deceived they were punished according to their deserts And for these and other Treasons committed the Year following as combining with the King of France and offering great Sums of Money to the Emperor to keep King Richard in Prison and making new Disturbances in the Nation Per Commune Consilium Regni Definitum est quod Comes Johannes dissaifiretur de omnibus Tenementis suis in Anglia By the Common Council of the Kingdom it was decreed he should be disseized of all he held of the King in England And presently all his Castles were besieged and taken from him Yet for all this the next Year King Richard pardoned his Brother John and restored to him the Earldom of Moreton or Mortaigne the Honour of Eye and Earldom of Glocester except the Castles and for his other Earldoms and Lands allowed him Yearly eight thousand Pounds of Anjou-Money And in the last Year of his Reign Cum Rex de vita desperaret divisit Johanni fratri suo Regnum Angliae omnes alias terras suas fecit fieri praedicto Johanni fidelitates ab illis qui aderant praecepit ut traderentur ei Castella sua tres partes Thesauris sui When the King despaired of Life he devised to his Brother John the Kingdom of England and all other his Lands and made all present swear Fealty to him and commanded that his Castles and three parts of his Treasure should be delivered to him Richard being dead John stayed in Normandy where by Walter Arch-Bishop of Roven he was girt with the Sword of that Dutchy April 25. on St. Mark 's Day and sent Hubert Arch-Bishop of Canterbury and the Pope's Legat and William Marshal Earl of Strigvil into England to keep the Peace together with Jeffrey Fitz-Peter Justitiary of England and other Barons of the Kingdom Qui fecerunt homines regni tam de Civitatibus quem de Burgis Comites Barones libere tenentes jurare fidelitatem pacem Johanni Normannorum Duci filii Henrici Regis filii Matildis Imperatricis contra omnes homines Who made the Homagers of England as well of Cities as Burroughs and Earls Barons and free Tenants to swear Fealty and Peace to John Duke of Normandy the Son of King Henry the Son of Maud the Empress against all Men. Notwithstanding this all the Bishops Earls and Barons which had Castles Manned Victualled and stored them with Arms. But Hubert the Arch-Bishops William Marshal and Jeffrey Fitz-Peter Justiciary of England met at Northampton and called before them those which they most doubted David Brother to the King of Scots Richard Earl of Clare Ranulph Earl of Chester William Earl of Tutesbury and Walran Earl of Warwick Roger Constable of Chester William de Mowbray and many other Earls and Barons to whom they promised and engaged that John Duke of Normandy should restore to every Man his Right if they would keep Faith and Peace with him SÃºb hac igitur Conventione supradicti Comites c. According to this Agreement the said Earls and Barons swore Fealty and faithful Service to John Duke of Normandy against all Men. This was done while he was in Normandy On the 25th of May following Duke John crossed the Seas from Normandy into England and the next day came to London and there were convened in Expectation of him Hubert Arch-Bishop of Canterbury John Arch-Bishop of Dublin William Bishop of London Gilbert of Rochester John of Norwich Hugh of Lincoln Eustace of Ely Godfrid of Winchester Henry of Exeter Sefrid of Chichester Jeffrey of Coventry Savaric of Bath Herbert of Salisbury Philip of Durham Roger of St. Andrews in Scotland Henry of Landaff Bishops Robert Earl of Leicester Richard Earl of Glare William of Tutesbury Hamelin de Warenn William of Salisbury William de Strigvil Walran of Warwick Roger Bigot William de Arundell Ranulph de Cestre Earls and many Barons And then Hubert Arch-Bishop of Canterbury Consecrated and Crowned the said John Duke of Normandy King of England in the Church of St. Peter at Westminster on the 27th of May being Ascension Day Not one word here of any Election by but only a Submission from the Barons Spiritual and Temporal to King John and a Recognition that he was their King And all this related by Hoveden in all probability an Eye-witness of this Translation Indeed Matthew Paris who died Anno Dom. 1259. was then either unborn or so young as not with Judgment to take sufficient notice of this Affair relates it thus Congregatis in adventu ejus Archiepiscopis Episcopis Comitibus Baronibus atque aliis omnibus qui ejus Coronationi interesse debuerant Archiepiscopus stans in medio omnium dixit audite universi noverit discretio vestra quod nullus proevia ratione alii succedere habet Regnum nisi ab universitate Regni unanimiter invocata Spiritus Gratia electus secundum morum suorum eminentiam praeelectus ad exemplum fimilitudinis Saul primi Regis inuncti quem praeposuit Dominus populo suo non Regis filium nec de Regali stirpe procreatum similiter post eum David Jesse silium Hunc quia strenuum aptum Dignitati Regiae illum quia sanctum humilem ut sic qui cunctos in regno supereminet strenuitate omnibus praefit potestate regimine verum si quis ex stirpe Regis defuncti aliis prepolleret pronius promptius in electionem ejus est consentiendum Haec idcirco diximus pro inclyto Comite Johanne qui praesens est frater illustrissimi nameri Richardi jam defuncti qui haerede caruit ab eo egrediente qui providus strenuus manifeste nobilis quem nos invocata Spiritus Sancti Gratia ratione tam meritorum quom Sanguinis Regii unanimiter elegimus universi nec ausi erant alii super his adhuc ambigere scientes quod Archiepiscopus sine causa hoc non sic diffiniverat verum Comes Johannes omnes hoc
however the Lancastrians imposed upon the People For Edward was born June 16. 1239. and Edmund upon the 16th of January 1245. being Marcellus his Day six Years after Edward by that time he was a Year old was acknowledged the First-born of his Father his Brother Edmund not then born Per idem tempus Rex Cives Londinenses quinque portuum custodes multos alios fecit jurare fidelitatem ligantiam Edwardo primogenito suo In the Letter from the Loyal to the Rebellious Barons he is styled the First-born of King Henry Richardus Dei gratia Rex Romanorum semper Augustus Edwardus illustris Regis Angliae primogenitus c. And very frequently Matthew Paris who lived at this time and was Historiographer to his Father calls him his First-born So that there can be no doubt in History that he was the eldest Son for King Henry the Third had only these two Sons Edward and Edmund After the death of Edward the First his Son Edward the Second succeeded him and as Men of purely Commonwealth-Principles tell us he degenerating from so great a Father the People grew weary of his Irregular Arbitrary Government deposed him and chose Edward his Son to reign in his stead A plain Argument say they of the Peoples Power in chusing their Kings aud of limiting and binding the Succession But whoever reads this story will not find the ordinary People had much if any thing to do in this matter further than as they were excited to Tumults and Railing at the Government by many of the Popular Bishops and Barons for they always have been and ever will be Instruments of designing Men against the Government if by remissness thereof and easiness of Governors they be permitted This King was deposed and murdered by a wicked Confederacy and Rebellion of many Bishops and Barons And there is nothing to justifie this Rebellion Deposition and Murther in which our Anti-Monarchical Men instance so often as an Example to be followed but the meer doing of it And if a fact be therefore lawful only because it is done we have no need of Laws Lawyers or Officers of Justice to maintain plead for or defend it The truth is this King was not of so brisk a temper as his Father nor endowed with so much Courage he was more soft and easie and used too great and unseasonable Indulgence to such as he permitted to guide his Affairs and the Affairs of the Kingdom in his Name From hence many Rebellious Barons under pretence of the Honour of God and Holy Church the Honour of the King and Realm made Confederations to remove evil Counsellors reform the Court and to force the King to let them name all Judges the Chancellor Treasurer and other great Officers in Court Gascoigne Ireland and Scotland Thomas Duke of Lancaster one of those Commissioners and Ordainers was always the Head of these Confederacies who pretended great Affection to the King to the common profit of the Realm and great care to see these Ordinances cited in the Margin maintained in all points and many things amended in the King's Houshold Court and Realm At length this great Earl of Lancaster behaved himself very indecently towards the KIng and used him with much Scorn and Contempt until at last in the fifteenth of his Reign he and many of his Confederates brake out into open Rebellion at Burton upon Trent and flying before the King's Army Northward was with many others taken at Burrough-Bridge in York-shire and being tried by his Peers was adjudged to be Hanged Drawn and Quartered which Sentence was pardoned by the King and he was only beheaded The like Sentence had Warren de Insula William Toket Thomas Maudut Henry de Bradborn William Fitz-William and William Cheyne the Lord Roger Clifford the Lord John de Mounbray the Lord Henry Tyes the Lord Bartholomew de Badlesmere Joscelin de Invilla most of them Barons Propter Roberias Felonias resistentiam quam fecerunt contra Regem ad villam de Burton Occidentes Regis familiares Regis transitum prohibentes partem villae praedictae comburentes c. For Robberies and Felonies and the Resistance they made against the King at the Town of Burton killing the King's Friends and Servants and burning part of the Town upon their Retreat The Ordinances before-mentioned in number forty one were revoked and the Confederations and Tumultuous Barons and their Actions consured in a Parliament holden at York 15 Ed. 2. The Ordinances were revoked upon Examination of them before the Prelates Earls Barons amongst which were all the Ordiners then alive and the Commons of the Realm For that by the things which were ordained The King 's Royal Power was restrained in many things against the due Greatness of his Seigniory Royal and contrary to the State of the Crown And also for that in times past by such Ordinances and Provisions made by Subjects over the Power Royal of the Ancestors of the Lord the King Troubles and Wars came upon the Realm by which the Nation was in danger and it was accorded and established in the said Parliament by the Lord the King and by the said Prelates Earls and Barons and all the Commonalty of the Realm at that Parliament assembled That all those things by the Ordiners ordained and contained in the said Ordinances from henceforth for the time to come should cease and lose their Force Vertue and Effect for euer And that from hence forward in no time no manner of Ordinances or Provisions made by the Subjects of the Lord the King or his Heirs by any Power or Commission whatsoever over and upon the Power Royal of the said Lord the King or his Heirs or against the State of the Crown shall be of no value or force But the things which shall be established for the Estate of the King and his Heirs and for the Estate of the Realm and People may be treated accorded and established in Parliament by the King and by the Assent of the Prelates Earls Barons and Communalty of the Realm Roger de Mortuo-Mari Lord of Wigmore submitted himself to the King which much weakned the Barons Forces before the Engagement at Burton and was sent to the Tower of London from whence he made his Escape after two Years Imprisonment in the seventeenth of this King's Reign and went over Sea to the King of France who at this time required the King of England to do him Homage for Gascoygn and other Territories he held of him in France But he delaying to do it and excusing himself by Messengers who prevailed not the King of France with an Army seized Gascoign and the County of Pontheu yet by the means of Edmund of Woodstock the King's Brother and other English Noble-men then in France a Truce was made with the King of France for a certain time until a Peace might be treated of
The Year following the Bishops of Winchester and Norwich with John de Britannia Earl of Richmond were employed to that purpose and after much desceptation about it they received a Form of Peace from the King of France And at length the Queen by Advice given by the Bishops and Great Men to the King was sent to her Brother the King of France for making up and Confirmation of the Peace and it was accorded that King Edward should give the Prince his Son the Dutchy of Aquitain and County of Pontheu that he should go over into France and do Homage for them which he did accordingly But the Prince being in France with his Mother she had no mind to return The King sent divers Letters to his Son Edward and his Queen Isabel expostulating the Cause of their stay in France against his Will and the Confederation they made there with Roger Mortimer his Enemy and Rebel and others Walsingham says Some affirmed she stayed there against her Will Alii voro asserebant quod voluntarie propter nimiam familiaritatem tunc contractam inter Reginam Rogerum de Mortuo-mari siââ quo aliis Nobilibus de Anglia profugatis nolluit dicta Regina redire maxime in odium dispensatorum But others affirmed she stayed voluntarily by reason of the too great Familiarity she had contracted with Earl Roger Mortimer without whose Advice she did nothing and without whom and the other Noble-men that had fled out of England she would not return and especially for the Hatred she bare towards the Spencers proud ambitious haughty and covetous Men by whom the King was too much swayed in the Management of his Affairs which might give a dissatisfaction to the Nobility though not warrant their Actions The next Year having married the Prince not then fourteen Years old to the Earl of Hanault's Daughter who furnished her with Shipping and two thousand seven hundred and fifty Men led by his Brother John she with Edmund Earl of Kent and Roger Mortimer Lord of Wigmore and many other Great Men who had sled out of England landed at Harwich to whom the Earl Marshal the Earl of Leicester and other Barons and Knights of those Parts and almost all the Bishops did adhere and proceeding her Army daily increased so as at last she took her Husband the King Prisoner and put to death both the Spencers the Younger without Hearing or Answering ' The imprisoned King was carried and removed from place to place but at last fixed at Berkeley-Castle in Glocester shire under the Guard of Thomas Berkeley and John Maltravers who had allowed an hundred Shillings a Day for his Expences arid Keeping The Queen never would see him during his Imprisonment Regina misit sibi Indumenta delicata Literas blandientes sed tamen ipsum videre nolebat fingens quod communitas regni non permisit The Queen sent him gay Cloaths and flattering Letters but would not see him feigning the Community of the Kingdom would not permit her He was made Prisoner November 16. and the Morrow after Twelfth-Day all the Nobility of the Kingdom being summoned to Parliament met at London and judged the King unit to rule and for several Reasons to be deposed and his Son Prince Edward to be chosen King Convenit Londoniis tota Nobilitas regni citata per prius ad Parliamentum tenendum ibidem in crastino Epiphaniae ubi cuncti censuerunt Regem indignum Diademate propter plures Articulos deponendum Edvardum filium ejus primogenitum in Regem unanimiter eligendum quod etiam consequenter factum est Of which Transaction when the Queen had notice she was full of Grief outwardly ut for is apparuit saith Walsingbam But the Prince affected with this outward Passion of his Mother as young as he was would not accept of this Title whether out of his own Apprehension of things or by grave and mature Advice which is most probable Et Juravit quod invito patre nunquam susciperet coronam Regni And swore that without his Father's Consent he would never take upon him the Crown of the Kingdom Whereupon several Messengers being dispatched to the King then Prisoner at Kenelworth-Castle who told him what had been done and concluded of and diligently required him to resign his Royal Dignity and Crown and permit his Son to reign in his stead He was much disturbed with the Message and said Since it could be no otherwise he thanked them for chusing his First-born Son making his Resignation and delivering up the Royal Ensigns or Tokens of Sovereignty This done Edward the Third directs his Writs to the Sheriffs of the several Counties for preserving and keeping the Peace with this Preamble Rex Vicecom Ebor. Salutem Quia Dominus Edwardus nuper Rex Angliae Pater Noster de Communi Consilio assensu Praelator Com. Baron alior Magnat necnon Communitat totius Regni praedict SPONTANEA VOLUNTATE se amovit a Regimine dicti Regni VOLENS CONCEDENS quod nos tanquam ipsius primogenitus HAERES ipsius regni qubernationem regimen assumemus nosque ipsius patris nostri beneplacito in hac parte de consilio avisamento Praelator Com. Baron Magnat Comitat. praedict annuentes Gubernacula suscepimus dicti regni side litates Homag ipsorum Praelator Magnat recepimus ut est moris Teste Rege apud Westmonasâerium 29 Jan. The King to the Sheriff of Tork-shre Greeting Because Edward late King of England our Father by Common Council and Assent of Prelates Earls Barons and other Great Men and also of the Communities of the said Kingdom of his own Free Will removed himself from the Government of the said Kingdom Willing and Granting that We as his First-born and Heir of his Kingdom should take upon us the Rule and Government And We yielding to the good Pleasure of our Father by the Counsel and Advisement of the Prelates Earls Barons Great Men and Communities aforesaid have taken upon Us the Government of the said Kingdom and received the Fealties and Homages of the said Prelates and Great Men according to Custom Witness the King at Westminster Jan. 29. Nine days after he was invested with Kingship and not long after that King Edward the Second was murdered in Berkeley-Castle Any Man though but of an indifferent Capacity that seriously considers the story of this unfortunate Prince will easily perceive he was deposed by notorious Rebellion raised by factious Bishops and Tumultuous Barons and not without great suspition of an intended Vsurpation by Thomas Earl of Lancaster and may easily see through the Contrivance of the Queen and Mortimer afterwards and from thence cannot but judge it to have been a Design of wicked popular Barons and not the Action much less the Choice of the People In the Fourth of Edward the Third Roger Mortimer Earl of March
Edmund Mortimer Erle of March had Issue and leefully bare Rogier Mortimer Erle of March her Son and Heir Which Rogier Erle of March had Issue and leefully gate Edmund Erle of Marche Rogier Mortymer Anne and Alianore which Edmund Rogier and Alianore dyed without Issue And the seyd Anne under the Sacrament of Matrymony copled unto Richard Erle of Cambridge the Son of the seyd Edmund Langley fifth-begoten Son of the seyd King Edward as it is afore specified had Issue and leefully bare Richard Plantagenet commonly called Duc of Yorke The seyd John of Gaunt the fourth-goten Son of the seyd King Edward and younger Brother of the seyd Leonell had Issue and leefully gate Hen. Erle of Derby which incontinent after the tyme that the seyd King Richard resigned the Corones of the seyd Reaumes and the seyd Lordship of Ireland unrightwysely entered upon the same then being on live Edmund Mortymer Erle of Marche Son to Rogier Mortymer Erle of March Son and Heir of the seyd Phelippa Daughter and Heir of the seyd Sir Leonell the third Son of the seyd King Edward the Third to the which Edmund the Ryght and Title of the seyd Corones and Lordship by Lawe and Custome belonged Before we pass over these three Usurpers we must take notice of a Passage in Polydore Virgil concerning Henry V. in these Words Princeps Hen. facto Patris funere Concilium Principum ad Westmonasterium convocandum curat in quo dum de Rege creando more mojorum agitabatur Ecce tibi de repente aliquot Principes ultro in EJVS VERBA jurare coeperunt Quod Benevolentiae Officium nulli antea priusquam Rex renantiatus esset praestitum constat adeo Hen. ab ineunte aetate spem omnibus optimae indolis fecit Creatur itaque Rex ad quintum Iduum Aprilis eo Anno quo Pater e vita excesserat Quintus ejus Nominis Henricus dictus est The Author of the Brief History of Succession thus renders this Sentence Immediately upon the death of Hen. IV. a Parliament MET at Westminster and there according to the Custom of the Realm it was debated who should be King But all men had entertained so good thoughts of Prince Henry that without staying till the whole Assembly had declared him King divers of them began to swear Allegiance to him a thing strange and without president as only occasioned by extraordinary Opinion which was generally conceived of him before and the certain Title vested in him by Act of Parliament In his Citation of the Latin he leaves out these Words which belong to this piece of Story and do declare the meaning of it Creatur itaque Rex ad quintum Iduum Aprilis eo Anno quo