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A35240 The natural history of the principality of Wales in three parts ... together with the natural and artificial rarities and wonders in the several counties of that principality / by R.B. R. B., 1632?-1725? 1695 (1695) Wing C7339; ESTC R23794 124,814 195

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eight and lived fifty nine years and was murthered in the Tower of London in 1472. VII Edward the only Son of King Henry VI. by Queen Margaret Daughter to the King of Sicily was the seventh Prince of Wales of the Royal Blood of England He Married Anne the Daughter of Richard Nevil called the Great Earl of Warwick After his Father's Army was defeated by King Edward IV. at Tauton Field in Yorkshire he with his Mother were sent into France to pray aid from that King This Battel was the bloodiest that ever England saw King Henry's Army consisting in threescore thousand and King Edward's in about forty thousand men of which there fell that day thirty seven thousand seven hundred seventy six Persons no Prisoners being taken but the Earl of Devonshire Afterward the Queen returns from France with some Forces but before her coming King Edward had defeated the Earl of Warwick who with some other Lords had raised a Party for her assistance at Barnet wherein near ten thousand were slain So that when it was too late she landed at Weymouth and from thence went to Bewly Abbey in Hampshire where the Duke of Somerset the Earl of Devonshire and divers other Lords came to her resolving once more to try their Fortune in the Field The Queen was very desirous that her Son Edward Prince of Wales should have returned to France there to have been secure till the success of the next Battel had been tried but the Lords especially the Duke of Somerset would not consent to it so that she was obliged to comply with them though she quickly repented it From Bewly she with the Prince and the Duke of Somerset goes to Bristol designing to mise what men they could in Glocestershire and to march into Wales and join Jasper Earl of Pembroke who was there assembling more Forces K. Edward having intelligence of their Proceedings resolves to prevent their conjunction and follows Queen Margaret so diligently with a great Army that near Tewksbury in Glocestershire he overtakes her Forces who resolutely turn to ingage him The Duke of Somerset led the Van and performed the part of a Valiant Commander but finding his Soldiers through weariness begin to faint and that the Lord Wenlock who commanded the main Battel moved not he rode up to him and upbraiding his treachery with his Pole-ax instantly knockt out his Brains but before he could bring this Party to relieve the Van they were wholly defeated the Earl of Devonshire with above three thousand of the Queens Men being slain the Queen her self John Beufort the Duke of Somerset's Brother the Prior of St. John's Sir Jervas Clifton and divers others were taken Prisoners All whom except the Queen were the next day Beheaded At which time Sir Rich. Crofts presented to King Edward King Henry's Son Edward Prince of Wales To whom King Edward at first seemed indifferent kind but demanding of him how he durst so presumptuously enter into his Realm with Arms The Prince replied though truly yet unseasonably To recover my Father's Kingdom and my Inheritance Thereupon King Edward with his hand thrust him from him or as some say struck him on the Face with his Gauntlet and then presently George Duke of Clarence Thomas Grey Marquess Dorset and the Lord Hastings standing by fell upon him in the place and murthered him Others write that Crook-back'd Richard ran him into the Heart with his Dagger His Body was Buried with other ordinary Corps that were slain in the Church of the Monastery of the Black Friars in Tewksberry VIII Edward eldest Son of King Edward IV. was the eighth Prince of Wales of the English Royal Blood Of whose short Reign and miserable Death there is an account in a Book called England's Monarchs IX Richard only Son of King Richard III. was the ninth Prince of Wales His Mother was Ann the second Daughter of Richard Nevil the Great Earl of Warwick and Widow of Prince Edward Son of King Henry VI. aforementioned who was Married to King Richard though she could not but be sensible that he had been the Author both of her Husband's and Father's Death but womens Affections are Diametrically opposite to common apprehensions and generally governed by Passion and Inconstancy This Prince was born of her at Midleham near Richmond in the County of York At four years old he was created Earl of Salisbury by his Uncle King Edward IV. At ten years old he was created Prince of Wales by his Father King Richard III. but died soon after X. Arthur eldest Son to King Henry VII was the tenth Prince of Wales of the Royal English Families He was born at Winchester in the second year of his Father's Reign When he was about fifteen years old his Father proposed a Marriage for him with the Princess Katherine Daughter to Ferdinando King of Spain which being concluded the Lady was sent by her Father with a gallant Fleet of Ships to England and arrived at Plymouth Soon after the Princess was openly espoused to Prince Arthur they were both clad in white he being fifteen and she eighteen years of age At night they were put together in one Bed where they lay as Man and Wife all that Night When morning appeared the Prince as his Servants about him reported called for Drink which was not usual with him Whereof one of his Bed-Chamber asking him the cause he merrily replied I have been this Night in the midst of Spain which is a hot Country and that makes me so dry Though some write that a grave Matron was laid in Bed between them to hinder actual Consummation The Ladie 's Dowry was two hundred thousand Duckets and her Jointure the third part of the Principality of Wales Cornwal and Chester At this Marriage was great Solemnity and Roval Justings Prince Arthur after his Marriage was sent into Wales to keep his Country in good Order having several prudent and able Counsellors to advise with but within five Months after he died at his Castle at Ludlow and with great solemnity was Buried in the Cathedral of Worcester He was a very ingenious and learned Prince for though he lived not to be sixteen years old yet he was said to have read over all or most of the Latin Fathers besides many others Some attribute the shortness of his Life to his Nativity being born in the eighth month after Conception XI Henry the second Son to King Henry VII was the eleventh Prince of Wales of the Royal English Line He was born at Greenwich in Kent After the Death of his eldest Brother Prince Arthur the Title of Prince of Wales was by his Father's Order not given to him but his own only of Duke of York till the Women could certainly discover whether the Lady Katherine were with Child or not But after six months when nothing appeared he had his Title bestowed upon him and King Henry being loth to part with her great Portion prevailed with his Son Henry though not without some
whereby many of the English were slain and one Arrow aimed at the King shot him on the Breast but by his Armour was hindred from doing farther mischief whereat he was little concerned only swore By our Lord's Death his usual Oath that he was sure that Arrow was shot by own of his Followers and not by a Welshman At length finding he should gain little and might lose much of the honour he had gained in this barren Country he concluded a Peace with the Welsh Princes giving them a thousand head of Cattel and so returned to London In 1138. Owen and Cadwallader the Sons of Griffith ap Conan Prince of Wales made an Irruption into the Pale and did much damage carrying away much spoil of Goods Horses Arms and other Habiliments of War which King Stephen was not able to revenge being sufficiently incumbered in defending his Crown which Maud the Empress upon pretence of a better Title endeavoured to deprive him of under the Conduct of her Brother in Law Robert Earl of Glocester King Stephen Besieged Ramilph Earl of Chester and Earl Robert in Lincoln who issued out of the City resolving to give the King Battel being assisted with a great number of Welsh as well as Englishmen Before the fight the Earl of Chester animated his Souldiers by telling them That he gave them unfeigned thanks for hazarding their lives in so just a cause against a faithless King and that he himself would lead them amidst the strongest Troups of the Enemy and seemed already in his own thoughts to be breaking through them and trampling on the necks of their Chief Captains yea piercing with his Sword the very Heart of King Stephen himself not doubting but they would follow their Leader and by his example quickly put their persidious adversaries to flight On the other side Baldwin King Stephen's General told his men That the Justice of their Cause obliged them to defend their valiant King to whom they had sworn Allegiance and whose Presence Courage and Conduct ought more to encourage them than thousands of men What is Robert the Bastard their General says he but a boasting Coward who can speak big but perform little hath a Lion's Voice but the Heart of an Hare and what is Chester's Earl but an hair-brain'd audacious man without Judgment or Courage and what are the Welshmen which he has with him are they not fitter for our contempt than fear who being naked unarmed and without any military Discipline run headlong like wild Beasts upon the Javelins and Spears of the Hunter and the rest are only straglers and runagates who will never endure the force of your puissant Arms. After this a bloody Battel was fought but at length King Stephen's Horse giving way and the Foot being thereby exposed they allfled together leaving the King almost alone in the Field A strange sight it was saith the Historian to see King Stephen left almost alone and yet none durst approach him who grinding his Teeth and foaming like a furious wild Boar with his Battel Ax drove whole Troops before him cutting down great numbers of them to the eternal Renown of his Courage so that if but an hundred like himself had stood by him a whole Army had not been able to surprize his Person yet he still defended himself till first his Battle-ax and then his Sword flew in peices by his irresistible blows so that being left Weaponless he was struck down with a great Stone and taken Prisoner Yet he afterward regained his Liberty and his Crown and Died a King after having Reigned near 19 years In 1170. The Welsh surprized the Town of Cardigan under Rice ap Griffith Prince of South-Wales and took therein the Governour Robert Fitz Stephens a valiant Norman who could not procure his Liberty upon any other terms than by forever renouncing all Right and Title to his Estate and Possessions in the Principality of Wales which hard condition he was obliged to accept and joining with Dermot one of the five Kings of Ireland who at that time came over to crave aid from King Henry II. was instrumental in conquering that Kingdom and annexing it to the Crown of England In 1199. King Richard I. resolving to make a Voyage for the recovery of the Holy Land or Jerusalem he resolved to leave all quiet at home and Rice ap Griffith Prince of South-Wales being then in amity came as far as Oxford to wait upon him but because the King who was there went not out of the City in Person to meet him as his Father Henry had done though Earl John the King's Brother had conducted him from the Marshes with all the marks of honour and esteem this haughty Welsh Prince took it in such great scorn and indignation that he presently returned back into his Countrey without once seeing or saluting King Richard who by this disrespect lost Rice's love and favour As upon the like omission and superorlousness the stately Monk Austin formerly lost the affections of the Monks of Bangor Rice's own Countrymen in another part of Wales In 1211. Leolin ap Jorwith Prince of Wales though he had a while before made his submission to King John plundred several English Towns in the Marshes which caused the King to raise a great Army to reduce him to obedience whereupon Leoline ordered all his People to convey their Cattel and Goods of Value to the almost inaccessible places upon Snowdon Hills however the English pursued them with so much speed vigor and revenge for their continual losses that their Prince and Chief Lords were compelled to accept of what terms the King would allow them whereby they were obliged both by Oath Homage and Hostages and likewise by granting all their Lands to the King to be held of him forever to buy their peace and save themselves from being utterly extirpated out of their Country In 1230. King Henry III. having given the Castle of Montgomery to his great Favorite Aubert de Burgh the English Garrison issued out with intent to root up all the Trees near a Wood about five Mile long where Travellers used to ●erobbed and murdered which the Welsh would by no means permit falling upon the Souldiers and driving them into the Castle Upon which the King Marches thither and not only suppresseth these Mutineers but sets the whole Forrest in a Flame From hence he pierceth farther into Wales and burns a place called Cridia and then begins to raise a new Fort for bridling the Natives which whilst he was doing David Prince of Wales marched toward him with his Forces being encouraged by many great men in King Henry's Army who were confederates with him and a great Battel was fought where many were slain on both sides and afterward by the treachery of these English Barons Provisions grew so very scare that the King was compelled to yield to a dishonourable Peace namely To raze to the ground the new Fort now almost finisht That William Bruce a valiant Commander
Grandfather Griffith whom he intimated was murdered in the Tower of London and not kill'd by accident yet he sent a message to the Archbishops of Canterbury and York That if the King pleased to appoint Commissioners to receive his Oath and Homage he was very ready to give it or if he would name some indifferent place and give Prince Edward the Earl of Glocester and the Lord Chancellor as Hostages for his safe return he would wait upon him in Person The King dissembled his anger at these arrogant demands but a while after coming to the Castle of Chester on the Border of Wales he again sent for him and Leoline again denied to come At which the King resolved for preventing all future disturbances on that side to make an absolute Conquest of the Countrey And on the contrary the Welsh having always a custom at every change of Princes in England to try conclusions expecting one time or other to change their Yoke of Bondage into Liberty were in great hopes of doing it at this time having now a valiant Prince to command them But an accident happened which somewhat took off their edge for the Lady Eleanor Daughter of Simon Earl of Montfort whom Prince Leoline extreamly loved Sailing out of France into Wales was by the way taken by some English Ships and brought to King Edward and for the Love of her Prince Leoline was willing to submit to any conditions so that besides his Promise of submission to the Government he agreed to pay down Fifty thousand pounds Sterling and a thousand pound a year during life Upon these Terms he Married his beloved Lady and the Wedding was solemniz'd in England the King and Queen being present thereat Three years Leoline continued faithful and obedient in which time David one of his Brothers staying in England and being found by the King to be of a stirring Spirit was much honoured by him Knighted and Match to a Rich Widow Daughter of the Earl of Derby to which the King added the gift of the Castle of Denbigh with a thousand pound a year though it was at length discovered that he lived here only as a Spy For Prince Leoline's Lady dying soon after and he contrary to his engagements taking up Arms his Brother David notwithstanding these favours from the King went and joined with him and they together enter into England seizing the Castles of Flint and Ruthland with the Person of the Lord Chief Justice Clifford who was sent thither as a Judge and in a great Battel the Welsh overthrew the Earls of Northumberland and Surrey with the Slaughter of many English King Edward was at the Vizes in Wiltshire when news coming of this revolt and overthrow he raises an Army to revenge it In his way he goes to visit his Mother Queen Eleanor who lay at the Nunnery of Almesbury with whom while he was discoursing a Person was brought into the Chamber who pretended that being formerly blind he had received his Sight at the Tomb of King Henry III. When the King saw him he knew him and that he was a most notorious lying Villain and intreated his Mother not to give the least credit to him but the Queen who was glad to hear of this Miracle for the glory of her Husband finding her Son unwilling that his Father should be a Saint fell suddenly into such a rage that she commanded him out of her sight which the King obeys and going forth meets with a Clergyman to whom he tells the story of this Impostor adding merrily That he knew the Justice of his Father to be such that he would rather pluck out the Eyes being whole of such a wicked wretch than restore him to his sight In the mean time the Archbishop of Canterbury went of himself to Prince Leoline and his Brother David endeavouring to persuade them to submission but in vain for Leoline was so animated with an old British Prophecy of Merlin's That he should shortly be Crowned with the Diadem of Brute that he had no Ear for Peace and shortly after no head for the Earl of Pembroke first took Bere Castle which was his usual residence from him he then gave him Battel and his Party being defeated his Head was cut off by a Common Souldier and sent to King Edward who caused it to be Crowned with Ivy thereby in some part unluckily fulfilling his Welsh Prediction And this was the end of Leoline the last of the Welsh Princes betrayed as some write by the men of Buelth Soon after his Brother David flying into Wales and being destitute of help or relief he was at length taken with two of his Sons and seven Daughters as some Authors write all which were brought before the King David was committed to Chester Castle and afterward in a Parliament at Shrewsbury was convicted of Treason and sentenced to an ignominious death namely to be first drawn at a Horse Tail about the City of Shrewsbury then to be beheaded and quartered his Heart and Bowels burnt His Head to accompany his Brothers was put upon the Tower of London and his four Quarters were set up in four Cities Bristol Northampton York and Winchester A manifold Execution and the first shewed in this kind in this Kingdom in the Person of the Son of a Prince or any other Nobleman that we read of in our History Some have observed that upon King Edward's thus totally subjecting Wales he lost his Eldest Son Alphonsus a Prince of great hopes about twelve years of Age and had only left to succeed him his Son Edward lately born at Carnarvan and the first of the English Royal Families that was Intituled Prince of Wales but no Prince worthy either of Wales or England After this the rest of the Welshmen as well Nobles as others submitted themselves to King Edward and all the Countrey and Castles therein were surrendred to him who then annexed that Country to the Crown of England and built two strong Castles at Aberconway and Carnarvan to secure their obedience He also gave several Lands and Castels to Englishmen as the Lordship of Denhigh to Henry Lacy Earl of Lincoln Of Ruthen to Reginald Lord Grey and divided Wales into Counties and Hundreds establishing the Government thereof agreeable to the Laws of England This happened in the twelfth year of his Reign 1284. Remarks upon the Lives of the Princes of Wales of the Royal Families of England PART II. THough King Edward I. had subjected the Principality of Wales and afterward annexed it to the Crown of England yet he could never induce that People freely to own him as their King but upon condition that he would come and reside among them or at least appoint them a Prince of their own Nation to Govern them for the Welchmen having experienced the rigorous and severe Treatment of the English Governours and being sensible that the King would rule them by an English Deputy they could not with patience bear the thoughts of it so that
together The Prince having refreshed his Men the May following set sail for England with his Prisoners and safely arrived at Plimouth and was with great joy and acclamations received every where At his coming to London where at that time a magnificent Citizen Henry Picard he who afterwards at one time so Nobly Feasted the four King 's of England France Scotland and Cyprus was Lord Major he received him with all imaginable Honour And the multitude of People that came to see the Victorious Prince with the King of France his Son Philip and the other Prisoners was so great that they could hardly get to Westminster between three a Clock in the Morning and twelve at Noon Great Edward saving that he forgat not the Majesty of a Conqueror and ●f a King of England omitted no kind of civility towards the Prisoners King John and his Son were lodged under a Guard at the Savoy which was then a goodly Palace belonging to Henry Duke of Lancaster and the other Prisoners in other places Some time after Prince Edward by dispensation married the Countess of Kent Daughter to Edmund Brother to King Edward the second and his Father invested him with the Dutchy of Aquitain So that he was now Prince of Wales Duke of Aquitain Duke of Cornwal and Earl of Chester and Kent And not long after he with his Beloved Wife passed over into France and kept his Court at Bourdeaux The Prince of Wales was now grown famous over all the Christian World and the man to whom all wronged Princes seemed to Appeal and to fly for relief For which end there came at this time to his Court James King of Majorca and Richard King of Navarr just when his Lady brought him a Son for whom these two Kings undertook at his Baptism giving him the Name of Richard The Soldiers most of whose Captains were English either by Birth or Obedience wanting employment because the Wars of Britain were quieted for the Present ranged tumultuously up and down France But about this time Sir Bertram de Glequin having paid his Ransom found employment for them drawing the greatest part of that Military Pestilence into another Coast For by the assistance of Peter King of Arragon and the Power of Glequin with his floating Bands called The Companions or Adventurers Peter King of Castile and Leon a cruel Tyrant was driven out of his Kingdom his Bastard Brother Henry being chosen in his room and Crowned King of Spain at Burgos This Peter was Son to Alphonsus the eleventh King of Castile and had to Wife a French Lady called Blanch Daughter to Peter Duke of Bourbon who was Father also of Joan the French King's Wife His Tyrannical cruelties were so many and so foul that the Spanish Stories scarce allow Nero or Caligula to go beyond him For which by his Subjects he was deposed Peter thus driven out of his Kingdom by the aid of the French applied himself to Prince Edward craving his assistance for his restoration making many and large Promises to him upon the accomplishment thereof The Prince out of Charity to succour a distressed Prince and out of Policy to imploy his Souldiers having got leave of his Father marched with a gallant Army of thirty thousand men upon confidence of good pay for his men and other benefits when Peter should be re-established in his Throne He made his way through the famous straits of Rouncevallux in Navarre by permission of that King who yet suffered himself to be carried Prisoner into Castile that he might not seem to cross the French King's designs who favoured Henry the Usurper Our Prince had ●n his Company besides most of all the principal Captain of the English two King 's Peter of Castile whos 's the quarrel was and the King of Majorca As also John Duke of Lancaster who after Don Pedro's death having married his eldest daughter wrote himself King of Castile and Leon. On the other side King Henry for the defence of his new Kingdom had raised a very great Army consisting partly of French under Glequin their famous Captains and of Castilians and others both Christians and Saracens to the number of about an hundred thousand And upon the Borders of Castile it came to a bloody battel wherein the valaint Prince of Wales obtained a very great victory having slain many thousands of his enemies Henry himself fighting valiantly was wounded in the Groin but yet escaped There were taken Prisoners the Earl of Dene Bertram de Glequin who yet shortly after by paying a great Ransom was set at liberty The Marshal Dandrehen and many others Neither was this Victory less worth to Peter than a Kingdom For our most Noble Prince left him not till at Burgos he had set him upon his Throne again But this unworthy King's falshood and ingratitude were odious and monstrous For the Prince notwithstanding this great success was enforced to return to Burdeaux without money to pay his Army which caused great mischiefs to himself and the English Dominions beyond the Seas as if God had been displeased with his succouring such a Tyrant The Prince himself though he returned with Victory yet he brought back with him such a craziness and indisposition of Body that he was never throughly well after And no marvel considering the Country the Season and the action it self and it may be more wondred at that his Souldiers came home so well then that he returned so ill Being come home discontent of Mind was added to his indisposition of Body For not having Money to pay his Soldiers he was forced to wink at their preying upon the Country for which the Country to stop whose murmuring his Chancellor the Bishop of Rhodes devised a new Imposition of levying a Frank for every Chimney to continue for five years to pay the Prince's debts But this Imposition though granted in Parliament made their murmurs encrease For though some part of his Dominions as the Poictorians the Xantoigns and the Limosins seemed to consent to it yet the Counts of Armigniac and Cominges the Vicount of Carmain and divers others so much distasted it that they complained thereof to the King of France as unto their Supreme Lord Pretending that the Prince was to answer before King Charles as before his Superior Lord of whom they said he held by homage and fealty whereas King Edward and his Heirs by the Treaty at Bretagny were absolutely freed from all manner of Service for any of their Dominions in France King Charles openly entertained this Complaint and hoping to regain by surprize and policy what the English had won by dint of Sword and true Manhood he summoned the Prince of Wales to Paris to answer such Complaints as his subjects made against him Our valiant Prince returned answer That if he must needs appear he would bring threescore thousand men in Arms to appear with him And now began the Peace between England and France to be unsetled and wavering For while King
other half being in the possession of Edward Baliol but at length he was ransomed for ten thousand Marks and restored to his Kingdom IV. The forth Prince of Wales of the English Royal Line was Richard of Bourdeaux so called from the place of his Birth The Black Prince his renowned Father whose Wisdom doubtless was no way short of his Courage knowing how apt they who stand near the Throne are to step into it was so intent to prevent any disorder of that kind that might be feared from the well known ambition of his aspiring Brothers the Eldest of whom Henry Duke of Lancaster afterward King Henry IV. having the Title of King of Castile in the Right of his Wife but without any Kingdom might reasonably be suspected to affect one so much the more his own Right and to take advantage of his Nephew Richard's weakness He therefore made it his dying request to his declining Father to inaugurate his Son whilst he was yet alive that by being committed to the Parliaments care he might have publick security against all private supplantations and without further dispute enjoy all those Prerogatives which either his own Right or his Father's Merit intituled him to Whereupon he was set upon the Throne at Eleven years of Age and in the life time of his Grandfather Edward III. began to Reign by the name of Richard II. with this happiness that at the same time he took upon him to Govern them the Parliament entred into Consultation about the Persons fittest to Govern him And because the safety of the King as well as of the Kingdom consisted in the multitude of Counsellors they designed to add to his Uncle the Duke of Lancaster who was ambitious of being Protector the two other Brothers Edmund Earl of Cambridge and Thomas of Woodstock Duke of Glocester with whom they conjoined several Spiritual and Temporal Lords of known Wisdom and Integrity This so offended the Duke as seeming a reflection on his Ambition not to be trusted solely that he refused the charge and retiring into the Country so play'd the King at his own House that a poor well meaning Fryar thought himself obliged in point of Allegiance to accuse him of an Intention to Usurp the Crown and consequently to destroy the King Neither wanted he matter enough 't is thought to make out that charge but his Innocence being overmatcht by Power and having none to second his accusation the Crime w●● cast upon the Accuser who being friendless wa● 〈◊〉 into Prison and inhumanely murdered by his Keepers who tying one end of a Cord about his Neck and the other to his Privy Members hung him up on a Pin and with the weight of a Stone laid upon his Belly burst his back and so all further proof deceased with him This being known among the People and no punishment inflicted upon the Murtherers derogated very much from the young King's Justice and Honour among his Subjects who not being able to distinguish betwixt the want of Skill and want of Power to punish began thenceforth to Worship the Duke of Lancaster as the Indians do the Devil for fear And as the King's Father Prince Edward never recovered the health which he lost in the last expedition into Spain so his Son never recovered this and other disadvantages put upon him by his ambitious Uncle and particularly that the very first day he took his Grandfather's Seat in Parliament as Heir Apparent to the Crown he taught him to demand a Subsidy purposely to alienate the Peoples Affections from him who were before sufficiently disgusted with the heavy Taxes they had already paid And likewise his ommitting no occasion of propagating Tumults and Factions whereby he at length deprived his Nephew first of his Crown and then of his Life Richard II. was the comeliest Person of all the Kings since the Conquest being Tall well Limb'd and Strong and of so amiable a Countenance that he might well be the Son of such a beautiful Mother As to his Temper of Mind it proceeded more from his Education than his natural Humour for he seemed to have many good Inclinations which might have grown into Habits had they not been perverted by corrupted Flatterers in his Youth He was of a credulous disposition apt to believe and therefore easie to be abused and it was his great weakness that he could not distinguish between a Parasite and and a Friend He seemed to partake both of a French and English Nature being violent at the first apprehension of a thing and calm upon deliberation He never shewed himself so worthy of the Government as when he was Deposed as unworthy to Govern For it appeared that the Royal Dignity was not so pleasing to him as a quiet retired Life which if he might have enjoyed he would never have complained that Fortune had done him wrong He lived thirty three years and reigned twenty and two months and was Murdered at Pomfreh Castle in the place of his Birth V. Henry of Monmouth the Son and Successor of King Henry IV. was the Fifth Prince of Wales of the Royal Blood of England He was bred a Student in Queens College in Oxford and from thence being called to Court the Lord Piercy Earl of Worcester was made his Governour But coming afterward to be at his own disposing whether being by nature valorous and yet not well staid by time and experience or whether incited by ill Companions and imboldened by the opinion of his own Greatness he ran into many Courses so unworthy of a Prince that it was much doubted what he might prove if he should come to be King For it is recorded that he with some other young Lords and Gentlemen lay in wait in disguise for the Receivers of his Father's Revenue whom they robbed of their Money to maintain their riotous Living though sometimes they missed their Prize and were soundly beaten in prosecuting such attempts and when upon his return to Court he had heard the Receivers complain of their great losses he would give them Money to make them part of amends but rewarded those best that had made the stoutest defence and from whom he had received the most blows It happened that one of his Companions was arraigned at the King's Bench Bar in Westminster Hall for Felony of which the Prince being informed he by the advice of the rest came in a great rage to the Bar and attempted to take away the Prisoner by force commanding that his Fetters should be taken off and he set at Liberty All present were much amazed but Sir William Gascoign then Lord Chief Justice mildly desired him to forbear and suffer the Felon to be Tryed by the Laws of the Land and that he might afterward get his Pardon of his Father if there were occasion The Prince grew more inflamed at these words and endeavoured to take him away himself But the Judge charging him upon his Allegiance to withdraw out of the Court the Prince furiously stept up
St. Bartholomew's Hospital for poor maimed diseased People and Cripples c. 3. Bridewell for imploying and correcting Vagrants Harlots and Idle Persons He was a Comely Person and of a sweet Countenance especially in his Eyes which seemed to have a starry liveliness in them In the sixth year of his Reign which was the year before he died he fell sick of the Measels and being fully recovered he rode a Progress with greater magnificence than ever he had done before having in his Train no fewer than four thousand Horse The January following whether procured by sinister Practice or growing upon him by natural infirmity he fell into an indisposition which centred in a Cough of the Lungs Whereupon it was reported that a Poisoned Nosegay had been presented him for a New years Gift which brought him into this slow but mortal Consumption Others said it was done by a vene nous Clyster However it was he grew so ill that his Physicians dispaired of his Life After which a Gentlewoman though to be provided on purpose pretended to cure him but did him much hurt for with her applications his Legs swelled his Pulse failed his skin changed colour and many other symptonis of approaching death appeared An hour before he was overheard to pray thus by himself O Lord God deliver me out of this miserable and wretched Life O Lord thou knowest how happy it were for me to be with thee yet for thy Chosens sake if it be thy will send me life and health that I may truly serve thee O Lord God save thy chosen People of England and defend this Realm from Papistry and maintain thy true Religion that I and my People may praise thy name for thy Son Jesus Christ's sake Then turning his Face and seeing some by him he said I thought you had not been so nigh Yes said Dr. Owen we heard you speak to your self Then said the King I was Praying to God O I am faint Lord have mercy upon me and receive my Spirit and in so saying he gave up the Ghost July 6. 1553. in the sixteenth year of his age when he had reigned six years-five months and nine days and was solemnly buried at Westminster Abbey XIII Prince Henry eldest Son to King James I. was the thirteenth Prince of Wales of the Royal Family of England He was born at Sterling Castle in Scotland and in his Childhood gave promising signs of an Heroick and Noble Spirit no Musick being so pleasant to his Ears as the Trumpet and Drum and the roaring of Cannon and no sights so acceptable as that of Musquets Pistols and any kind of Armour and at nine years of age he learned to ride shoot at Archery leap and manage the Pike all which manly exercises he performed to admiration in such young years He was tall of stature about five foot eight inches high of an amiable yet Majestick countenance a piercing Eye a gracious smile and a terrible frown yet courteous and affable to all He was naturally modest and patient and when most offended he would by over-coming himself say nothing very merciful very just and very true to his promises very secret and reserved from his youth He was most zealous in his love to Religion and Piety and his Heart was bent if he had lived to have endeavoured to compound those differences that were among Religious men He shewed his love to good men and hatred of evil in incouraging good Preachers and slighting the vain-glorious in whom above all things he abhorr'd flattery loving and countenancing the good and never speaking of the slothful Preachers without anger and disdain He was very Consciencious of an Oath so that he was never heard to take God's name in vain or any other Oaths that may seem light much less such horrible Oaths as are now too common He never failed to sacrifice daily the first of his actions to God by Prayers and Devotions He was so resolved to continue immutable in the Protestant Religion that long before his death he solemnly protested That he would never join in Marriage with a Wife of a contrary Faith for he hated Popery with all the Adjuncts and Adherents thereof yet he would now and then use particular Papists kindly thereby shewing that he hated not their Persons but Opinions He was obedient to his Parents careful in the affairs of his Family and Revenue loving and kind to Strangers and in a word he had a certain extraordinary excellency that cannot be exprest in words In the nineteenth year of his age he was visited with a continual Head-ach and had two small Fits of an Ague which were afterward followed with very had symptoms which daily increasing Dr. Abbot then Archbishop of Canterbury went to visit him and finding the extream danger he was in discourst to him of the vanity of the World the certainty of Death and the Joys of Heaven asking his Highness whether he were well pleased to die now if it were the Will of God he replied Yes with all my Heart farther declaring That he hoped for the pardon of his sins only from the merits of Christ In his best moments he continued in a Christian frame of Spirit and Novemb. 6. 1612. quietly yielded up his Spirit to his blessed Saviour and Redeemer being attended with as many Prayers Tears and strong Cries as ever any Soul was XIV After his death Charles his Younger Brother succeeded being the fourteenth Prince of Wales and afterward King of England by the Title of King Charles I. XV. Charles the eldest Son of Charles I. was the fifteenth and last Prince of Wales of the Royal Family of England and after King of England by the Title of King Charles II. I have been very brief in relating the Actions of several of the Princes of Wales having already given an account of them in some other Books which I have formerly published As for instance In a Book called Admirable Curiosities Rarities and Wonders in every County in England in the Remarks upon the County of Glocester you may find all the particulars of the Murther of King Edward the second In another called Historical Remarks upon the Cities of London and Westminster there is a full Relation of the deposition and miserable death of King Richard II. In another intituled The young Man's Calling or the whole Duty of Youth the Lives of King Edward VI. and Prince Henry Son to King James I. are related at large In another called England's Monarchs is an account of the Lives and Actions of all the Kings of England from William the Conqueror to this time and among them of those Princes of Wales who were after Kings of England and are mentioned in the preceeding Remarks In another called The Wars of England c. There is a full account of the Life of King Charles I. with his Trial and Death In another called The History the two late Kings is a Relation of the Life and Death of King Charles II. To
were instantly defeated slain and put to flight and the Romans became Masters both of the Field of Battel and the whole Island also yet were they not wholly subdued till the Reign of Julius Agricola When the Roman Empire in Britain began to decline several Irish came secretly over and setled here and certain sinall Hills and Mounts are yet to be seen intrenched about which are called the Irish-men's Cottages and another place named of the Irish-men Hiercy Gwidil because it is said they here put the Britains to flight under the conduct of Sivigus Afterward the Normans ost infested this Isle but in the year 1000 King Etheldred set out a Fleet which scoured the Seas round about it and wasted the Countrey in a more hostile manner than either the Irish or Norwegians Then Hugh Earl of Chester and Hugh Earl of Shrewsbury both Normans did grievously afflict Anglesey at which very time Magnus the Norwegian arriving here shot Hugh Earl of Shrewsbury through with an Arrow and after he had plundred the Island departed Next the English continually vext the Inhabitants making several descents upon them even to the time of King Edward I. when they were totally subjected to that Crown The chief Town Beumaris formerly called Bonover built by this King Edward I. together with a strong Castle is governed by a Mayor two Bailiffs two Sergeants at Mace and a Town Clerk At Llanvais not far from hence was formerly a Monastery of Friars Minors richly endowed by the Kings of England where a Daughter of King John