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A29975 The history and life and reigne of Richard the Third composed in five bookes by Geo. Buck. Buck, George, Sir, d. 1623. 1647 (1647) Wing B5307; ESTC R23817 143,692 159

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complaints made to the King by the Subjects of the King of France and of Denmarke which was well expedited Anno Regni 2. That Treatie of Peace and League with Scotland began before was continued and finished by Commissioners sent from Iames the fourth King of Scotland and by other Commissioners delegate for the King of England those for Scotland were Coli Earl of Argile Chancellor of Scotland N. Bishop of Aberdene the Lord Lisle the Lord Dromonde of Stobhall Master Archibald Quhitlaw Arch-Deacon of Lodion Secretary to the King Lion King at Arms and Duncan of Dundas they came to Nottingham in September Anno Domini 1484 and were honourably receiv'd in the great Chamber of the Castle the King sitting under his Royall Cloth of State Master Archibald Quhitlaw stepping before the rest addrest a very Eloquent Oration unto him in Latine which reflected upon the praise of Martial men Art Military including much to the honour and praise of King Richard This Treatie aimed partly at a Truce and Peace partly at a Marriage betweene Iames the Prince of Scotland and the Lady Anne Daughter of Iohn de la Poole Duke of Suffolke and Neice to King Richard Commissioners for the King of England were Iohn Bishop of Lincolne Richard Bishop of Asaph Iohn Duke of Norfolke Henry Earle of Northumberland Master Iohn Gunthorpe custos privati sigilli Sir Thomas Stanley Lord Stanley Sir N. Lord Strange Sir N. Lord Powis Sir Henry Lord Fitz hugh Sir Humphry Lord Dacres Master Thomas Barrow Master of the Rowles Sir Richard Ratcliff William Catesby and Richard Salkeld The other for the Treatie of Alliance and Marriage were Thomas Arch-Bishop of Yorke Iohn Bishop of Lincolne Iohn Bishop of Worcester Iohn Duke of Norfolke William Earle of Nottingham Iohn Sutton Lord Dudley N. Lord Scroope of Upsall Sir William Hussey Chiefe Justice of the Kings Bench Sir Richard Ratcliffe and William Catesby But the successe of that and many other good intendments were interposed by the inconstancy and contraste of the times The Lady Anne de la Poole upon the the breach thereof resolving to accept no other motion forthwith tooke a religious habit in the Monastery of Sion There was another Treatie of Peace and Truce in this second yeare betweene him and the Duke of Brittaine or at the least given out for peace yet was indeed but a part and pretext of the Treatie for the maine negotiations on the Kings side was how to get the Earle of Richmond out of his custody into his owne or be as well secured of him there as his Brother King Edward was And for this Treatie the chiefe Negotiators were the Bishop of Lincolne and Sir Thomas Hutton for the King the Bishop of Leon and others for the Duke The Treatie began Anno Domini 1484. and was finished and ratified in the yeare following but the Duke violated his part immediately by giving ayde to the Kings Enemies In the same yeare there were Letters made which are yet extant in the Treasury of the Exchequor that moved a Peace and Truce beweene King Richard and Charles the eighth King of France wherein it must be understood the tribute before mentioned was Articled Also in this yeare and the yeare before there was a private Treatie which we must not passe by for the Marriage of the Lady Elizabeth with King Richard himselfe what the successe of it was and how farre it proceeded will more aptly present it selfe in another place Wee are now to take notice of the Duke of Buckinghams revolt for this was the preparative and fourrier of the rest And to give it the more taking feature and specious pretence it must be given out That the cause was the Reformation of an ill Government and Tyranny under which species for Treason is ever fairely palliated and seldome wants the forme of some plea though at the Barre they must take up Armes against the King And here as some Rivers deriv'd from the Sea cannot suddenly loose their taste of saltnesse they discovered their ancient taint and inconstancy which the Prince wisely suspected from the first For the Duke of Buckingham how affably soever he trim'd his countenance it should seeme departed male-content from Court yet made not that generall publick pretended cause of the Kings Crimes all his quarrell but challenged him by some private grudges as denying to give or restore to him the Earledome of Hereford and Constableship of England for they went together a long time which he alledged belonged to the Partage that fell to his great Grand-mother the Lady Anne Daughter and Heire of Thomas Plantagenet alias Woodstock created by King Richard the second Duke of Glocester and Earle of Buckingham and of his Wife Elianor daughter and co-heire of Humphry de Bohun Earle of Hereford and Constable of England Which claime had he considerately look't upon could not rightly revolve to him but rather was for the Kings part For Humphry de Bohun Earle of Hereford of Essex and Northampton Lord of Brecknock and Constable of England in the time of King Edward the third and the last Earle of the Family of the Bohuns had by the Lady Iane his Wife Daughter of Richard Fitz-Allan Earle of Arundel two Daughters and Heires Elianor and Mary Elianor was Married to the same Thomas Plantagenet alias de Woodstock youngest Sonne of King Edward the third Duke of Glocester and Earle of Buckingham Mary the second Daughter was Married to Henry Plantagenet Duke of Lancaster and after King of England by the name of Henry the fourth and the Earledome of Hereford fell to his Wife In favour whereof he was Created Duke of Hereford by King Richard the second and the Earledome now a Dutchy and the rights therof remained in the King and in the Kings Heires and Successors untill the death of King Henry the sixt who dyed without Issue then all the Estate of Lancaster especially that of the Royall Family of Lancaster escheated to King Edward the fourth and from him it came to King Richard as Heire to his Brother and all his Ancestors But the Duke of Buckingham pretended Title to that Earledome by his said Grandmother Anne who was one of the Daughters and Heires of the aforesaid Lady Elianor Wife of Thomas de Woodstock Duke of Glocester and the Wife of Edmond Stafford Earle of Stafford and Grand-father to this Henry Duke of Buckingham who the rather presumed to make this Claime because the Issue of the other Sister Mary being extinct he tooke himselfe also to be her Heire But King Richard relishing something in this neare the disposition and inclination of Bullingbrooke answered That the Earledome of Hereford was of the inheritance of Henry the fourth who was also King of England though by tort and usurpation and will you my Lord of Buckingham Claime to be Heire of Henry the fourth You may then also happily Assume his spirits and lay Claime to the Crowne
that divers continued of his Sir-name in that Countrey along time after him which makes it probable he had a naturall Son at least bearing his owne name of Heward that next to him was the Originall Ancestor of this house of Howards And let it not be thought any disparagement for a Noble Family to be raysed from a naturall Issue for many Princely Families have beene derived and propagated from naturall Sonnes as was Eneas Romulus the Founders of the Roman Families so was Theseus and Themistocles as Plutarch writeth others say as much of Hercules c. The King of Spaine descended from Henry de Trastamara base sonne of Alphonsus the Justicer King of Castile And who doth not honour the Princely Race of William the Conquerour Bastard son to the Duke of Normandy where was a more Heroicall man then Robert Earle of Glocester base sonne of King Henry the first The Earles of Warren descended from Hamelin a base sonne of Geoffry Plantagenet Earle of Aniow The Noble Herberts are also said to come from a base sonne of Henry the first And the Duke and Earles of Somerset which followed the Red Rose were the Off-spring of the Beauforts naturall sonnes of Iohn de Gaunt For a further conjecture why these Howards must be descended from Hewardus or Herewardus for so some Writers call him but Iugulfus who best knew him constantly calls him Hewardus both names may signifie in the Saxon or old Dutch a chiefe Captaine of an Army whom the Romans call'd Imperator And that the Titles and names of great Offices have given Sir-manes to many Noble Families wee have examples in plentie Particularly the Visconti of Millan the Chamberlaines of Normandy the Stewards of Scotland the Butlers of Ireland and divers others who had their Sir-names from the Offices of their Ancestours and Fathers and the same presumption or argument may be for taking the Sir-name of Howard and the Origine of their Family from Hewardus the Howards from the time of Heward dwelling in these Countries of Holland and Marshland and were Lords of some Lands belonging to him untill by their matches with the Daughters and Heires of Fitton Tendring Mowbray Tillney c. they became possessed in Norfolke suffolke and Berkeshire and were Lords sometime of Sunning-hill neare Windsor and bore the Sir-name ever since or with small interruption the old Sir-name written Heward or Hereward in Charters and Records and Howard in Stories But descend wee through the succession of those times to William Haward Chiefe Justice in the Raigne of Edward the first Grand-father to Sir Iohn Howard Admirall of the North Fleet in the Navall Warres of Edward the third his Sonne Sir Robert Howard married the Daughter of the Lord Scales and Sir Iohn Howard who lived in the time of Henry the fourth and dyed Anno 16. Henry the sixt had two Wives Margaret Daughter and Heire of Sir Iohn Plais Knight by whom hee had Eliza an onely Daughter married to Iohn de Vere Earle of Oxford who brought him a goodly part of the Howards Lands Her Heires were married to Latimer and Winckfield very fruitfull Families His second Wife was the Daughter and heire of Sir William Tendering of Stoke-Nayland in Suffolke by whom he had Sir Robert Howard his eldest Sonne who married Margaret Mowbray Daughter of a Cadet of the house of Lancaster who became Co-heire with her Sister the Lady Berkely Wife to Thomas Mowbray Duke of Norfolke dead in Venice and left his Sonne Henry Haward heire to Haward and Mowbray and Iohn Howard the sonne of Iohn Howard was created Earle of Norfolke by King Richard the third in the right of his Mother Mowbray he married the Daughter of the Lord Moulines and by her had Thomas Howard the first Howard Earle of Surrey this is he who survived the danger of Bosworth Field and became afterwards Duke of Norfolke from whom all the Howards now living are descended whose Family hath beene so fruitfull to furnish this Kingdome with foure Dukes many Earles Viscounts and Barons three high Treasurers six high or great Marshalls tenne high Admiralls with some honourable Custos of the Privie Seale and sundry Chamberlaines of the Kings house and one lately lived who had borne the Offices of high Constable Lord Lieutenant Lord high Steward Marshall and Admirall of England Lord Chiefe Justice in Oyer of the better part of this Kingdome and Chamberlaine of the Royall house a man honourable in his deportments and fortunate in his undertakings as at the great Marine Battells against all the Navall powers of Spaine the Pope and Princes of Italy Anno Domini 1588. and in the siege of Gadys Anno Domini 1596. And this is the Grand-child of that Thomas Lord Howard who for his better distinction and perpetuall honour is stiled Triumphator Scotorum I have strayed into this digression as a gratefull tender of an acknowledgement I owe to that Illustrious Family for their Noble Patronage and Favour to my Ancestors especially to that unfortunate Bucke and his Children who withered with the White Rose bearing an Ancient and Hereditary love to the House of Yorke and stood in good Credit and Favour with the King his Master no● let this remembrance of him and his obscured Family seeme ostentation or vaine-glory whilst I say no more then what other Historios dictate which give him an able Character Master Camden Clarentius in his Immortall Brittannia deriveth this Sir Iohn Bucke from Sir Walter de Bucke of Brabant and Flanders who had that Sir-name of great Antiquity from the Castle de Bucke in Lis●e a City and Frontire Towne in Flanders where the Ancient Earles were accustomed much to reside the ruines of this Castle remained in the late time of Lodwicke Guicciardine who saith he saw the Carcasse thereof And this Walter Bucke was a Cadet of the House of Flanders employed and sent by the Prince then Duke of Brabant and Earle of Flanders to King Iohn with Auxiliary Troopes Roger Wondover saith Walter Bucke Gerardde Scottigni and Godescalius venerunt in Angliam cum tribus legionibus Flandrensium Bra●antianoru● militum c. and he did the King excellent service here as many of our Historians report for which the King bountifully rewarded him with Lands in Yorkeshire and Northampton shire And in Yorkeshire where he made his Seat he found an Ancient Family of the Sirname of Bucke of Bucton in the Wapentake of Bucrosse where that Family had anciently been for the name is a Saxon or Dutch word and signifieth a Beech Tree or Beech Wood here Walter contracted alliance and Married Ralph de Bucke his Eldest Sonne to the Daughter and Heire of G●celinus de Bucke Grandchild to Radolphus de Bucke who was a part Founder and Bene●actour to the Abbey of Bredlington as is mentioned in the Charter of Henry the first made for the foundation of that Monastery and from this Walter descended Iohn Bucke Knight who married a
Strelley and was so constant in his Affection that although she dyed in his best Age he made a Religious Vow and became a Knight of the Rhodes his Armes are yet to be seene in the Ruines of the Hospitall of Saint Iohns nea●e Smithfield and in the Church of Alhallows at the upper end of Lumbard Street which was repaired and enlarged with the Stones brought from that demolished Caenoby he lived sub rege Edvardo filio Regis Henrici as I have seene by the date of his deed in Herthil● Anno 1 Ed. 1. Anno 22. Ed. 1. From this Knight of the Rhodes descended Sir Iohn Bucke who for his too much forwardnesse in charging a Fleet of Spaniards without the leave of the Earle of Arundell Lord Admirall was committed to the Tower testified by the Records there Anno 13. Richard the second Lawrence Buck his Son followed Edward Plantagenet Duke of Yorke and was at the Battel of Agin Court with him when he was slaine Iohn Bucke Knight the Sonne of this Laurence married a Daughter and Heire of the House of Staveley out of which are descended the Barons Parres of Kendall and Rosse Queene Katherine the last wife of King Henry the eighth the Lord Parre Marquesse of Northampton and the Herberts Earles of Pembrooke and Montgomery These Bucks residing for the most part at West-Stanton and Herthill in Yorkeshire and matched into the Families of Strelley or Stirely of Woodhall Thorpe Tilney then of Lincolnshire and Savill by which we have much Noble kindred Sir Iohn Bucke for his service to the House of Yorke especially at Bosworth lost his head at Leicester he married the Daughter of Henry Savill by whom he had Robert Bucke and other Children who were brought into the Southerne parts by Thomas Duke of Norfolke where they have remained ever since for the Children being Orphans were left in miserable estate by the Attainder of their Father But the Duke bestowed two Daughters in marriage one with the Heire of Buck The other with the Heire of Fitz-Lewis very Ancient Families from which Matches divers honourable and Noble Persons are descended The Sonnes were one a Souldier the other a Courtier the third a Priest afterward the Duke bestowed Robert Bucke the Eldest Sonne at Melford Hall in Suffolke and married him into the Families of Higham and Cotton as also did the Blounds of Elwaston the Talbots of Grafton from whom the Barons of Monioy and the late Earles of Shrewsbury descended one of the Daughters of this Bucke Married to Fredericke Tilney of Shelley Hall in Suffolke his nearest Kinsman by the Duchesse his Mothers side But some perhaps must call this my vanity I shall but answer them that I thinke my selfe bound by all the bloud and memory I claime from them to pay them my best Relations and endeavours acknowledging with the great Consulare Philosopher Parentes charissimos habere debemus quod ab ijs vita patrimontum libertas Civit as tradita est And I should thinke there is none who hath an interest in the quality of Gentile or Noble for all is one but lookes backe which some delight to their first Commemoration and finds a strong engagement due to the Vertues and worth of their first Fathers for that expresse charge to honour Father and Mother is not to be understood only of our Parents superstits and living here with us but our forefathers that is beyond our great Grandfather for we have no proper word for them above that degree but Antecessours vulgò Ancestours whom the Romans called Majores and comprehendeth all our Progenitours departed sooner or later for the word Pater and Mater as also Parens Parentes extend very largely and reach up to the highest Ancestours The Ancient Roman Jurisconsults deliver in their Law for an Axiome that Appellatione Parentum omnes in infinitum majores utriusque sexus significantur and the word Parentes yet spreadeth further comprehending all Kinsfolkes and Cosins of our Bloud and Linage being used in that sense by AElius Lampridius by Iulius Capitolinus and other the best Writers in the times of the declined Empire as Isaac Causabonus hath well observed in his Annotations The Italians Spanish and French whose Language is for the most part Romanzi mongrell Latine and broken and corrupted Romane Language use Parenti Parentes and Parents for all their Kinsfolkes and Gentilitious Cosins We English-men being more precise follow the Ancient and Classique Latine Writers holding Parent strictly to the simple signification of Pater and Mater the present and immediate Parents But the using of the word Parentes as those Imperiall Historians use it serveth better for our purpose here And I could most willingly imitate the Pious Gentlemen of Italy Spain● and France in their Religious and Charitable indeavours to advance the happinesse of their Parents defunct if those desires could besteed them But where I should crave pardon I become more guilty and extravogant it is time therefore to know good manners and returne home to our proper taske which will be to refell the grosse and blacke Calumnies throwne unjustly upon the Memory and Person of King RICHARD And falls within the Circle of the next Booke Explicit Liber Secundus THE THIRD BOOKE OF KING RICHARD THE THIRD The Contents of this Booke THe Defamations of King Richard examined and answered Doctor Morton and Sir Thomas Moore malevolent to the House of Yorke Their frivolous exceptions against his gestures lookes teeth shape and birth hie vertues depraved The death of King Henry the sixth and his Sonne Edward Prince of Wales The Actors therein The offence of killing an anointed King Valiant men hate treacheries and bloudy acts King Richard not deformed The Slanders of Clarence translated to King Richard The Cause of Clarences execution How the Sonnes of King Edward came by their deaths King Richard Exculpable thereof The story of Perkin VVarbeck compared with Don Sebastian King of Portugall who are Biothanati Counterfeit Prince detected young Prince marvellously preserved Many testimonies for the assertion that Perkin VVarbeck was Richard Duke of Yorke his honourable entertainment with forraigne Princes vox populi Reasons why it is not credible King Richard made away his two Nephewes the force of Confession The evill of Torture the guilt of attempting to escape out of prison what an escape is The Earle of Oxford severe against Perkin and his end The base Sonne of King Richard the third secretly made away The Sonne of the Duke of Clarence put to death The power of furies Demones Genii Apollonii Majestas Quid tibi non vis alteri ne feceris THE THIRD BOOKE OF KING RICHARD THE THIRD THere is no story that shewes the planetary affections and malice of the vulgar more truly then King Richards and what a tickle game Kings have to play with them though his successor Henry the seventh play'd his providently enough with helpe of the standers by yet even those times which had promised the happiest example of a
in their greatest height were called Principes therefore Princeps is thus defined Princeps est penes quem summa Reip. potestas est qui primus omnium dominatur And Principatus and Dominatus are used as Synonomies But it is conceiv'd an errour now to take Principatus for Regnum O● Supremus Dominatus being the word Principatus long before and in the age of Richard the second also ever since hath beene restrained to the Estate of Primogenitus and Heire apparant not onely of Kings but also of Dukes and Marquesses as well Feudall as Soveraigne And the next King Henry the fourth a wise discreet and wary Prince though he was much inclin'd to those Beauforts as being his naturall Brethren by the Paternall side and willing to advance them all he could yet he discovered clearely enough by that certaine Charter in which he entailed the Crowne successively to his soure Sonnes and to the Heires of their bodies that he reputed not the Beauforts to be Lancastrians or neare the Crown Neither is there the least clause or mention to leave any remainder therein to them First he intaild the Crowne to his eldest sonne Henry Prince of Wales after him to the Heires of his body If they faile then to Thomas of Lancaster his second sonne and to the Heires of his body so to his third sonne Iohn of Lancaster and to the Heires of his body Lastly to the fourth sonne Humphrey and to the Heires of his body for still and for every estate the words are Post ipsum successive Heredibus suis de ipsius Corpore legitime procreandis which is all and implicatively an expresse exclusion of the Beauforts This Charter was confirmed by Act of Parliament holden at Westminster the two and twentieth day of December in the eight yeare of Henry the fourth and sealed with his owne Signet Upon the Dexter side of that hung the seales of sundry Lords Spirituall on the left side the seales of the Lords Temporall witnesses And albeit the Earle of Richmond could not so well and rightly beare the name of Beaufort or Somerset being a Teador by his Father and so to be Sir-named or of some other Welch-name if there were any in his Family by his Mother he was descended from the Beauforts for the Lady Margaret Countesse of Richmond was daughter and heire to Sir Iohn de Beaufort Duke of Somerset and Grand-child to Iohn of Gaunt by Katherine the wife of Otho de Swinford which Iohn de Beaufort was created Duke of Somerset by Henry the fift his Wife was the daughter and at length the heire of Sir Iohn Beauchamp of Blet so and the widow of Sir Oliver Saint-Iohn when he married her But the Earle of Richmond by his Grand-mother Katherine Queene of England was descended from the Kings of France and I have seen him in a Pedigrce drawne after he was King derived from the ancient Kings Princes of Brittaine Polidore saith he was Ex fratre Nepos to King Henry the sixt who cal'd him Nephew and he the King Avunculum nostrum our Uncle insteed of Patruum as it is in the Records of Parliament Ann. 1. of Henry the seventh but not his Nephew as wee erroneously now take it that is his German younger Brothers Sonne for then he had beene a true Masculine Issue of the house of Lancaster and Royall blood of England But he was Nephew to him by his Brother Uterine Edmond Teudor Earle of Richmond the sonne of Owen Teudor or Meridock and of Queene Katherine daughter of Charles the sixt King of France and widow of Henry the fift King of England which the French well knew and gave him the better esteeme for it but those Honours were obscure Additions to him that must not goe lesse then for a Prince of the house of Lancaster and so of England which passed with such vulgar credit in France that Du Tillet mistooke Iohn Duke of Somerset Father of Margaret Countesse of Richmond for the true and lawfull Sonne of Iohn de Gaunt c. by his first Wife Blanch Plantagenet Daughter and Heire of the Earle and Earledome of Lancaster Philip de Comines Lord of Argent had better intelligence of his Pedigree and Title which he gives us thus Iln ' avoit croix ny pile ne null droit Come je croy a la Coronne d'Angleterre And this expresses he had no great opinion of either though he were then King when this was writ But let us suppose him lawfully from that Duke of Lancaster his claime must stand excluded whilst the house of Yorke survived for Richard Plantagenet Duke of Yorke and King of England designat by Act of Parliament holden 39 yeare of King Henry the sixt to whom these Titles of Prince of Wales Duke of Cornwall Earle of Chester and Protector of England were given by the three Estates in that Parliament descended from the Daughter and Heire of the second Sonne of King Edward the third For as before so still I leave the Infant William of Hatfield without the Catalogue and King Henry the fourth and his Progeny descended from the third Sonne and King Henry the sixt being the best of the house of Lancaster then living did acknowledge in that Parliament the Title of Richard Duke of Yorke the onely lawfull and just Title so consequently next and better then that of Lancaster or any other and before any Beaufort or their Heires the Issue of the two daughters of Iohn Duke of Lancaster Philip and Katherine married to the King of Portugall and Castile were to be preferr'd if Forraigne Titles be not excluded by Parliament But the Earle of Richmond measuring his owne height by the advantage of a tumultuary and indisposed time and finding his Lancastrian pretence began to have a popular retinew he was now incompatible of any others precedency and propinquity for those great ones that led him by the hand unto the Action layd the line by their owne corrupted hopes and feares of the successe therefore would not let the fortune of their expectation faint in him Bishop Morton steered much in the course of their Affaires and was a great Oracle to the Earle who was noted too partiall and credulous especially where he believed the persons of any honesty vertue or learning for which his fame yet beares some staines of Morton Dudley Empson Bray Vrswike Knevett c. for there be two extreames observed in the Councells of Princes one when the Prince is subject to follow the councells of evill men the other when the Prince is too opinionated to consult with Counsell such an one as was Charles the hardy Duke of Burgundy so opinionated and overweening of his owne wisedome and judgement that he under-thought all mens else which wide conceit of his hath left this Monument Carolus pugnax altorum consilia rationes ne dicam sequi uix audire volebat ignominiae loco habens ab alijs discere judicavit
Elizabeth Wiatt alias Lucy Iane Shore the Lady Elianor Talbot And it is worth the remembring in the Concourse of such matters as these there was another fair Creature so dear unto him that his too much Affection begat Suspition of which he gave her a kinde expression by a quaint device sent unto her in a rich Jewel fashioned much after the manner of the trivial Hierogliffs used in France and called Rebus de Picardy The device was A Faulcon encompassed with a Fetter-lock The Mott Au Faulcon Serrure The Caution lying in the ambiguity and double sense of Faulcon which being whole and proper signifieth a Hawk but divided hath an obscene signification and so Faulcon becometh an aequivoque The King afterward was so affected with this device that he would have it carved and painted in many of his Royal works yet to be seen at Fotheringhay and elsewhere Yet although the Kings Jealousie was thus particular to her his Affection was as general to others being a frank Ga●ester and he that would cast at all fairly set Above all for a time he was much speld with Elianor Talbot daughter of Iohn Talbot Earl of Shrewsbury called in the Act of Parliament 1 Rich. 3 The old Earl of Shrewsbury her mother was the Lady Katherine Stafford daughter of Humphrey Stafford Duke of Buckingham and she the widow of Thomas Lord Butler Baron of Sudesley Her beauty and sweetnesse of disposition drew his desire so vehemently and with such respect that he was suddenly Contracted and after Married by Doctor Thomas Stillington Bishop of Bath Councellor of State one much favoured by the King and often employed by him in great Affairs This is witnessed by our English Writers and veritable Philip de Comines in these words Le Evesque de Bath lequel avoit este Conseillier du Roy Edward disoit que le dit Roy avoit promis foy de Mariage a une Dame de Angleterre qu'il avoit nommè que le Roy avoit fait la promise entre les mains dudict Euesque dit aussi c'est Euesque qu'il avoit apres espousè n'y avoit que luy ceux deux In English thus The Bishop of Bath a Privie Councellor of King Edward said That the King had plighted his faith to marry a Lady of England whom the Bishop named the Lady Elianor Talbot and that this Contract was made in the hands of the Bishop who said that afterwards he married them no persons being present but they twain and he the King charging him strictly not to reveal it Which Contract and Marriage are related in the Act of Parliament aforesaid where it is disertly called a former Marriage and the King had a childe by her But where desires are unlawful they will be unlimited We are ever young enough to sin never old enough to repent never constant never satisfied in our neerest desires Though to morrow shew us the sting of to day the third shall betray us again and we are taken like children in a shop of trinkets by the eye liking all things from one to another until pleasure dull pleasure and we grow weary of them As in the dotages of this King who had now received others into the bosome of his fancy especially the fame which was then in every Courtiers ear and mouth of an excellent Lady in the Court of France with the Queen Chareltts wife of King Lewis 11 and sister to this Lady whose name was Bona the daughter of Lewis Duke of Savoy And so suddenly and strongly had he taken fire and apprehension of her report the bent of his affection being meerly wanton to every new object thinking Love a cold Composition without the priviledge of Variety that he straight falls into terms of engagement and capitulation of Marriage to which purpose the great and renowned Richard Nevil Earl of Warwick and Salisbury and Captain of Calais then in the esteem of his best and most trusty friend had a Commission of Treaty and with all speed was sent Ambassadour into France who with all honour and magnificence to his wish effects it with the more noble and easie dispatch the Earl of Warwick being a man eminent thorow all the parts of Europe for his Valour Wisedom and Heroical vertues Expecting a welcome at his return answerable to the period of his employment but findes an alteration not onely of the Kings affection but of his countenance for in the interim he had in an instant or particle of time as it were wooed and wedded the Lady Elizabeth Gray Relict of Sir Iohn Gray daughter of Sir Richard Woodville and of Iaquetta sometime Dutchesse of Bedford and daughter of the Earl of St. Poole Her husband was one Gray a Knight of Grooby who became a very vehement Lancastrian revolting from the House of York and therefore the more hateful to those of that Family and the well-wishers thereof so to the Earl of Warwick He was slain at the Battel of St Albans Of whom and of this Lady his wife as of this Marriage Philip de Comines relates something which I shall leave to the interpretation of the better knowing and desire not to understand it in the words Or de puis le dict Roy Eduart espousè la fille d'un Ch●vallier de Angleterre femme veufue qui avoit deux filz aussi per Amorrettes But neither the despised state of widowhood nor the meannesse of her quality and condition the earnest disswasion of the Dutchesse his mother and best friends could make him withdraw his affection so deeply and obstinately he was surprised with her beauty yet if he could have enjoyed his longings otherwise he ha● not married her But she was of so pregnant and reserved a wit seconded by the caution and counsel of the Dutchesse her mother that his highest temptations and sweetest batteries could not win upon her protesting never to yeeld to any dishonorable parley or unchaste motion although it might warrant the safe●y of her life and humbly implored his Grace not to think her so exorbitantly and vainly ambitious to wish her self a Queen or to have the hope and presumption to be any thing higher then what she was His poor and humble vassal nor was she of so lowe and lost a minde as to violate her Chastity or be a Concubine to the greatest King When the King perceived there was no other remedy but that he must shift his sail to that scantling of winde he complies with her and protests it was his desire and ●uit to marry her notwithstanding her inequality for in his esteem her love her beauty and her vertue made her Fortunes and Dowry great and high enough for any King Nor did he defer it any longer then there was necessity but marry her he did and with such dispatch that he stayed not for the advice of any either Councellor Kinsman or other whatsoever Nay his speed admitted not the approved Ceremony of the
masculine line from Edmond Plantagenet alias de Langley the first Duke of Yorke and the fourth Sonne of King Edward the third who was the most renowned and glorious Progenitor to those Princes of Yorke and Lancaster and the first King in a Lineall descent from that great Henry sirnamed Plantagenet famous for his great Prowesse and many victories King of England in the right of his Mother the Empresse Matil●● or Maud daughter and heire of King Henry the first and stiled Angl●rum Domina sometime wife of the Emperour Henry the fifth by which he was also sirnamed filius imperatricis The French men called him Henry du Court Mantea● or Court Mantle because he wore a cloake shorter then the fashion was in those times By his Father Galfride or Geoffry Plantagenet he was Earle or Duke of Anjou for then Dux Comes and Ducatus Comitatus were Synonomies promiscuous words he was also Earle of Maine of Torraine and hereditary Seneschall or High Steward of France and by his marriage of Elianor Queene of France Repudiate Daughter and heire of William Duke of Gascoigne and of Guiene and Earle of Poictou He was Duke and Earle of those Principalities and Signiories also by the Empresse his Mother Duke of Normandy He was Lord of Ireland by Conquest and confirmed by Pope Adrian But these were not all his Seigniories and Dominions for after he was King of England he extended his Empire and Principate in the South to the Pyrerean mountaines The Confines of Spaine and France in the North to the Isles of Orkney and in the East and West with the Ocean as Giraldus Cambrensis G●l Neubrigensis Ioannes Sarisburiensis grave and credible Authors affirme who stiled him Regum Britanniae maximus and doubtlesse he was the greatest King of Brittaine since King Arthur But it is controverted amongst the Antiquaries and Heralds which Earle of Anjou first bare the sirname and Sobriquet of Plantagenest or Plantagenet after the vulgar Orthodoxe by what occasion and for what cause it was taken and borne and from what time and age it had beginning Some would have the forenamed Geoffry Plantagenet Father of this Henry the first Earle of Anjou which bare it But we shall finde stronger reasons to derive it from a much more ancient Earle of Anjou and better causes then can be found in him if we step but a little backe to their stories and compare the men and their times Geoffry Plantagenet being a man of a gallant and active fire disposed to the Courts of Princes to Justs Turnaments c. and to the Courtship of faire Ladies those of the highest ranke and had so amorous a Star That Philippe le Grosse K. of France suspected him for too familiar commerce with his bed But it was of better influence when he archieved and married the Empresse Matilda by which we may very well calculate he neither had nor would be intent or at leisure for such a mortified and perilous Pilgrimage to Jerusalem But if we would know the man let us looke upon the first Fulke Earle of Anjou who lived about an hundred yeares before the Norman Conquest of England and was Sonne of Godefray or Geoffry Grisegonell the first Earle of Anjou according to du Haillon Ancestor and Progenitor to the foresaid Geoffry Plantagenet some seven or eight degrees in the ascending Line as Paradin accounteth a man raised upon the foundation of a great courage and strength two of the best Principles when they have good seconds and make too a glorious man where they serve his vertues not affections as in this Prince they did whose disposition on the other side being let out into as vaste an ambition and covetousnesse ne're looked upon the unlawfulnesse of his desires how horrid soever which amongst the many rest run him upon the shelves of wilfull perjury and murder the one for defrauding spoiling a Church of certaine Rights and the other for contriving the Tragedy of his young Nephew Drog● Earle of Brittaine to make himselfe Lord of his Countrey and Principallity The secret checke and scourge of those crimes had a long time to worke upon his conscience and of a great sinner made a great Penitent being old and having much solitary time and many heavy thoughts which naturally accompany old age and suggest better considerations of our former and youthfull sinnes he opens the horrour of them and his afflicted mind to his Confessor as great Constantine to AEgyppus who enjoyned him to make the same confession before the holy Sepulcher at Jerusalem which Pilgrimage the Earle performed in all lowly and contemptible manner passing as a private and unworthy person without traine or followers save two of his meanest which he tooke rather for witnesses then servants whose service was when they came neare Jerusalem the one with a cord such as is used for the strangling of Criminals thrown about his Masters neck to draw or leade him to the holy sepulcher whilst the other did acoustré and strip him as a condemned person and with extremity scourge him untill he was prostrate before the sacred Monument where he gave evidence of his unfained contrition and sorrow Amongst other devout expressions uttering this Mon dieu Signeur rec●y a Pardon le perjure homicide miserable Foulque And after this pilgrimage he lived many years of prosperity in his Country honoured of all men To justifie this there be many Examples of other Princes and Noble Persons who lived about the yeare of our Lord one thousand and somewhat before and in three or foure ages after who under went the like Pilgrimages imposed under base and mechanicke nick-names and persons as of a Carpenter a Smith a Fisher-man a Mariner a Shepheard a Woodman a Broome-man c. In my Inquiry after that of Plantagenet I met with an ancient Manuscript that afforded me a large Catalogue of many such by the French called Sobriquets from whence I have transcribed these few for a taste Sobriquets Berger Shepheard Grisegōnelle gray-coat Teste de Estoupe Head of towe Arbuste A Shrub Martell A Hammer Grande boeuf Ox-face LaZouch Branch upon a Stem Houlette a sheep-hook Hapkin Hatchet Chapelle Hood Sans-terre Lackland Malduit Ill taught Geffard Ieuvencas or Heyfer Filz de Fleau Son of a Flaile Plantagenest the Plant or stalk of a Broome And under the name and habit of a Broome-man our Pilgrim performed this Penance and tooke the Sobriquet of Plantagenest from wearing a stalke of Broome or plant of Genest this is generally received but the time and reason neither set downe nor rendred by any of our Heralds and Antiquaries French or English for the time when he performed this I observe it about the yeare of our Lord one thousand certainly But for the particular relation this Count had to chuse the genest plant or Broome stalke before any other vegitall or thing I shall lay downe that opinion which is mine owne
noting for a circumstance by the way that the Broome in Hieroglyphicall Learning is the Symbole of humility and the Poets particularly Virgil the best of Poets give it the Epithet of humilis humilis genista and the Etymologists derive it from genu the knee the part most applyed and as it were dedicate to the chiefe Act of Reverence kneeling to which the naturall Philosophers say there is so mutuall a correspondency and so naturall a sympathy between genu and gen●sta that of all other plants or vegitals it is most comfortable and medicinable to the paines and diseases of the knees Pliny a great Master amongst them saith Genista tuscae cum c. genua dolentia sanat But the considerable reason is as I conceive it from the use he was constrained to make of the twigges of Broome when he came to be scourged at Jerusalem the place necessitating the use of them to that purpose being as Strabo relates a stony sandy and barren soyle only naturall and gratefull to the genest as the watry and moist to the Birch Willow and Withy of which there could be none there for that reason And from hence it must most conjecturally take the beginning of that Honour which afterward his Princely and Noble Posteries continued for their sirname who became Dukes Princes in sundry places and some of them Kings of England France Scotland and Ireland and as the pious people of that Age verily beleeved by their observation were the more prosperous and happy for his sake For the continuance of the Name some who pretend to see further and better in the darke then others as cleare sighted would have it taken of late time and not used by the Kings and Princes of England of the Angeume race But there are many proofes to be adduced against them Let us looke into Master Brookes