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B11942 The abridgment of Camden's Brita[n]nia with the maps of the seuerall shires of England and Wales.; Britannia. English. Abridgments Camden, William, 1551-1623. 1626 (1626) STC 4527; ESTC S107395 54,613 132

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Topographie Againe euery part and place of the earth is considered either in it selfe according to its adiuncts In it selfe and so it is Continent Iland A Continent is a great quantitie of land in which many kingdomes and principalities are conioyned together none of them being separated from the rest by any Sea An Island quasi an eie of land called in Latine Insula quasi in salo is a part of land compassed and enuironed round about with waters of which Great Britaine and Iapan are the most spacious These againe are obseruable parts both of Continents and Islands Peninsula Isthmus Promontorium Peninsula quasi pene Insula is a tract of land which being compassed almost round with waters is ioyned by some little necke or Isthmus to the firme land as Peloponesus in Greece An Isthmus is a narrow peece of land which ioyneth the Peninsula to the Continent or greater Islands as the straights of Dariene and Corinth Promontorium is a high mountaine shooting it selfe much farther into the Sea than the Adiacent land The extremest point or nooke hereof is called a Cape as Cape-verde in Africa c. The adiuncts of a place are either such as respect the earth it selfe the heauens Those that agree to a place in respect of the earth are three in number viz. 1 The magnitude or extent of a Country 2 The bounds and limits 3 The qualitie 1 The magnitude comprehendeth the length and bredth of any place The length of a place is measured East and West what figure soeuer the place is of the bredth thereof North and South It is to be obserued that those places that are vnder the Aequinoctiall haue no bredth because that the measuring of latitude is begunne from this circle 2 The bounds of a Country is a line terminating it round about and distinguishing it from the bordering lands or waters 3 The qualitie of a place is the naturall temper and disposition thereof A place in regard of the heauens is either East West North. South Those places are properly said to be Northerne which lie betwixt the Aequinoctiall and the Arctick Pole Those Southerne which are betwixt the Aequinoctiall and the Antarcticke Pole Those places likewise are said to be Easterne which lie in the Easterne Haemisphaere terminated by the first Meridian which passeth thorow the Azores and those the Westerne which lie within the Haemisphaere which lieth Westernly of the same Meridian And thus much of the vniuersall Notions of Geography A TIPE OF ENGLAND OF ENGLAND THis farre famoused Kingdome is bordered on the North with Scotland on the South with the British Sea on the East with the German Ocean and on the West with the Hybernian Seas It is situate in the temperate Z●ne and eighth Climate watered with a multitude of Crystall streames Currents and Nauigable Riuers the banks whereof are crowned with Flowrie Meadowes the Meadowes replenished with abundance of Cattell and accosted with all manner of fertile fields of all manner of Corne and Graine and besides all these affords many other both Commodities and Rarities which hereafter are particularly expressed in their proper places This kingdome was first inhabited by some Colonies which transplanted themselues from the neighbouring coasts of France Lower Germanie as the affinity of their Language Policie Religion and Manners doe vnquestionably proue being the ofspring of Gomer of Iaphets progenie as their owne appellation doth witnesse calling themselues Komery who possessed and gouerned this Iland aboue one thousand yeares About fifty foure yeares before the Natiuitie of our Lord and Sauiour Iulius Caesar entred this land which within one hundred and fifty yeares after was subiugated by the Romans vnder whose commands they liued till the 430 yeare after Christ when the Roman Empire declining was forced to call home their Garrisons and hauing before exhausted the strength of this Kingdome left it a prey to the enemie whereupon the Picts assaulting this land thus disfurnished weakned they were compelled to craue the aid of the Saxons and Anglies a warlike nation inhabiting neare the confines of Denmarke who being ariued chased away their enemies and allured with the temperature fertilitie and pleasantnesse of the Country flowing in great numbers expelled the Britaines or Komeros that would not liue vnder their lawes and subiection and so held it till the yeare 1066. when William the Conquerour with his Normans subdued them whose successors haue continually enioyed it to this present time It was anciently diuided by the Romans into three parts Britanniam primam from the South parts to Trent Maximam Caesariensem from thence Northward and Britanniam secundam which we call Wales After by the Saxons it was diuided into an Heptarchie which at last reduced to a Monarchie was by Elfred diuided into Shires Wapentakes and Tithings with Iustices and Sheriffes appointed for ministring of iustice which partly confirmed partly altered by William the Conquerour was at last diuided into 39 Shires of the English with the addition of 13 of Wales In which are at this present two famous Vniuersities the Seminaries of vertue and learning 26 Bishopricks 641 Market Towees 186 Castles 9725 Parish Churches 555 Riuers 956 Bridges 13 Chases 68 Forests and 781 Parkes Tribunalls or Courts of iustice temporall nine viz. Parliament Starchamber Chancerie Kings Bench Exchequer Common pleas Court of Wards Admiraltie and Court of Requests besides Court Leet and Baron Spirituall seuen of Conuocation Synods Audience Arches Prerogatiue Faculties and Peculiar Iurisdictions Rankes of Nobilitie nine that is Dukes Marquesses Earles Viscounts Barons Baronets Knights Esquires and Gentlemen And of Inferiour Ranke or Communaltie three Yeomen Husbandmen and Tradesmen The Battells by Sea and Land since the Conquest fought by the Kings Nobilitie and Commons against forraine inuasions and Domestique and Intestine warres 76. The last and most Admirable being in the Chase of the Spanish Armado Ann. Dom. 1588. ¶ A Table containing the prouisions of the Spanish Armado against ENGLAND in Anno Domini 1588. and Anno ELIZ. REGINae XXX Leaders Prouinces aiding Galliasses and Gallions Ships and Hulks Pinaces and Carauals Great Ordnance Saylers Souldiers Galley-slaues D. Medina Sydonia Portugal 10 2   300 1300 3300   Diego de Mandranae Portugal 4     20 360   888 Io. Martynes de Richaldes Bisca● 10   4 250 700 2000   Michael de Oquendo Guiapusco 10   4 310 700 2000   Pedro de Valdez Andolozia 10   1 280 800 2400   Martyn de Vertendona Italie 10     310 800 2000   Diego Floris de Valdez Castile 14   2 380 1700 2400   Iohn Lopez de Medina Medina   23   400 700 3200   Hugo de Moncade Naples 4     200 460 870 1200 Antonio Buccade Mendoza   22   193 574 488   ESPECIALL NOTES worthy of obseruation 13 H. 1. The first Parliament was in Anno 1112 19 H. 2. Ireland was conquered in Anno 1172 4 Ioh. Normandy was lost by King Iohn and the title thereto released Anno 1202 43 H. 3. Normandy was lost by King Iohn and the title thereto released Anno 1258 11 E. 1. Wales was subdued Anno 1283 19 E. 3. The order of the Garter deuised Anno 1344 14 E. 3. England first quartered the Armes of France Anno 1339 21 E. 3. Calice was wonne in Anno 1346 5 Mariae Calice was lost Anno 1557 5 H. 5. Normandy was
in the time of the Romans The Records of this County speake but of one Monasterie founded in it which was built by Thomas the sonne of Gospatrick neere to the Riuer Loder where is a Spring that diuers times a day both ebbes and flowes And there are also a row of stones set equidistant reaching a mile in fashion of Piramides wherof some of them are nine and some thirteene or fourteene foot high which are supposed to be the memorable monument of some notable act performed in that place In the Riuer Can neere Kendale are two such violent Water-falls where in the descent it makes such a noise that the Inhabitants adioyning can thereby fore-iudge of the weather for if that which is North from them sound cleare and loud they expect faire weather but if that on the South doe so they then looke for and finde the contrary The Aire is cold and sharpe but very healthfull● and the Soile also but barren and vnfruitfull Their chiefest commodities consist vpon Cloathing WESTMOR LAND Lancashire THis in the Saxon language was called Loncasderscyre which we call Lanc●shir● and The County Palatine of Lancaster It is bounded on the East with Darby-shire on the West with the Irish Seas Cheshire confines it on the South and Westmorland Camberland and Yorke-shire border on the North. The full length of it is from Hallwood South to Brathey North 57 miles and the widenesse betweene Denton East and Formby neere Altmouth West 31 miles making the measure of the whole compasse to containe about 170 miles The diuision is into six Hundreds containing besides many Chapels of ease 36 Parishes so large and populous as the like are not in any other part of the Land In this County are interspersed 33 Riuers where ouer a man may passe by 24 Bridges and one Chase and 30 Parkes And for concourse of people for trade and traffique in this Shire are seated fifteene faire Market Townes whereof that of greatest account is the Shire-Towne Lancaster which is most pleasantly situate on the South side of the Riuer L●n and is adorned with a faire Church a strong Castle and a stately Bridge Ciuilly and orderly doth a Maior yeerely chosen out of twelue of his Brethren with the assistance of two Bail●ffes 24 Burgesses two Chamberlaines and a Recorder gouerne this Towne where the Eleuation of the Pole is 54. 18. and the Longitude 21. 36. The ancient Inhabitants of this County were also the Brigantes of whom I haue spoken in other former Shires and whom the Emperour Claudius subiugated to the Romans But afterwards was this County made part of Northumberlands Kingdome till the Danes and after them the Normans conquered it In this Shire Manchester is notable for the Church Colledge and Market-place And Riblechester sometimes the seat of the Romans for that it was once held to be the richest Towne in all Christendome Here also neere Furnesse Fills is Wynander-mere being very deepe and ten miles in length accounted for the greatest standing water in all this Land and yet is all paued with stone in the bottome This County is also famous for the foure Henries viz. the Fourth Fifth Sixth and Seuenth which descending from Iohn of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster were all afterwards renowmed Kings of England Diuers Castles and foure Religious Houses are now suppressed that sometimes adorned this County The Aire is here healthfull though cold and searching And the Soile though not so fertile as in other places yet produceth large Cattell good Corne with Grasse Ilax Cole and almost all other necessary commodities LANCASHIRE Ches-shire THis Shire which we call the County Palatine of Chester was by the Saxons both called and written Cestenscire and is diuided from Darby Stafford-shires on the East by the Riuers of Goit Dane and Mercey and on the West by Dee from Denbygh On the Northside lies Lancashire and the South is confined with Flint and Shrop-shire It containeth in length from East to West 47. miles and at the broadest betweene North and South 26. which causeth the measure of the whole circumference to contain about 142. miles This County is diuided into 7. Hūdreds which containe in them besides 38. Chapels of ease 86. Parish Churches It hath also in it one Citie one Bishopricke and is watered with 9. Riuers ouer which men doe passe by 19. Bridges Two Forests and 18. Parkes are also in this Shire And for traffique and commerce amongst the Inhabitants there are dispersed in conuenient places 15. Market Townes the chiefe whereof is the faire and famous Citie of Chester of which the whole Countie carries the name and was sometimes the strong Fort of Ostorius who was Claudius the Emperours Lieu-tenant It is pleasantly situate on the North side of the Riuer Dee ouer which a faire and strong stone Bridge built on 8. arches and beautified two faire gates at each end giue passage to the Towne which is incircled with a high and strong wall containing besides seuen Towers and three Posternes foure faire Gates at the foure Cardinall points of the Compasse On the North side of this Citie Earle Leofrick built the Minster which by Hugh the first Normaine Earle of Chester was afterward both repaired and fairely beautified And in it as we haue it by tradition Henry the fourth Emperour of Almane after he had there a long ●ime led a Hermits life was interred and on the South side stands the Castle incompassed with a circular wall This Citie was first ruined by the Northumberland King Egfrid who there slew 1200. Monkes and afterwards by the Danes but by Edelsteda was both reedified and beautified In this Citie King Edgar was towed from Saint Iohns to his Palace by eight other Kings who did him homage and himselfe as Supreme steered the Helme And Henry the seuenth made it a Countie of it selfe which is now gouerned by an annually elected Maior two Sheriffes foure and twenty Aldermen and a Recorder It hath had in it diuers Religious houses which time hath now transformed to ruines The Pole is there eleuated 53. 15. of Latitude and the Longitude 21. 27. This Shire hath beene fortified with eight other Castles and as many famous Religious Houses which were suppressed by King Henry the eight The Aire in this Countie is both pleasant and healthfull the Soile fat rich and fruitfull bringing abundance both of profit and pleasure to the Inhabitants And for Commodities it yeelds plentifull store of Corne Cattell Fowle Fish Salt Mines Metalls White-meats and most of all other necessary and vsefull commodities CHESSHIRE Shropshire THis Shire by the old Saxons was written and termed Sciripscyre which at this day we call Shropshire It is bordered vpon on the East with Stafford-shire on the West with Denbigh and Montgomery Radnor Hereford and Worcester-shires doe bound vpon the South and the County Palatine of Chester on the North. From Wooferton South to Ouer neere Trent on the North which is the full length it containes 34 miles and at
wonne in Anno 1416 8 H. 5. King Henry the fifth was proclaimed heire Apparant and Regent of France in Anno 1419 10 H. 6. Henry the sixth was crowned King of France in the Citie of Paris Anno 1431 27 H. 6. France was lost in Anno 1449 28 H. 6. Normandy was lost in Anno 1449 31 H. 6. Acuitaine c. were lost in Anno 1453 4 R. 2. Wat Tylors Rebellion Anno 1380 29 H. 6. Iack Cades Rebellion Anno 1450 4 H. 8. Nauarre surprised by the Spaniards Anno 1512 At the time of the first dissoluing of Religious Houses in ENGLAND there were ARchbishopricks and Bishopricks 21 Deanries 11 Archdeaconries 60 Dignities and Prebends in Cathedrall Churches 364 Benefices 8803 Religious Houses 65 Hospitalls 110 Colledges 96 Chauntries and free Chappell 's 2374 Their Rates were per annum 320180 In the Prouince of Canterbury   Dioceses Parish-Churches Churches appropriated In the Diocese Of Canterbury 257 140 Of London 623 189 Of Winchester 362 131 Of Couentrey and Lichfield 557 250 Of Salisburie 248 109 Of Ba●h and Well● 388 160 Of Lincolne 1255 577 Of Peterborough 293 91 Of Exeter 604 239 Of Glocester 267 125 Of Hereford 313 166 Of Norwich 1121 385 Of Elie 141 75 Of Rochester 98 36 Of Chichester 250 112 Of Oxford 195 88 Of Worcester 241 76 Of Eristol 236 64 Of S. Dauids 308 120 Of Bangor 107 36 Of Llandeffe 177 98 Of S. Asaph 121 19 Peculiar in the Prouince of Canterbury 57 14 The summe of the Prouince of Canterbury 8219 3303 In the Prouince of Yorke In the Diocese Of Yorke 581 336 Of Durham 135 87 Of Chester 256 101 Of Carlisle 93 18 The summe of the Prouince of Yorke 1065 592 The totall summe in both Prouinces 9284 3845 Shires in ENGLAND COrnwall Deuonshire Dorcetshire Somersetshire Wiltshire Hampshire Barkshire Surrey Sussex Kent Middlesex Essex Hartfordshire Buckinghamshire Oxfordshire Glocestershire Worcestershire Warwickshire Northamptonshire Bedfordshire Huntingtonshire Cambridgeshire Suffolke Northfolke Lincolneshire Rutlandshire Leicestershire Staffordshire Darbishire Nottinghamshire Yorkeshire Durham Bishoprick Northumberland Cumberland Westmerland Lancaster Cheshire Shropshire Herefordshire Shires in Wales RAdnorshire Brecknocksh Monmouthsh Glamorganshire Carmardenshire Pembrookeshire Cardiganshire Montgomerishire Merionethshire Carnaruanshire Anglesey Denbighshire Flintshire THE MAPS AND DESCRIPTIONS OF THE SEVERALL SHIRES OF ENGLAND AND WALES Deuon-shire DEuon-shire which the Cornish-Britaines named Deuinan and the Welsh-Britaines Duffneint signifying low Valleys abbutteth on the West vpon Cornwall being diuided from it by the Riuer Tamar On the South and North sides it is walled with the Sea and on the East with Sommerset-shire The Dimension being from Canshere North to Salcombe South 55. Miles and from Thornecombe East to Hartland-point West 54. Miles the compasse being about 200. Miles It is diuided into 33. Hundreds wherein are contained 394. Parish Churches and it is interspersed with 29. Riuers being fitted with 166. Bridges It hath the foundations of 9. notable Religious Houses and Monasteries which now remaine but ruines It is well traded with 37. Market Townes for commerce the principall whereof is the famous Citie of Exeter which is seated vpon the Riuer Ex and thereof hath the name but by Ptolomy it was called Isea and by the Welsh Pencaer It is very pleasant situated on the rising of a Hill adorned with stately buildings and is plentifully furnished with all kinde of prouision as well for pleasure as necessary vse It was compassed about by King Athalstane with a circular wall except on the side towards the Riuer Ex where it is built in a strait line and is beautified with faire Battlements diuers Towers and 6. Gates for passage On the East side of this Citie stands the Castle which in former times was the resident seat of the West-Saxon Kings In it also are many faire Churches but the chiefe is Saint Peters the Cathedrall which was made a Bishops Sea by Edward the Confessor It is gouerned by a Maior 24. Brethren and a Recorder hauing Latitude 50. 45. degrees and Longitude degrees 20. 39. This Shire hath many hills and dales hauing store of woods And though the soile be somewhat fruitfull of it selfe yet it is very much amended by the industry of the Inhabitants with the sand that they fe●ch from the Sea side The Aire is sharp and healthfull the commodities are generally Wooll Cloth Kearsies Lead Corne and Cattell with abundance of Fish and Fowle This Countrey hath many fitter Hauens for intercourse of ships than Cornwall whereof Totnes Plimouth and Dartmouth are accounted the most famous In Exmore in this Shire are sandy stones set in diuers formes some circular and some triangle wise which are said to be the ancient memorable markes of Victories obtained there by the Romans Saxons and Danes And at a place called Hubstow not farre from the mouth of Tawe in the yeare of Christ 879. was the Dane Hubba who in many places persecuted the English encountred slaine and buried DEVON SHIRE Dorset-shire DOrset-shirs the Inhabitants wherof by Ptolomy were called Durotriges by the Brit●ines Dur-Gwgr and by the English Saxons Dor-Seddar It hath Sommerset and Wilt-shires on the North Deu●n-shire and another part of Sommerset-shire on the West Hamp-shire on the East and the Brittish Seas on the South It is extended in length 44. Miles in bredth 24. and makes his circumference about 150. Miles It is shared into fiue diuisions viz Sherborne Bridport Shast●r Dorch●●t●r and Blanford and these are subdiuided into 34. Hundreds which containe in them 248. Parish Churches It is interlaced with the currents of many cleare and fresh-water Springs hauing 4. Riuers and 24. Bridges in former times hath beene guarded with 8. strong Castles which time hath now almost quite deuoured It hath entercourse and trastique with 8. Market Townes the principall whereof is Dorchester which in the Itinerarium of Antoninus was called Durnouaria signifying the Ferry it is seated on the South side of the Riuer Frome and Fosse-way the Romane Cawsy In times past this Towne was walled and much greater than it is but by the Danes who quite rased downe the walles it was brought low and of a lesse quantitie It is now gouerned by two Bayliffes one Alderman and a Recorder The height of the Pole being there 50. 38. degrees for Latitude and the Longitude 21. 51. degrees Not farre from this Towne on the South side is a small plot of ground raised some 30. paces higher than the rest of the Plaine and compassed about with 5. Trenches containing 10. Acres in quantitie and is called by the Country people The Mayd●