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A40655 The church-history of Britain from the birth of Jesus Christ until the year M.DC.XLVIII endeavoured by Thomas Fuller. Fuller, Thomas, 1608-1661.; Fuller, Thomas, 1608-1661. History of the University of Cambridge snce the conquest.; Fuller, Thomas, 1608-1661. History of Waltham-Abby in Essex, founded by King Harold. 1655 (1655) Wing F2416_PARTIAL; Wing F2443_PARTIAL; ESTC R14493 1,619,696 1,523

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in the main agreeing together Quod duo stent Libri clausi Anglis Regiâ in ARA Lumina caeca duo Pollubra sicca duo An clausum caecúmque Dei tenet Anglia cultum Lumine caeca suo sorde sepulta suâ Romano ritu dum Regalem instruit ARAM Purpuream pingit * ali●s Religiosa Luxuriosa Lupam 42. Mr. George Herbert of Trinity-Coll in Cambridge made a most ingenious retortion of this Hexastick which as yet all my industry cannot recover Yet it much contenteth me that I am certainly informed that the posthume Remains shavings of Gold are carefully to be kept of that not lesse pious than witty writer are shortly to be put forth into Print when this his Anti pelvi Melvi But now at last Melvin his liberty was procured by the intercession of the chief of the Reformed in France Ann. Reg. Jac. 13 Ann. Dom. 1615. and being released he afterwards became Professour at Sedan in the Duke of ●ovillion his Countrey Here he ceased not to traduce the Church of England against which he wrote a scroale of Saphicks entituled TAMICHAMI-CATEGERIA 43. This year Thomas Bilson The death of Bishop Bilson Bishop of Winchester who carried Prelature in his very aspect ended his life first School-Master then Warden of Winchester afterwards Bishop of Worcester and lastly of Winchester A deep and profound Scholar excellently well read in the Fathers principally shewed in his Defence of Christ his descent into Hell 44. By the way Campian his falshood it is a falshood what Campian writes confidently that Cheney Bishop of Gloucester had affirmed unto him Namely that concerning this Article it was moved in a Convocation at London Quemad●odum sine tumultu penitus eximatur de Symbole How it might without any noise be wholly taken out of the Creed For no such debate appeateth upon Record in our Convocations and as for Campian his single affirmation is of no validity 45. Marcus Antonius de Dominis 1616. Dec. 6. Archbishop of Spalato Archbishop of Spalato came over into England was here courteously welcomed and plentifully preferred of whose hypocrisie and ingratitude largely b viz anno 1622. hereafter 46. King JAMES went into Scotland to visit His native Countrey Mar. 14. The King goes into Scotland with a Princely train In his passage thither He was much affected with a Sermon which one of his Chaplains preached upon this Text c Gen. 13. 2 3. Gen. 13. 2 3. And Abraham was very rich in cattell in silver and in gold And he went on his journeys from the South even to Bethell to the place where his Tent had been at the beginning As for His entertainment in Scotland we leave it to their Historians to relate For may my pen be plindered by the Borderers or Mosse-Troopers if offering to crosse Tweed into another Countrey 47. This year died Doctor William James The death of Bishop James born in Cheshire Master first of the University-Colledge then D●an of Christ-Church in Oxford Chaplain to Robert Dudley Earle of Leitester and Confessour to him at his death and at last made Bishop of Durham He expended much on the repairing of the Chappel of Durham-house in the Strand and in his younger da●es was much commended for his hospitality 48. Two other prime Prelates accompanied him to the other world Bishop Robinson and Bishop Bennet Dr. Henry Robinson Provest of Queen-Colledge in Oxford Bishop of Carlisle of great temperance milde in speech but weak in constitution The other Robert Bennet Fellow of Trinity-Colledge in Cambridge Chaplain to the Lord Burleigh termed by a great Divine Eruditus Bene●ictus Bishop of Hereford well-deserving of his See whose Houses he repaired 49. Doctor Mocket Doctor Mocket his Translation of our English Liturgie Warden of All-Souls in Oxford Chaplain to George Abbot Archbishop of Canterbury set forth a Book in pure Latine containing The Apologie of the Church of England The greater and lesser Catechisme The nine and thirty Articles The Common Prayer The Ordination of Bishops Priests and Deacons The Politie or Government of the Church of England As for the Homilies too tedious to be translated at large he epitomized them into certain Propositions by him faithfully extracted 50. No sooner appeared this Book in print Cavilled at by many but many faults were found therein Indeed it fared the worse for the Authour the Authour for his Patron the Archbishop against whom many Bishops began then to combine Some accused him of presumption for undertaking such a task without d Yet ●um Privilegio is prefixt on the first page Commission from the KING it being almost as fa●all for Private persons to tamper with such Publick matters Ann. Dom. 1617 Ann. Reg. Jac. 15 as for a Subject to match into the blood-Royal without leave of his Soveraigne Others complained that he enlarged the liberty of a Translatour into the licence of a Commenter and the Propositions out of the Homilies by him collected were made to lean to the judgment of the Collectour James Montague Bishop of Winchester a potent Courtier took exceptions that his Bishoprick in the marshalling of them was wronged in the method as put e In his Politica Ecclesiae Angl. cap 5. p. 314. The pinching accusation after any whose Bishop is a Privie Counsellour 50. But the main matter objected against it was That this Doctor was a better Chaplain than a Subject contracting the Power of his PRINCE to enlarge the Priviledge of his Patron allowing the Archbishop of Canterbury's power to confirm the Election of Bishops in his Provinces citing f ibid. pag. 309. for the same the 6● Canon of the first Nicene Councell established by Imperiall authority If any be made a Bishop without the censent of his Metropolitan he ought not to be a Bishop 51. This was counted an high offence to attribute an obliging authority either to Canon or Civil Law Imperiall Decrees command not in England both which if crossing the Common Law of the Land are drowned in their passage as they saile over from Callis to Dover and K. JAMES justly jealous of his own Prerogative approved not such a confirming power in the Archbishop wich might imply a Negative Voice in case he disliked such Elects as the KING should recommend unto him 52. Hereupon On the burning of his Book Dr. Mocket dyeth Doctor Mocket his Book was ceasured to be burned which was done accordingly Now although the imperfections and indiscretions of this Translatour might be consumed as dross in the fire yet the undoubted truth of the Articles of the English Church therein contained as Flame-free and perfectly refined will endure to all eternity The Doctor took this censure so tenderly especially so much defeated in his expectation to finde punishment where he looked for preferment as if his life were bound up by sympathy in his Book he ended his daies soon after 53.
suspect that Dunstan who could blow Coals elsewhere as well as in his Furnace though at distance vertually or rather viciously present had a Finger yea a Hand therein Heart-broken with these Rebellions 958 King Edwin died in the Flower of his Age. 5 Edgati 1 24. Edgar succeeds him Dunstan recalled by King Edgar and takes a double Bishoprick and recalls Dunstan home 959 receiving him with all possible Affection 2 Yea now Dunstan's Stomack was come down and he could digest a Bishoprick which his Abstemiousness formerly refused And one Bishoprick drew down another VVorcester and London not successively but both a-breast went down his Conscience Yea never Age afforded more Pluralist Bishops In this Kings reign Letine held b Vid. Antiq. Britan. p. 83. Lincoln and Leicester oswald a great Monk-monger of whom hereafter held York and VVorcester Aldulph his Successour in both Churches did the like pardoned yea praised for the same though Woolstan because no favourer of Monks is reproved for the like Plurality Thus two men though doing the same thing do not the same thing Bigamy of Bishopricks goes by Favour and it is condemnable in one what is commendable in another Anno Regis Edgari 2 Odo Severus Anno Dom. 959 Arch-bishop of Canterbury being ceremoniously to consecrate Dunstan Bishop of VVorcester used all the Formalities fashionable at the Consecration of an a Antiq. Britan ibidem Arch-bishop And being reproved for the same he answered for himself That he foresaw that Dunstan instantly after his death would be Arch-bishop of Canterbury And therefore a compendious way to spare Paines he onely by a provident Prolepsis ante-dated his Consecration Surely whosoever had seen the decrepit age of Odo the affection of King Edgar to Dunstan the affection of Dunstan to Dignity needed no extraordinary prophetical Spirit to presage that on the supposition of Dunstan's surviving him he should succeed him in the Arch-bishoprick of Canterbury 25. Yea King Edgar was so wholly Dunstanized Oswald's Law to eject secular Priests that he gave over his Soul Body and Estate to be ordered by him and two more then the Triumvirate who ruled England namely Ethelwald Bishop of Winchester and Oswald Bishop of Worcester This Oswald was the man who procured by the Kings Authority the Ejection of all Secular Priests out of Worcester and the placing of Monks in their Room which Act was called Oswald's Law in that Age. They might if it pleased them have stiled it Edgar's Law the Legislative Power being then more in the King then in the Bishop This Oswald's Law afterwards enlarged it self over all England Secular Priests being thrown out and Monks every where fixed in their rooms till King Henry the eighth his Law outed Oswald's Law and ejected those Drones out of their Habitations 26. King Edgar violated the Chastity of a Nun at Wilton Dunstan's disciplining of king Edgar Dunstan getting notice thereof refused at the Kings Request to give him his Hand because he had defiled a Daughter of God as he termed her Edgar hereby made sensible of his Sin with Sorrow confessed it and Dunstan now Arch-bishop of Canterbury enjoyned him seven years Penance for the same Monks endeavour to inforcea mock-Parallel betwixt David and Edgar Nathan and Dunstan herein Sure I am on David's profession of his Repentance Nathan presently pronounced Pardon b 2 Sam. 12. 13 the Lord also hath put away thy Sin thou shalt not die consigning him to be punished by God the Principall using an Undutifull Son Treacherous Servants and Rebellious Subjects to be the Instruments thereof but imposing no voluntary Penance that David should by Will-worship undertake on himself All that I will adde is this If Dunstan did septennary Penance to expiate every mortall Sin to use their own Termes he committed he must have been a Methusalah extremely aged before the day of his Death 27. More commendable was Dunstan's Carriage towards an English Count 12 who lived incestuously with his own Kinswoman 969 Dunstan admonished him once And carriage towards an incestuous Count. twice thrice nothing prevailed whereupon he proceeded to Excommunicate him The Count slighted his Excommunication conceiving his Head too high for Church-Censures to reach it King Edgar falsly informed desires Dunstan to absolve him and is denied Yea the Pope sends to him to the same Purpose and Dunstan persists in his c Osbern in vita Dunstani Refusall At last the Count conquered with Dunstan's Constancy and the sense of his own Sin came into a Nationall Council at Canterbury where Dunstan sate President active therein to substitute Monks in the places of Secular Priests on his bare Feet with a Bundle of Rods tendering himself to Dunstan's Chastisement This wrought on Dunstan's mild Nature scarce refraining from Teares who presently absolved him 28. Three things herein are remarkable Observations thereon First that Bribes in the Court of Rome may purchase a Malefactor to be innocent Secondly that the Pope himself is not so infallible but that his Key may misse the Lock and he be mistaken in matter of Absolution Thirdly that men ought not so with blind Obedience to obey his pretended Holinesse but that if with Dunstan here they see just Cause to the contrary it is no Mortall Sin to disobey his Commands 29. The Apprentiship of Edgar's Penance long since expired Edgar's Canons why by us here related he flourished in all Monarchicall Lustre sole Founder of many Co-founder of more Benefactor to most Abbeys in England Anno Dom. 969 And as he gave new Cases to most Monasteries repairing their outward Buildings so he gave new Linings to all Anno Regis Edgari 12 substituting Monks in stead of the Secular Priests whom he expelled Many Ecclesiasticall Canons were by him ordained which at large are presented in S t. Henry Spelman and which I have neither List nor Leisure to recount in this my History Our Women have a Proverb It is a sad Burden to carry a dead mans Child and surely an Historian hath no heart to take much Pains which herein are Pains indeed to exemplify dead Canons dead and buried long since as most relating to Monkery this Age wherein we live being little fond of Antiquity to know those things which were antiquated so many yeares since 30. Now though the Devotion of King Edgar may be condemned to be byassed to Superstition Edgar a most triumphant King yet because the Sincerity of his Heart sought to advance Gods Honour according to the Light in those dark dayes he appears one of the most puissant Princes that ever England enjoyed both in Church and Common-wealth I have read in a most fair and authentick guilded a Extant in the precious Library of S r. Tho. Cotton Manuscript wherein he stileth himself Gods Vicar in England for the ordering Ecclesiasticall matters a Title which at this day the Pope will hardly vouchsafe to any
to receive large summes of money for his leave after whose faculties obtained if such marriage were against the Law of God men did sin not with less guiltiness but more Expences 26. That the Bodies of the Dead be not carried to be buried out of their own Parishes so that the Parish Priest should lose his due unto him 27. That none out of a rash novelty which we know to have happened exhibit reverence of Holiness to any Bodies of the Dead fountains or other things without Authority from the Bishop 28. That none persume hereafter what hitherto men used in England to sell Men like bruite Beasts Anno Dom. 1102. This Constitution as all others which concerned the Subjects Civil right found not general obedience in the Kingdom For the proceedings of the Canon Law were never wholly received into practice in the Land but so as made subject in whatsoever touched temporals to secular Laws and national Customs And the Laytie at pleasure limited Canons in this behalf Nor were such sales of servants being mens proper goods so a See Mr Selden spicileg ad Eadmerum pag. 208. weakned with this prohibition but that long after they remained legal according to the Laws of the Land 29. That the sin of Sodometry both in Clergie and Laytie should be punished with heavy Censures Remarkable that the same Synod which forbad Priests Marriage found it needful to punish Sodometry an Italian Vice beginning now to be naturaliz'd in England For those who endeavour to make the way to heaven narrower then God hath made it by prohibiting what he permits do in event make the way to hell wider occasioning the committing of such sins which God hath forbidden We may further observe that the plaister now applied to the rotten sore of Sodometry was too gentle too narrow and too little time laid on Too gentle for whereas the sin is conceived to deserve death it was onely slubber'd over that the party convict of this Wickedness if in Orders was admitted to no higher honour and deposed from what he had till restored again on his repentance Too narrow if it be true what one observes that b Bale in the Acts of English Votaries second part chap. 74. MONKS as neither merely Lay nor Priests were not threatned with this Curse where all was hidden in Cloysters Lastly too little time laid on for whereas at first it was constituted that such Excommunication of Sodomites convicted should solemnly be renewed every Lords Day this short-liv'd Canon did die in the birth thereof and Anselme himself c Eadmerus ut prius postponi concessit suffered it to be omitted on pretence that it put beastly thoughts into many mens mindes whose corruption abused the punishment of sin in the provocation thereof whilest others conceive this relaxation indulged in favour to some great offenders who hardened in Conscience but tender in Credit could not endure to be so solemnly publickly and frequently grated with the shame of the sin they had committed So much for the Constitutions of that Synod wherein though Canons were provided for Priests Cap a Pe from the shavnig to the shooes yet not a syllable of their instructing the people and preaching Gods word unto them We must not forget that men guilty of Simony in the first Canon are not taken in the Vulgar acception for such as were promoted to their places by money but in a new coyned sence of that word for those who were advanced to their Dignities by investiture from the King which gave occasion to the long and hot Broil happening betwixt King Henry and Anselme which now we come to relate 4. The King commanded him to Consecrate such Bishops 4. as he lately had invested 1103 namely An selme refuseth to consecrate the Kings Bishops William of Winchester Roger of Hereford c. which Anselme refused because flatly against the Canon newly made in the Councel of Rome by Pope Vrban that any who had their entrance by the Authority of temporal Princes should be admitted to Bishopricks Hereupon the King enjoyned Gerard Arch-Bishop of York to Consecrate them who out of opposition to Anselme his Competitour was as officious to comply with the King King as the other was backward Anno Dom. 1105. hoping thereby to hitch his Church a degree the higher Anno Regis Hen. 16. by help of his Royal Favour Here hapned an unexpected accident For William Bishop of Winchester refused Consecration from the Arch-Bishop of York and resigned his staff and ring back again to the King as illegally from him This discomposed all the rest For whereas more then the moity of Ecclesiastical persons in England were all in the same condemnation as invested by the King the very multitude of offenders would have excused the offence if loyal to their own cause Whereas now this defection of the Bishop of Winchester so brake the ranks and maimed their entireness that their cause thereby was cast by their own confession and so a party raised among them against themselves 5. Soon after Anselme sent to Rome the King was contented that Anselme should go to Rome to know the Popes pleasure herein But one none of the Conclave without a prophetical spirit might easily have foretold the resolution of his Holiness herein never to part with power whereof how injuriously soever though but pretendedly possessed Anselme for his complyance with the Pope herein is forbidden to return into England while the King seiseth on his temporalities 6. However The king parts with his investing of Bishops not log after 1106. by mediation of friends 7. they are reconciled the King disclaiming his right of Investitures a weak and timerous act of so wise and valiant a Prince whose Predecessors before the Conquest held this power though some time loosely in their own hands and his Predecessors since the Conquest grasp'd it fast in their fist in defiance of such Popes as would finger it from them Whereas now he let it go out of his hand whilest his Successors in vain though with a long arme reach't after it to recover it And now Anselme who formerly refused consecrated all the Bishops of vacant Sees amongst whom Roger of Sarisbury was a prime person first preferred to the Kings notice because he began prayers quickly and caded them speedily for which quality he was commended as fittest for a Chaplain in the Camp and was not unwelcome to the Court on the same account 7. Anselme having devested the King of investing Bishops one of the fairest roles in his Ward-robe did soon after deprive the Clergie of one half of themselves Anselme forbids Priests marriage For in a solemn Synod he forbad Priests Marriage wherein 1107 as charitably we believe 8. his intentions pious and commendable and patiently behold his pretences specious and plausible so we can not but pronounce his performance for the present injurious and culpable and the effects thereof
of the chimney or fire-makers to these Canons If so surely they had their Holiday-clothes on when sent to the Tower Kitchin-stuff doth not use to be tried in that place and were considerable if not in themselves in the affections of others And now well fare the heart of b In Anna 1191. Roger Hoveden who plainly tels us that these Focariae were these Canons Concubines See here the fruit of forbidding marriage to the Clergy against the Law of God and nature What saith the Apostle c 1 Cor. 7. 9. It is better to marry then to burn or which is the same in effect it is better to have a wife then a fire-maker 42. Albericus Bishop of Hostia came post form Rome A Synod at Westminster sent by Pope Innocent the second into England 4. Dece 13. called a Synod at Westminster 1138 where eighteen Bishops and thirty Abbots met together Here was conluded That no Priest Deacon or sub-Deacon should hold a wife or woman within his house under pain of degrading from his Christendom and plain sending to hell That no Priests son should claim any spiritual living by heritage That none should take a Benefice of any Lay-man That none were admitted to Cure which had not the letters of his Orders That Priests should do no bodily labour And that their transubstantiated God should dwell but eight dayes in the box for fear of worm-eating moulding or stinking with such like Anno Dom. 1138 In this Synod Theobald Abbot of Becco Anno Regis Steph. 7. was chosen Arch-Bishop of Canterburie in the place of William lately deceased 43. The most considerable Clergy-man of England in this age Henry of Winchester Englands Arch-Prelate for birth wealth and learning was Henry of Bloys Bishop of Winchester and Brother to King Stephen He was by the Pope made his Legate for Britaine and out-shined Theobald the Arch-Bishop of Canterbury For although Theobald just at this time was augmented with the title of Legatus natus which from him was entailed on his successors in that See yet this Henry of Bloys being for the present Legatus factus out-lustred the other as far as an extraordinary Ambassador doth a Leger of the same Nation In this Henry two interests did meet and contend that of a Brother and that of a Bishop but the later clearly got the conquest 1139. as may appear by the Councel he called at Winchester 5. wherein the King himself was summoned to appear Yea some make Stephen personally appearing therein a dangerous precedent to plead the cause of the Crown before a conventicle of his own subjects so that to secure Rome of Supremacy in appeals he suffered a Recovery thereof against his own person in a Court of Record loosing of himself to save the Crown thereby unto himself But William of Malmesbury present at the Councel and therefore his testimony is to be preferred before others mentions onely three parties in the place present there with their attendance 1. 2. 3. Roger of Sarisbury with the rest of the Bishops grievously complaining of their Castles taken from them Henry Bishop of Winchester the Popes Legat President of the Councel With Theobald Arch-Bishop of Canterbury pretending to umpire matters in a moderate way Hugh Arch-Bishop of Roan and Aubery de Vere ancester to the Ear of Oxford as Advocate for King Stephen This Aubery de Vere seems learned in the Laws being charactered by my a William Malmsbury hist novel lib. 2. pag. 183. Author homo causarum varietatibus exercitatus a man well versed in the windings of causes 44. In this Synod first the commission of Pope Innocent the second was read The issuless issue of the Synod at Winchester impowring the said Henry Bishop of Winchester with a Legative authority Then the Legate made a Sermon Latiariter which is as I conceive in the Latin tongue We finde not his text But know this was the subject of his discourse to inveigh against King Stephen depriving those Bishops of their Castles Sermon ended the Kings advocates or true subjects rather many making them to speak only out of the dictates of their own Loyalty not to plead by deputation from the King made his defence that Bishops could not canonically hold Castles and that the King had dispoyled them of their treasure not as Episcopal persons but as they were his Lay-offices advised thereto by his own security The Bishops returned much for themselves and in fine the Synod brake up without any extraordinary matter effected For soon after came Queen Maud with her Navie and Armie out of Normandy 1140. which turned debates into deeds 6. and consultations into actions But we leave the readers to be satisfied about the alternation of success betwixt King Stephen and Maud to the Historians of our State There may they read of Maud her strange escapes when avoiding death by being believed dead otherwise she had proved in her grave if not pretended in a Coffin when getting out in white Lynen under the protection of Snow I say how afterwards both King Stephen and Robert Earl of Glocester were taken prisoners 1141. and given in Exchange 7. the one for the liberty of the other Anno Dom. 1141. with many such memorable passages the reader may stock himself from the pens of the civil Historians the proper relators thereof 45. It is strange to conceive how men could be at leasure in the troublesome Reign of King Stephen to build and endow so many Religious foundations Why plenty of Religious foundations in these Martiall dayes Except any will say that men being as mortal in peace most dying in War the devotions of those dayes maintaining such deeds meritorious for their souls made all in that Martial age most active in such employments Not to speak of the Monastery of S r Mary de pratis 10. founded by Robert Earl of Leicester 1144. and many others of this time the goodly Hospital of S t Katharines nigh London was founded by Maud wife to King Stephen though others assign the same to Ro. Bishop of Lincoln as founder thereof So stately was the Quire of this Hospital that it was not much a Stows Survey of London pag. 117. inferiour to that of S t Pauls in London when taken down in the dayes of Queen Elizabeth by Doctor Thomas Wilson the Master thereof and Secretary of State 46. Yea King Stephen himself was a very great founder Religious houses founded by King Stephen S t Stephen was his tutelary Saint though he never learned his usurpation from the patient example of that Martyr whose name he bore on whose day he was Crowned to whose honor he erected S t Stephens Chappel in Westminster near the place where lately the Court of Request was kept He built also the Cistertians Monastery in Feversham with an Hospital near the West-gate in York And whereas formerly there were paid out
Sons having much of the Mother in them grew up as in Age in obstinacy against him His Subjects but especially the Bishops being the greatest Castle mongers in that Age very stubborn and not easily to be ordered 54. Mean time one may justly admire What became of Maud the Empress than no mention in Authors is made of nor provisions for Maud the Kings Mother surviving some years after her Son's Coronation in whom during her life 〈◊〉 lay the real right to the Crown 〈◊〉 Yet say not King Henries policy was little in preferring to take his Title from an Usurper by adoption rather then from his own Mother the rightful heir by succession and his piety less in not attending his Mothers death but snatching the Scepter out of her hand seeing no Writer ever chargeth him with the least degree of undutifulness unto her Which leadeth us to believe that this Maud worn out with age and afflictions willingly waved the Crown and reigned in her own contentment in seeing her Son reign before her 55. Those who were most able to advise themselves 1. are most willing to be advised by others 1155. as appeared by this politick Prince The body of the Common-Law compiled Presently he chuseth a Privy Councel of Clergie and Temporalty and refineth the Common Laws Yea towards the end of his Reign began the use of our Iti●erant Judges The platform hereof he fetch'd from France where he had his education and where Charles the Bald some hundred of years before had divided his Land into twelve parts assigning several Judges for administration of Justice therein Our Henry parcelled England into six Divisions and appointed three Judges to every Circuit annually to visit the same Succeeding Kings though changing the limits have kept the same number of Circuits and let the skilful in Arithmetick cast it up whether our Nation receiveth any loss by the change of three Judges every year according to Henry the second 's Institution into two Judges twice a year as long since hath been accustomed 56. The Laws thus setled King Henry cast his eye on the numerous Castles in England 2. As a good reason of State formerly perswaded the building 1156. so a better pleaded now for the demolishing of them Castles demolished William the Conqueror built most of them and then put them into the custody of his Norman Lords thereby to awe the English into obedience But these Norman Lords in the next generation by breathing in English ayre and wedding with English wives became so perfectly Anglized and lovers of Liberty that they would stand on their guard against the King on any petty discontentment If their Castles which were of proof against Bowes and Arrows the Artillery of that Age could but bear the brunt of a sudden assault they were priviledged from any solemn Siege by their meanness and multitude as whose several beleguerings would not compensate the cost thereof Thus as in foul bodies the Physick in process of time groweth so friendly and familiar with the disease that they at last side together and both take part against Nature in the Patient so here it came to pass that these Castles intended for the quenching in continuance of time occasioned the kindling of Rebellion To prevent farther mischief King Henry razed most of them to the ground and secured the rest of greater consequence into the hands of his Confidents if any ask how these Castles belong to our Church-History know that Bishops of all in that Age were the greatest Traders in such Fortifications 57. Thomas Becket Thomas Becket L. Chancellor of England born in London and though as yet but a Deacon Arch-Deacon of Canterbury Doctor of Canon-Law bred in the Universities of Oxford Paris Bononia was by the King made Lord Chancellor of England During which his office who braver then Becket None in the Court wore more costly clothes Anno Dom. 1158. mounted more stately steeds made more sumptuous feasts kept more jovial company brake more merry jests used more pleasant pastimes In a word he was so perfect a Lay-man that his Parsonages of Bromfield and S t Mary-hill in London with other Ecclesiastical Cures whereof he was Pastor might even look all to themselves he taking no care to discharge them This is that Becket whose mention is so much in English and miracles so many in Popish writers We will contract his acts in proportion to our History remitting the Reader to be satisfied in the rest from other Authors 58. Four years after His great reformation being made Arch-Bishop of Canterbury upon the death of Theobald 1162 Becket was made by the King 8. Arch-Bishop of Canterbury The first Englishman since the Conquest and he but a mongrel for his mother was a Syrian the intercourse of the Holy-War in that age making matches betwixt many strangers who was preferred to that place And now if the Monks their writing his life may be believed followed in him a great and strange Metamorphosis Instantly his cloaths were reformed to gravity his diet reduced to necessity his company confined to the Clergie his expences contracted to frugality his mirth retrenched to austerity all his pastimes so devoured by his piety that none could see the former Chancellor Becket in the present Arch-Bishop Becket Yea they report that his clothes were built three stories high next his skin he was a Hermite and wore sack-cloth in the midd he had the habit of a Monk and above all wore the garments of an Arch-Bishop Now that he might the more effectually attend his Archiepiscopal charge he resigned his Chancellors place whereat the King was not a little offended It added to his anger that his patience was daylie pressed with the importunate petitions of people complaining that Becket injured them Though generally he did but recover to his Church such possessions as by their covetousness and his predecessors connivence had formerly been detained from it 59. But A stubborn defender of the vicious Clergy against secular Magistrates the main matter incensing the King against him was his stubborn defending the Clergie from the secular power and particularly what a great fire doth a small spark kindle that a Clerk having killed and stolen a Deer ought not to be brought before the Civil Magistrate for his punishment Such impunities breeding impieties turned the house of God into a den of thieves many rapes riots robberies murders were then committed by the Clergie If it be rendered as a reason of the viciousness of Adonijah that his father never said unto him a 1 King 1. 6. Why doest thou so No wonder if the Clergy of this age were guilty of great crimes whom neither the King nor his Judges durst call to an account And seeing Ecclesiastical censures extend not to the taking away of life or lim such Clerks as were guilty of capital faults were either altogether acquitted or had onely penance inflicted upon
Pope must either abate of his Traine or finde his Officers other waies of subsistance 37. Secondly By his Annates for Annates so called because they were the intire Revenues of one Yeare in the nature of first Fruits which the Bishops and inferiour Clergie paid to the Pope We have no light concerning the latter but can present the Reader with an exact account what every Bishop in England new elected or translated to a See paid at his entrance to his Holinesse BISHOPRICK paid a This Catalogue was extracted our of Bishop Godwin Canterbury 10000. F. Besides for his Pall 5000. F. London 3000. F. Winchester 12000. D. Elie 7000. D. Lincolne Coventrey and Lichfield 1733. D. Salisbury 4500. * This standeth for Crown Cr. Bath and Wells 430. D. Exeter 6000. D. Norwich 5000. D. Worcester 2000. F. Hereford 18000. F. Chichester 333. F. Rochester St. Davids 1500. F. Landaffe 700. F. Bangor 126. F. St. Asaph 126. F. Yorke 10000. D. Besides for his Pall 5000. D. Durham 9000. F. Carlisle 1000. F. In this account F stands for Florenes being worth 4s 6d in our English money D for single Duckets sufficiently known for 8 shillings Lincolnes not being valued I behold as a mee● casual omission in this Catalogue but can render a reason why Rochester not rated who being accounted as Chaplain to the Archbishop of Canterbury and antiently in his Donation may be supposed valued in the high valuation of his Patron That Bath and Wells then so high in Wealth should be so low in first Fruits whereat my b Quod miror Godw in his Catalogue of Bishops p. 447 By appea's Authour wonders plainly shows that Favour was fashionable as in all other Courts so in the Court of Rome The rest of the English Bishopricks were not in being before the Reformation 39. Thirdly by Appeals The Pope having learn'd this policy from the Councill of Jethro to Moses * Exod. 18. 22. every Great thing they shall bring unto thee but every Small matter they viz the 70 Elders shall Judge reserved to himself the definitive sentence in all high Controversies which brought no small profit unto him 40. Fourthly By King Athelwolth's Pension by K. Athelph's Pension given by him to the Pope Anno 852. whereof largely before A distinct payment from Peter pence with which some confound it as stinted to three hundred c See Sir Henry Spelman's Councils p. 353. By his Dispensations Marks whereas the other were casual and increased according to the number of Houses 41. Fiftly for Dispensations Oh the charity of the Pope to lay heavy Burdens on mens consciences without command from God's Word too heavy for them to bear but then so mercifull he was for Money to take them off again thus Licences to marry within degrees forbidden for Priests base Sonnes to succeed their Fathers in a Benefice and a hundred other particulars brought yearly a Nemo scit into the Papal Treasury 42. Sixtly By Indulgencies Indulgencies are next though I know not how essentially distinguished from Dispensations nor dare warrant the distinction that the former was against the other above Canon Law As when Abbeys and other places were freed from Episcopal Jurisdiction and many other Priviledges and Exemptions both personal and conventual 43. Seventhly By Legatine Levies by Legatine Levies these though not Annuall yet came almost as often as the Pope's needs or covetousnesse would require them 44. Eighthly By Mortuaries Mortuaries due at the death of great Prelates though I finde not in what manner and proportion they were paid 45. Ninthly By Pardons Pardons He saveth his credit the best who makes no conjecture at the certainty of this Revenue And though the Pope as then too politick openly to confesse his profit by granting so since be too proud publickly to bemone his losse by stopping of these Pardons yet is he secretly and sadly sensible of a great emptinesse in his Treasure thereby 46. Tenthly By Peter-pence Peter-pence succeed granted by Ina King of the West Saxons to Pope Gregory the second Anno 626. It was a peny paid for every Chimney that smoaked in England which in that Hospitall Age had few smoaklesse ones the device of Cypher Tunnels or mock-Chimneys meerly for uniformity of building being unknown in those dayes Indeed before the Conquest such onely paid Peter-pence who were worth * See Spelman's Council p 625. thirty pence in yearly revenue or half a marke in goods but afterwards it was collected generally of all solvable Housekeepers and that on most heavy penalties 47. Now though none can tell what these amounted to To what they amounted yet conjecture may be made by descending to such proportions which no rational man will deny Allowing nine thousand Parishes abating the odde hundreds in England and Wales a hundred houses in every Parish two chimneys in every house one with another it ariseth unto a yearly summe of seven thousand five hundred pounds Here I say nothing of the intrinsecal value of their Peny worth two pence in our Age. 48. Eleventhly By Pilgrimages Pilgrimages follow many persons of quality going yearly to Rome somtimes perchance with bare feet but never with empty hands But the Pope's principal harvest was in the Jubile which of late recurred every five and twenty years when no fewer than two hundred thousand strangers have been counted at Rome at once Of these more than the tenth part may be justly allowed English it being alwaies observed that distance encreaseth devotion and the farthest off the forwardest in Will-worship of this nature 49. Twelfthly By Tenths we conclude with Tenths and on what Title they were paid to the Pope largely hereafter 50. Here we speak not of the accidentals All cannot be truly counted as Legacies bequeathed by the deaths of Princes and great Persons and other Casualties and Obventions Sixtus the fourth being wont to say that a Pope could never want Money while he could hold a Pen in his hand understand him to grant general Indulgencies though Luther's holding a pen in his hand hath since much marred his Mart herein Now certainly Demetrius could tell better what was gotten by making * Acts 19. 27. silver Shrines for Diana than S. Paul himself and while some Protestants compute the Papal profit to be a hundred and fifty thousand pounds per annum some more some lesse but all making it above the King's Revenues they doe but state his Income at randome 51. Onely Polidore Virgil Polidore Virgil Collector of the English Peter-pence if alive and willing were able to give a certain account of the Peter pence a good guesse at the rest of Papall Revenues knowing them as well as the Begger knows his dish as holding the Bason into which they were put being Collector general of Peter pence all over England But this Italian was too proud to accept them as gratuities in which nature they were first given
very yeer these three were cited to appear before Edmuna Grindall BP Their judgements of the Queen of London one who did not run of himself yea would hardly answer the spur in pressing conformity the BP asked them this question Have we not a godly Prince a The Register of 〈◊〉 pag. 33. speak is she evill To which they made their severall answers in manner following William White What a question is that the fruits do shew Thomas Rowland No but the Servants of God are persecuted under her Robert Hawkins Why this question the Prophet answereth in the Psalms How can they have understanding that work iniquity spoyling my peopl● and that extoll vanity Wonder not therefore if the Queen proceeded severely against some of them commanding them to be put into Prison though still their Party daily increased 11. Nicholas Wotton died this year Dean at the same time of Canterbury and Yorke The death of Dr. Wotton so that these two Metropolitan Churches so often contesting about their Priviledges were reconciled in his preferment He was Doctour of both Laws and some will say of both Gospels who being Privie Councellour to King Henry the Eighth Edward the Sixth Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth never overstrained his conscience such his oylie compliance in all alterations However he was a most Prudent man and happily active in those many Embassies wherein he was employed 12. The Romanists were neither ignorant not to observe 9. 1568 Harding and Saunders Bishop it in England nor idle not to improve the advantage lately given them by the discords betwixt the Bishops and Nonconformists And now to strengthen their Party two most active fugitive Priests Thomas Harding and Nicholas Saunders return into England and that Episcopall power which they had lately received from the Pope they largely exercised on the Papists 1. Absolving all English in the Court of Conscience who