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A48796 The states-men and favourites of England since the reformation their prudence and policies, successes and miscarriages, advancements and falls; during the reigns of King Henry VIII. King Edward VI. Queen Mary. Queen Elizabeth King James. King Charles I. Lloyd, David, 1635-1692. 1665 (1665) Wing L2648; ESTC R200986 432,989 840

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doubted and won those that contradicted in King Henry's Cause But he served not King Henry more faithfully in Germany then he provided for him honourably in England where the Kings Cause waited for his Assistance and the See of Canterbury for his Acceptance He was willing to promote Religion he was unwilling for some Formalities he scrupled to advance himself but after seven Weeks delay it being as fatal to refuse King Henry's Favours as to offer him Injuries he is Archbishop in his own Defence in which capacity to serve the King and salve his own Conscience he used the Expedient of a Protestation to this purpose In nomine c. Non est nec erit meae voluntatis aut intentionis per hujusmodi Juramentum juramenta qualiter verba in ipsis posita sonare videbuntur me obligare ad aliquid ratione eorundem post hac dicendum faciendum aut attestandum quod erit aut esse videbitur contra legem Dei vel contra Regem aut Rempublicam legesve aut Praerogativa ejus quod non intendo per hujusmodi juramentum quovis modo me obligare quò minùs liberò loqui consulere consentire valeam in omnibus singulis Reformationem Ecclesiae prerogativam Coronae concernentibus ea exequi reformare quae in Ecclesia Anglicana reformanda videbuntur This Protestation he made three times once at the Charter-House another time at the Altar and a third time at the receiving of his Pall. In his place he was moderate between the Superstition of Rome and the Phrensies of Munster As he was chief Instrument in beginning the Reformation so he was in continuing it He withstood the Six Articles and though the King sent five prime Ministers of State to comfort him would not be satisfied until he saw them mitigated in King Henry's time and repealed in King Edward's Gardiner would have questioned him for entertaining forreign Hereticks and promoting Domestick Schisms the Northern Rebells accused him for subverting the Church but the King upheld him against both suppressing the One and checking the Other and advising the good Man whom he called Fool for his meek disposition to appeal to him Whereupon Russel cried The King will never suffer him to be imprisoned until you finde Him guilty of High Treason He is to be pitied for his intermediate failings but renowned for his final constancy The King having declared before all his Servants that Cranmer was his best Servant he employeth him in his best service the Reformation of Religion wherein all others failed but the King Cromwel and Brandon backed him so far that he had the Bible and the necessary Offices of the Church translated into English He had both Universities at his command He brought the Lords House and Convocation to his Lure and was invested with a Power 1. To grant Dispensations in all things not repugnant to Gods Law nor the Kings safety 2. To determine Ecclesiastical Causes He as charitably as politickly advised the King to accept of Bishop Fisher's partial Subscription considering his Learning and Reputation As he is King Henry's Instrument at Dunstable to divorce him from Queen Katharine so he is at Lambeth to divorce him from Anna Bullen He promoted in the Convocation all Primitive Doctrines and condemned all new-fangled Opinions He was so charitable that he interceded with the King for his Enemies so munificent that he made the Church and his own House a Refuge for Strangers particularly for P. Fagius P. Martyr Martin Bucer c. The King loved him for his Integrity the People for his Moderation He was called the Kings Father and was Queen Elizabeth's Godfather His Piety reduced the Church and his Policy the State He spake little to others he conferred much with himself Three words of His could do more then three hours discourse of Others He wousd say as Victorinus There is a time to say nothing there is a time to say something but there is never a time to say all things That King who awed all Others feared Him A Second to the Eternal Power is the Wise Man uncorrupt in his Life He was the Executor of God's Will in King Henry's Life-time and the first of His after his Death As He spurred King Henry to a Reformation so King Edward did Him whose Prudence was not so forward as the Others Zeal who looked at what was Lawful as He did at what was Convenient He maintained the Churches Power as resolutely against Bishop Hooper's Scruples notwithstanding potent Intercession as he reformed its Corruptions against the Popes Interest notwithstanding a general Opposition He allowed not the least Errour in not the least contempt of the Church He restored its primitive Doctrine and Discipline lest it should be an impure Church he upheld them lest it should be none He was one of fourteen that compiled the Common-Prayer He was One of Two that set out the Homilies and the onely man that published the Institution of a Christian man and other good Books With his Advice King Edward did much and designed more He was the chief Author of King Edward's Injunctions and the first Commissioner in them He was President of the Assembly at Windsor for Reformation and of the Council at London His Articles were strict and severe as much grounded on the Canon of Scripture as on the Canons of the Church He convinced more Papists with his Reason and Moderation then others by their Power His Heart never failed him in his Life and it was not burned at his Death He did so much for the Protestant Religion in King Henry's Days that he foresaw he should suffer for it in Queen Mary's He was unwilling to wrong Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth therefore he refused at first to sign King Edward's Testament but Duke Dudley's Will He was willing to continue the Protestant Religion therefore he signed it at last It was a Bishop that was one of the first that abolished Popery in England and one of the last that died for Protestantisme It was a Bishop that maintained the Protestant Cause with Arguments while he lived and with his Blood when he died Observations on Sir Thomas More Lord Chancellour of England HE rise up high because he stept out well Sir Thomas More was half way Chancellour when born to Sir John More Chief Justice The Father's Prudence Wit and Noblenesse flowed with his Blood to the Sons Veins Much Honour he received from his Family more he gave to it His Mother saw his Face shining in Dream on her Wedding Night and his Father saw his Life so really A quick City-Spirit made him capable of great State-Employments He was saved by a Miracle and was One For his Nurse riding with him over a Water and being in some danger threw him over a Hedge where she found him not hurt but sweetly smiling upon her A Free-school seasoned his forward Childhood and the grave wise and excellent Cardinal Mortons House his Youth The One
Sir Henry Lords Vise Falkland 708 Sir John Finch 742 G SIr Thomas Grey Marquess of Dorset 116 Gardiner Bish of Winch. 268 John Grey of Pyrgo 379 L. Grey of Wilton 381 398 Sir Henry Gates 379 Sir Humphrey Gilbert 441 Sir Fulk Grevil L. Brook 503 Oliver Lord Grandison 542 H SIr Will Herbert 274 Sir Walter Haddon 442 Sir Th. Howard 96 Sir Ed Howard 105 Sir Th. Howard 107 of Surry Norfolk Wil Howard L. Effingh 218 Sir G. Hume E of Dunb 516 James Hay E of Carlisle 549 Henry Howard Earl of Northampton 555 Judge Hyde 701 Christopher Lord Hatton 333 419 The Lord Hunsdon 335 Sir Richard Hutton 739 Wil M Hertford 741 The Earl of Holland 759 The Marquess Hamilton 776 The Lord Hopton 780 The Lord Herbert 789 Arch-Bishop Heath 337 I SIr John Fitz-James 80 Sir John Jefferies 189 Arthur Ingram 572 Arch-Bishop Juxon 810 K SIr William Kingstone 279 Sir Henry Killegrew 395 〈…〉 Knowls 433 L SIr Anthony St. Lieger 56 The Earl of Liecester 330 〈…〉 Thomas Lake 552 562 〈…〉 Ja Ley E of Marlb 713 〈…〉 Earl of Lindsey 747 Arch-Bishop Laud 763 〈…〉 Lord-Keeper Littleton 775 M 〈…〉 Thomas Moor 21 Sir Rich Morison 68 〈…〉 Will Molineux 84 〈…〉 Henry Marney 111 〈…〉 John Mason 177 〈…〉 Edward Mountague 221 〈…〉 Thomas Mannors 275 〈…〉 Walter Mildmay 365 〈…〉 Roger Manwood 386 〈…〉 Lord Mountjoy 479 〈…〉 op Mountague 575 〈…〉 Henry Martin 695 〈…〉 Earl of Manchester 799 N 〈…〉 He Duke of Norfolk 351 The Lord North 374 〈…〉 rls Ea of Nottingh 511 〈…〉 Norrices 433 〈…〉 Rob Naunton 569 Sir Francis Nethersole 569 Sir William Noy 662 Judge Nichols 699 O SIr Thomas Overbury 544 P ED Plowden 383 Sir William Paget 65 Sir Ed Poynings 112 The Parrs 156 Sir Clement Paston 171 Sir John Portman 214 Sir Amias Pawlet 378 William Lord Pawlet 403 Sir William Pelham 408 Sir Barnab Fitz-Patrick 229 Sir William Peter 247 Cardinal Pool 252 Sir John Perrot 322 Sir William Pickering 339 G Earl of Pembrook 363 Sir John Puckering 422 The Lord Chief-Justice Popham 535 Will Earl of Pembrook 687 Sir Paul Pindar 735 R THe Lord Rich 1 E. W. 173 Sir Tho Randolph 347 Sir John Russel 1 E. B. 259 Sir William Russel 444 Sir Thomas Roper 445 Sir Walter Rawleigh 485 Sir John Ramsey E H 557 Doctor Ridley 693 Esme Duke of Richmond 728 Edw Earl of Rutland 482 Sir Thomas Roe 807 S SIr Ralph Sadler 61 Sir Ed Stanly 101 Sir Charles Somerset 1 E. W. 114 Sir Thomas Smith 370 R Earl of Somerset 518 Stafford Duke of Bucks 122 The Seymours 142 Sir Will Stamford 185 The Earl of Sussex 307-416 Sir Philip Sidney 313 Sir Henry Sidney 412 Sir Thomas Smith 483 The Earl of Suffolk 567 The Lord Spencer 610 Sir John Savil 665 The Lord Say 744 The Earl of Strafford 752 T BIshop Tonstal 340 Francis Talbot Earl of Shrewsbury 342 Sir Nicholas Throgmorton 354 V SIr H Umpton 447 H Vere Earl of Oxford 583-714 The Veres 5 〈…〉 Sir Henry Vane Senor 7 〈…〉 W CArdinal Wolsey 1 1 〈…〉 Sir Thomas Wyat 〈◊〉 Sir Tho Wriothsly 1 Ear 〈…〉 Southampton Sir Will Fitz-Williams 〈◊〉 Sir Robert Wingfield 1 〈…〉 Sir Thom Wentworth 1 〈…〉 Doctor Wilson 2 〈…〉 Lord Willoughby 311-3 〈…〉 Sir Francis Walsingham 3 〈…〉 Sir Edw Waterhouse 3 〈…〉 Sir Will Fitz-Williams 3 〈…〉 Sir Christopher Wray 3 〈…〉 The Earl of Worcester 3 〈…〉 Sir William Waad 4 〈…〉 Sir Ralph Winwood 5 〈…〉 Bishop Williams 6 〈…〉 Sir Isaac Wake 6 〈…〉 Sir R Sir J Weston E 〈…〉 of Portland 6 〈…〉 Sir Henry Wotton 8 〈…〉 The Lord Wilmot 8 〈…〉 Y SIr Henry Yelverton 5●● THE STATES-MEN and FAVOURITES OF ENGLAND IN The Reign of King Henry the VIII Observations on the Life of Cardinal WOLSEY CArdinal Wolsey was not so great in his Fortune as he was mean in his Original his honest and industrious Parents helped him to a good Constitution and a great Spirit two hopeful steps to Greatnesse and his Ambition gave the opportunity to encrease it he was as pregnant at Ipswich-School as he was promising in Canterbury-Colledge where his Industry parts advanced him to a command over Noble-men in the Earl of Dorset's Family as a School-master as his Policy had promoted him to an Imperiousnesse over Kings in the quality of States-man The first step to Greatnesse in a Scholar is Relation to a Nobleman The best Education for the Court is in the Palace Nature made him capable the School and University made him a Scholar but his Noble Employment made him a Man At Oxford he read Books at my Lord 's he read Men and observed Things His Patrons two Parsonages bestowed upon him was not so great a Favour as the excellent Principles instilled into him he being not more careful to instruct the young Men then their Father was to tutor him his Bounty makes him rich and his Recommendation potent His Interest went far his Money farther Bishop Fox was Secretary to K. Henry the seventh and he to Bishop Fox the One was not a greater Favourite of the King 's then the other was his as one that brought him a Head capacious of all Observations and a Spirit above all Difficulties Others managed the Affairs of England Wolsey understood its Interest His Correspondence was good abroad his Observations close deep and continued at home He improved what he knew and bought what he knew not He could make any thing he read or heard his own and could improve any thing that was his own to the uttermost No sooner was he in with the Bishop of Winchester but the Bishop was out with the Earl of Surrey to whom he must have stooped as he did unto Nature and Age had not he raised his Servant equal to himself in the Kings Favour and above Howard He was forbid by the Canon Heirs of his Body he was enjoyned by his Prudence to make an Heir of his Favour equally to support and comfort his old Age and maintain his Interest Children in point of Policy as in point of Nature are a Blessing and as Arrows in the hand of a mighty man and happy is that old Courtier that hath his Quiver full of them he shall not be ashamed when he speaks with his enemies in the gate The old man commends Wolsey to Henry the Seventh for one fit to serve a King and command Others Forreign Employment is the Statesmans first School to France therefore he is sent to poise his English Gravity with French Debonairness A well-poised Quickness is the excellent temper From Forreign Employment under an Old King he is called home to some Domestick Services under the Young One He as quickly found the length of His Foot as he fitted him with an easie Shoo the King followed his Pleasures and the Cardinal enjoyeth His Power The One pursued his Sports while Youth the other his Business while Time served him Give me to Day and take thou to
Morrow is both the Courtier and the Christian's Language The Favourite took in the Council-Table Debates and other State-affairs in the Mass and whole Bulk of them by Day and the King had the Quintessence of them extracted and the sum of them represented to him at Night All State-Business was disposed of by him and most Church-Preferments bestowed upon him the Bishopricks of Durham Winchester and York were in his possesson and all other Promotions in his Gift He was installed in the Kingdom during King Henry's youthfulness and had the Church in Commendam His great Services indeed could not be managed without a great Revenue nor his greater Power supported but by an able Purse which may buy off Expedients as readily as his Greatness may command them Two Corrivals he had Edward Stafford Duke of Buckingham Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolk Brandon he despised as rather besides saith my Author then against him he being the Kings Companion in Pleasure and Wolsey his Counsellour in Policy the Duke great with young Henry the Bishop with the King Buckingham he feared as popular and undermined as proud that Tower must fall whose Foundation is hollow Buckingham was high in Birth Honour and Estate Wolsey higher in Prudence whose Malice did the brave Duke much mischief and his own Folly more Vain-glory writes my Friend ever lieth at an open guard and gives much advantage of play to her Enemies A deboyst King is jealous and a weak Nobleman ambitious In fine he is attainted of High Treason though rather Corrival to the King in his Cloaths then his Crown in his Vanities then his Authority but a cunning Upstart quickly blows off a young Noblemans Cap and Feather and his Head too when it stands in his way His power against Buckingham was his Shield against all others One Defence well managed one Adversary throughly suppressed is a Security at Court where two men seldom fall the same way Many envied the Archbishop the Cardinal the Legate de latere the Lord Chancellour but all feared the Favourite most were discontented but none durst shake their Heads lest they fell off with Buckingham's the Bishops displeasure was more fatal then the Kings whose wrath was violent but not lasting as the Others anger was of less fury but more malice his Power was great and his Justice equal for he was too proud to be bribed and too powerful to be over-born But England was too narrow a Theatre for this great Spirit and he aspires to Rome and having been these many years Pope of this other world would have been of that beyond the waters his leap was great from York to Rome and his rise as good Charles the Fifth was his Client and his Masters Servant the Cardinals were his Penfioners and when they failed as he is no Fox whose Den hath but one hole and he no Statesman who when one way is stopped cuts not out another he falls off from the German Emperour to the French King where if he could not carry his own Design he would hinder the Emperours and Revenge is an Advancement so great was he that his Friendship balanced Europe over-awed Emperours threatned Kings and was fatal to Queens if he cannot be Pope of Rome he will shew he is as good as King of England for finding that the King wanted a meet Yoak-Fellow for his Bed and a lawful Heir-Male to his Crown and observing Queen Katharines Age above her Husbands and her Gravity above her Age being more Pious then Pleasant a better Woman then Wife and a better Wife for any Prince then King Henry he promotes a Divorce upon some Scruples intimated by the Spaniard some years before in a Treaty about the Princesse Mary's Marriage which others had forgot but the Cardinal laid up between the King and Queen but that was not all but knowing that King Henry could not have a Wife to his minde until he had a Pope of his own chusing he would help him to a young Wife but he must raise him to a new power Wolsey must be Pope or King Henry could not be divorced and to make all sure he was no sooner to be parted from a Daughter of Spain then he was to be joyned to a Princess of France whose Nuptial Ring should wed King Henry to Her and King Francis to Himself Missing of Power he meditates Honour and instead of lavishing his infinite Treasure upon airy Expectations he bestoweth it on real Monuments which make his Memory as Renowned as his Life That Statesman lives to small purpose whose Actions are as short as his Life and his Exploits of no longer duration then his Age. At this time though King Henry bore the Sword yet Cardinal Wolsey as I am told bore the stroke all over the Land being Legate à latere by vertue whereof he visited all Churches and Religious Houses even the Friers Observants themselves notwithstanding their stoutnesse and stubbornness that first opposed him Papal and Royal Power met in him being the Chancellour of the Land and keeping so many Bishopricks in Commendam that his yearly Income is said to equal if not to exceed the Revenues of the Crown He gave the first blow to Religious Houses by making one great Colledge of forty small Monasteries to make way as some thought upon the Popes consent procured by him to the overthrow of all He called all Captains and Officers to an account who bought off their own small corruption with his great one and paid him the Penalties of their Cheats with the Gains of it the Richest of them escaping and the Poorest onely made exemplary Several Courts of pretended Equity he erected to redress the poor that was the Colour to inrich himself that was the Reality at whose constitution the Law-Courts were unfrequented so specious was their seeming Integrity at the last they are deserted so manifest were their real Grievances the people not flocking so fast after the Novelty as they ran away from the Cheat. What he did to reform the Courtiers as a Favourite he did to reform the Clergy as Legate erecting a Court Legantine not without danger of a Praemunire wherein all Clergy were visited the Rich in their Purses that excused them the Poor in their Reputation that compounded for them Neither did his profits arise from the Living onely but the Dead he engrossing the Probation of all Wills and Testaments within his own Court And not long after he hath a Patent under the Great Seal of England to do what he pleased in the French Court in order to the Kings Progresse thither as he hath likewise after with his Masters leave under the great seal of France After which honour he was with the Kings order by the English Subjects the Lord Mayor and Aldermen c. honoured at no lesse rate then that of a Prince and by the Clergy who kept close to the publick temper with Processions c. at the same rate with a Pope Great he was in England greater
in Germany where all the Nobility attended him the Great Seal of England was carried before him and the Emperour observing his Commission and Honour met him with his whole Train and harangued it with him no less then two days He that over-ruled Empires might well presume on Subjects and no sooner therefore doth he return then by his own Authority he levieth four shillings in the pound of every man that was worth fifty pound per annum and when that would not do pretending to the Lord Mayor and Aldermen that he had been upon his Knees to revoke those Commissions other Letters for a Benevolence which lost him as much in the Countrey as his Reformation of the Houshold did him at Court But the King employeth him to France as his Second and takes his leave of him as his intimate Friend 1200 Horse attended him Calice Bullein Amiens honour him with the name of The Peaceable Cardinal and the Statue of a Cardinal Rescuing a Church and a Pope from danger Cardinal Wolsey going over to France upon an extraordinary Embassy had for his Attendance Tonstal Bishop of London the Lord Sands late Chamberlain the Earl of Derby Sir Tho. More Sir H. Guilford and 200 Horse and was met two days journey from Paris by King Francis and his mother carrying with him 140000 l. though silver was but 20 d. an ounce to assist that King in the War against Charles the fifth and furnished with such a Plenipotentiary Commission that he gave Law to France and the Popedome and he comported himself with such dexterity and high wisdome that all the Princes of Christendom who had their eyes fixed upon him admired him The King gave him many places and he bestowed on him his magnificent Palaces fitting his humour with pleasant habitations and he suited his ambition with power and authority But the King broke with him at last about the divorce being vexed with so many delays defers retardings and prorogations between two Popes Clement that was and Wolsey that would be yet rather eased him of his burdens then deprived him of his preferments continuing him Bishop of York and Durham when he turned him out of his Chancellourship of England where he lived rather like a Prince then a Priest providing as magnificently for his Installation as a King should for his Coronation which unseasonable ambition was improved by his enemies malice and the Kings jealousie to his ruine for in the midst of his solemnities he is arrested by the Kings order whose wrath was the Messenger of Death and in his way to London being distracted between hope and fear died at Leicester giving his servants large rewards upon condition they served none but the King and breathing out his soul in words to this purpose viz. If I had served the God of heaven as faithfully as I did my Master on earth he had not forsaken me in my old age as the other hath done he died swelling in his body as he had done in his mind When good men die suddainly it is said they are poysoned and when the bad fall unexpectedly as he did it is said they poyson themselves He died unpitied because he had lived feared being the great Bias of the Christian world Too suddain prosperity in the beginning undoeth us in the end while we expect all things flowing upon us as at first we remit our care and perish by neglecting Every head cannot bear wine nor every spirit a fortune Success eats up Circumspection How many a man had ended better if he had not begun so well It 's the Emphasis of misery to be too soon happy Prosperity growing up with experience takes a man in a firm settlement inured to all events I will ever suspect the smooth waters for deepness in my worst estate I will hope in the best I will fear in all I will be circumspect and still Rufiling Ambition reacheth great Honours a Sedate Humility supports it the Lower the Basis the higher and stronger the Pyramide Love the Issue of Humility guardeth the weakest Hatred the Daughter of Pride ruines the strongest Ego Rex meus was good Grammar for Wolsey a School-master but not for the Cardina a States-man to be humble to Superiours is duty to Equals is courtesies to Inferiours nobleness and to all safety it being a vertue that for a her lowliness commandeth those souls it stoop to In a word as I love Vertue so I hate Vice for her inside and her end Cardinal Wolsey 〈◊〉 famous for two things that he never spoke a word too much and but one too little Observations on the Life of Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolk SIr William Brandon dying in King Henry the seventh's service no wonder if his son lived in his favour it being as prudent to continue his Loyal spirit in his son as it was just to reward it He was as intimate with Henry the eighth in his pleasures when a childe as in his counsels when a man There was a sympathy between their active spirits which improved the familiarity of their tender years to a firm friendship in their age at a Tilting in Paris to which many young Noble-men were licensed to go Brandon overcame others every day and one day himself against a Gyant Almain where the Lords looked not on him with more envious then the Ladies with gracious eyes who saith my Author darted more glances in love then the other did spears in anger against him He is the compleat Courtier in whom Beauty and Valour Mars and Venus are joyned in one happy constitution which awes and allures Beholders Being employed to bring over Queen Mary King Lewis the twelfth's Relict to her Brother he won her to himself whether his affections were so ambitious as to climb up to her or hers so humble as to condescend to him may be the subject of a more amorous discourse and considering with himself that matters of this nature are never sure till finished that so Royal an opportunity happened but seldome and that leave for such an enterprize was easier gained when it 's done then when doing he humbly requested his Majesty to give way to that Match which was indeed already concluded who after some State-discontent was quickly pleased the Duke being no less esteemed by him for many years then he was beloved by the people His Genius was more Martial then Mercurial and we hear of him oftner in the French Wars then in the English Councils Being vexed with the delays at Rome and the delusions at Bridewel where the Cardinals proceeded according to their instructions at Rome one day he knocks on the Table in the presence of the two Cardinals and binds it with an Oath That it was never well in England since Cardinals had any thing to do therein and from that time forward as an active Instrument he endeavoured the abolishing of the Popes power in England against whom he was not more active in the Parliament 1534 then he was vigilant in
not less able but more active then Cranmer himself yea so famous was he that Martin Bucer dedicated unto him his Comment upon the Gospel so painful that he wrote many Books whereof that de Differentia utriusque potestatis was the chief so worthy he was that the King employed him on several Embassies into France and Germany He died May 8. 1538. In his first years none more wild in his his last none more stayed The untoward Youth makes the able Man He that hath mettle to be extravagant when he cannot govern himself hath a spirit to be eminent when he can His friends devotion to the Church and relation to the Bishop of Winchester made him a Scholar his own Inclination a Politician an Inclination that brake through all the ignoble restraints of pedantique studies and coertions wherewith many a great Soul in England enjoying not the freedome of forreign parts but tied to such employments though never so unsuitable as their friends put them to are debased and lost to an eminencie more by observation and travel then by reading and study that made him the Wonder of the University and the Darling of the Court. When he was called to the Pulpit or Chair he came off not ill so prudential were his parts for Divinity when advanced to any Office of Trust in the University he came off very well so incomparable were his parts for Government His Policy was observed equally in the subject and in the contrivance of his Sermons and discourse where though all knew he read but little yet all saw that by a Scheme and method his strong head had drawn up of all Books and Discourses he commanded all Learning his Explications of the Text were so genuine so exact as if he had spent his time in nothing else but Criticks and Commentators His Divisions so Analytical as if he had been nothing but Logick His Enlargements so copious and genuine as if he had seen nothing but Fathers and Schoolmen The curious and pertinent mixture of Moral Sentences so various as if he had been but a Humanist the drift and designe of all so close that it argued him but what indeed he was a pure Pate-Politician His Parts commended him to Cardinal Wolsey as his support the Cardinal brings him to his Master as his second and he thrusts out Wolsey as his Rival but yet pretended to advance that ambitious Man more highly that he might fall more irrecoverably He sets him upon his designes of being Pope in Rome and those make him none in England He caught the Cardinal by his submission as he would have done Sir Thomas More by his Interrogations at which he was so good that he would run up any man either to a Confession or a Praemunire Fox was his name and Cunning his nature He said His Fathers money helped him to his Parsonage meaning his small Preferments and his Mothers wit to his Bishoprick meaning his greater Discoursing one day when Ambassador of terms of Peace he said Honourable ones last long but the dishonourable no longer then till Kings have power to break them the surest way therefore said he to Peace is a constant preparedness for War Two things he would say must support a Government Gold and Iron Gold to reward its Friends and Iron to keep under its Enemies Themistocles after a Battel fought with the Persians espying a Prize lying on the ground Take up these things saith he to his Companion for thou art not Themistocles Take the Emperours Money said Fox to his Followers that were afraid to accept what he had refused for you are not all the King of England ' s Ambassadors Often was this saying in our Bishops mouth before ever it was in Philip the second 's Time and I will challenge any two in the world Portugal being revolted the Conde d' Olivares came smiling to King Philip the fourth saying Sir I pray give me las Albricius to hansel the good news for now you are more absolute King of Portugal then ever for the people have forfeited all their priviledges by the Rebellion and the Nobility their Estates and now you may confirm your old Friends with their money and make you new ones with their estates When the Clergy began to ruffle with the King I tell you News said this Bishop we are all run into a Praemunire you shall have Money enough to make your own Courtiers and Places enough to advance your own Clergie Observations on the Life of Sir Anthony St. Lieger WE may say of him he was born in Kent and bred in Christendome for when twelve years of Age he was sent for his Grammar-Learning with his Tutor into France for his Carriage into Italy for his Philosophy to Cambridge for his Law to Grays-Inne and for that which compleated all the government of himself to Court where his Debonnairness and Freedome took with the King as his Solidity and Wisdome with the Cardinal His Master-piece was his Agency between King Henry the eighth and Queen Anne during the agitation of that great business of the Divorce between the said King and his Queen Katherine His Policy was seen in catching the Cardinal in that fatal word The King may ruine me if be please but that ruined him His service was to be Cromwel's Instrument in demolishing Abbeys as he was the Kings Caesar was the first that came to undo the Commonwealth sober Sir Anthony St. Lieger was the first that saved this Kingdome drunk for in being abroad one night very late and much distempered he must needs fancy an extraordinary light in the Cardinal's Closet with which Fancy he ran to the King and although much in drink prevailed with him so far that he sends to the Cardinal and there findes that Juncto that threatned his Kingdome He was the first Vice-Roy because Henry the eighth was the first King of Ireland King Henry's affection would promote him any where but his own resolution and spirit commended him to Ireland He was a man whom all Ireland could not rule therefore as the Jest goes he should rule all England Three times had the Irish Rebels made their soremn submission to other Deputies the fourth time now they make it to him throwing down their Girdles Skins and Caps So great a man was the Lieutenant so great his Master No sooner was be possessed of the Government but he thought of Laws those Ligaments of it The most rational and equitable Laws were those of England but too rational to be imposed on the Brutish Irish therefore our Knight considering as he saith in the Preface of his Constitution that they poor souls could not relish those exact Laws to live or be ruled by them immediately enacted such as agreed with their capacity rather then such were dictated by his ability his Wisdome as all mens must doing what was most fit and convenient rather then what was most exact what they could bear more then what he could do as remembring he had to
and sober troubling him with nothing but his business and expecting no higher conditions then countenance protection and recommendation and his Retayners peaceable reserved close plain and hopeful the deserving Souldier and the promising were seen often at his gate not in throngs to avoid popularity equal was his favour that none might be insolent and none discontented yet so discreetly dispenced as made the Preferred faithful and the Expectants officious To be ruled by one is soft and obnoxious by many troublesome to be advised by few as he was is safe because as he said in some things out of his element the Vale best discovereth the Hill Although he understood not the main matter of War yet he knew many of its falls and incidents his prudence being as able to lay a stratagem as others experience was to embattail an Army Sir Thomas W●arton Warden of the Marches he commands with 300 men behind an Ambush whither he draws the rash Scots and overthroweth them more with the surprize then his power taking the Lord Admiral Maxwel c. who was committed to his custody and putting that King to so deep a melancholy that he died upon it His death suggests new counsels and Sir Anthony watcheth in Scotland to gain his Daughter for our Prince or at least to prevent the French whom Sir William Paget watcheth there as Sir Ralph Sadler did in Rome and Sir John Wallop at Calais and when that Kings designe was discovered we finde our Knight with Charles Duke of Suffolk Lieutenant-General Henry Fitz-Alan Earl of Arundel Lord General Will. Pawlet Lord St. John Stephen Bishop of Winchester with a rich and strong Army expecting the King before Montrevil which they took with Bo●logn and forcing the French to a Peace and Submission that secured England and setled Europe Three things facilitate all things 1. Knowledge 2. Temper 3. Time Knowledge our Knight had either of his own or others whom he commanded in what ever he went about laying the ground of matters always down in writing and debating them with his friends before he declared himself in Council A temperance he had that kept him out of the reach of others and brought others within his Time he took always driving never being driven by his business which is rather a huddle then a performance when in haste there was something that all admired and which was more something that all were pleased with in this mans actions The times were dark his carriage so too the Waves were boysterous but he the solid Rock or the well-guided Ship that could go with the Tide He mastered his own passion and others too and both by Time and Opportunity therefore he died with that peace the State wanted and with that universal repute the States-men of those troublesome times enjoyed not By King Henry's Will he got a Legacy of 300 l. for his former Service and the Honour to be of Prince EDWARD's special Council for the future By his Order he had as his share of Abbey-Lands Battle-Abbey in Sussex enjoyed by his Heirs Males in a direct Line to this day And by his Authority he had the Honourable Garter He was the first man that durst bring his Master the sad news That He must die And no wonder he durst it for the next news is That he is dead himself How darest thou to be so plain said Heliogabalus to the Courtier Because I dare die said he I can but die if I am Faithful and I must die though I Flatter The Lord Herbert's Character of Cardinal Wolsey in his Life of Henry the Eighth pag. 314. ANd thus concluded that great Cardinal A man in whom ability of parts and Industry were equally eminent though for being employed wholly in ambitious ways they became dangerous Instruments of power in active and mutable times By these arts yet he found means to govern not onely the chief affairs of this Kingdom but of Europe there being no Potentate which in his turn did not seek to him and as this procured him divers Pensions so when he acquainted the King therewith his manner was so cunningly to disoblige that Prince who did fee him last as he made way thereby oftentimes to receive as much on the other side But not of secular Princes alone but even of the Pope and Clergy of Rome he was no little courted of which therefore he made especial use while he drew them to second him on most occasions His birth being otherwise so obscure and mean as no man had ever stood so single for which reason also his chief indeavour was not to displease any great Person which yet could not secure him against the divers Pretenders of that time For as all things passed through his hands so they who failed in their suits generally hated him All which though it did but exasperate his ill nature yet this good resultance followed that it made him take the more care to be Just whereof also he obtained the reputation in his publick hearing of Causes For as he loved no body so his Reason carried him And thus he was an useful Minister of his King in all points where there was no question of deserving the Roman Church of which at what price soever I finde he was a zealous Servant as hoping thereby to aspire to the Papacy whereof as the factious times then were he seemed more capable then any had he not so immoderately affected it Whereby also it was not hard to judge of his Inclination that Prince who was ablest to help him to this Dignity being ever preferred by him which therefore was the ordinary Bait by which the Emperour and the French King one after the other did catch him And upon these terms he doubted not to convey vast treasures out of this Kingdom especially unto Rome where he had not a few Cardinals at his devotion by whose help though he could not attain that Supreme Dignity he so passionately desired yet he prevailed himself so much of their favour as he got a kinde of absolute power in Spiritual Matters at Home Wherewith again be so served the Kings turn as it made him think the less of using his own Authority One error seemed common to both which was That such a multiplicity of Offices and Places were invested in him For as it drew much envy upon the Cardinal in particular so it derogated no little from the Regal Authority while one man alone seemed to exhaust all Since it becometh Princes to do like good Husband-men when they sow their Grounds which is to scatter and not to throw all in one place He was no great Dissembler for so qualified a Person as ordering his businesses for the most part so cautiously as he got more by keeping his word then by breaking it As for his Learning which was far from exact it consisted chiefly in the subtilties of the Thomists wherewith the King and himself did more often weary then satisfie each other His stile in Missives was
of Italy into the Chair of Canterbury but Charles the Emperour by the Popes power secretly retarded his return fearing it might obstruct the propounded marriage between his Son and the Queen Indeed the Queen bare the Cardinal an unfeigned affection for six reasons 1. For his grave and becoming presence that endeared him no less to those that saw him then his parts and prudence did to those that conversed with him The Diamond is then orient when set in Gold 2. For his disposition as calm as her Majesties and as meek as his Profession 3. For his Age being about ten years older the proportion allowed by the Philosopher between Husband and Wife 4. For Alliance she being daughter to Henry the Eighth and he Grandchild to Edward the Fourth 5. For his Education with Her under his Mother 6. For his Religion for which he was an Exile as she was a Prisoner and both Confessors But now when the marriage with Prince Philip was consummated Pool at last got leave for England and to wipe away