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A36743 The life of Henry Chichele, Archbishop of Canterbury, who lived in the times of Henry the V. and VI. Kings of England written in Latin by Arth. Duck ; now made English and a table of contents annexed.; Vita Henrici Chichele archiepiscopi Cantuariensis sub regibus Henrico V. et VI. English Duck, Arthur, Sir, 1580-1648. 1699 (1699) Wing D2430; ESTC R236 99,580 208

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the Virgin Mary of St. Thomas of Canterbury and King Edward the Confessor and plac'd in it Eight Chaplains or Fellows Four Clerks Six Choristers and over all these a Master who were to pray for the Souls of the deceased He also built a large Hospital for the maintenance of the Poor of that place both which Foundations he endowed with ample Revenues which were afterwards augmented with great Legacies which his Brothers Robert and William Chichele two Eminent Citizens of London left them in their Wills After his return from his visitation of the Diocess of Lincoln he held a Synod at London on the 12 th of October being sollicited by Letters from the King to demand a supply of Money of the Clergy for the War with France For after the death of Henry the Fifth and Charles the Sixth the Dauphin supposing that the Name of King would be of great advantage to him caus'd himself to be crown'd at Poictiers and took upon him the Title of Charles the Seventh King of France and a great many Princes and Governors of Towns coming in to him who still retain'd an affection for the Name of France he made preparations for War with greater vigour On the other side John Duke of Bedford who by his Brother's Will was appointed Regent of France having contracted a stricter League of amity with Philip Duke of Burgundy by marrying his Sister Ann attack'd the Dauphin in several parts of France and having divided the Forces betwixt himself and Philip Duke of Burgundy he sent Thomas Montacute Earl of Salisbury toward Sens with some choise Troops and desir'd of Humphrey Duke of Glocester Regent of England a fresh Supply of Men and Money Whereupon Henry Bishop of Winchester Lord Chancellor of England John Stafford Bishop of Bath Lord Treasurer Richard Earl of Warwick William Alnewyke Keeper of the Privy Seal Lewis Lord Bourchier and Ralph Lord Cromwell were sent from the Duke of Glocester to the Synod The Bishop of Winchester in a formal Speech having laid before them the present condition of Affairs in France exhorted and intreated them to bestow some part of their Revenues for subduing the remains of the Dauphin's Forces But then it plainly appear'd how much they were all affected with the loss of King Henry the Fifth For whereas they had granted Tenth's so frequently and so readily in former Synods as we have related before they now stuck at the very first demand of the new King thinking that all the hopes of conquering France depended upon Henry the Fifth and that nothing could succeed now he was gone For when the Proctors for the Clergy had debated the Matter several days William Lyndewood was deputed by them to return their Answer which was That the Estates of the Clergy were so drain'd by the continual expences of the War that they were hardly sufficient to maintain them and their Families handsomely that the value of a great many Livings was so fallen that there were not Priests to be sound who would supply the Cures and in short That in the Commissions of all the Proctors for the Clergy the power of granting Tenths was expresly taken away Upon this the Bishop of Winchester went to the Lower House and in a long and pressing Oration besought them to supply the Necessities of the Publick but when he could obtain nothing of them who excus'd themselves upon the narrowness of their Commissions The Synod was adjourn'd by the Archbishop to the 26 th of January following At which time the Bishop of Winchester with the rest of the Lords came thither again and having made a Speech to the Bishops Abbots and Priors of the Vpper House in the Name of the King they granted half a Tenth protesting withal that This Concession should not oblige them unless the Proctors for the Clergy would consent to it for that a division of the two Orders of the Clergy in the matter of granting Tenths being introduced by this Example would be of very pernicious consequence to Posterity But the Lower House persisting stiffly in their former Resolutions were not at all mov'd with the importunate Demands first made by the Bishop of Winchester and afterwards by the Archbishop and the rest of the Bishops Whereupon the Archbishop presently dissolv'd the Synod and appointed another to be held two Months after on the 23 d of April thinking that by the Election of new Proctors the business would be more easily affected When this Synod was assembled the Archbishop first of all commanded the Lower House to chuse their Speaker who is commonly call'd the Prolocutor who pitch'd upon William Lyndewood of which he himself makes mention in his Commentaries After which the Lord Chancellor the Lord Treasurer William Alnewyke Keeper of the Privy Seal the Lord Scrope the Lord Cromwell with some others of the Privy Council came again to the Synod and the Lord Chancellor with his florid Speeches and the rest of the Lords engaging them severally by Flatteries Threats and Promises at length with much ado they obtain'd half a Tenth When this business was over one Robert Hoke and one Thomas Drayton both Priests one of the Diocess of Lincoln and the other of Canterbury were brought before the Synod and accus'd of Heresy It was alledg'd against them That they would not kneel before the Crucifix and that they had in their possession certain Books in which it was said that the Priest could not change the Host in the Sacrament into the Body of Christ that a Monastick Life and Auricular Confession were the Inventions of the Devil and that amongst Christians all things ought to be in common which Opinions they abjur'd publickly at Paul's Cross But the sharpest Accusation was brought against one William Russel of the Order of Minor Fryers for teaching the People in his Sermons That personal Tythes were not commanded by God but that it was lawful for all Christians to bestow them in charitable uses upon the Poor as they pleas'd themselves This extreamly troubled and perplex'd the Clergy who fear that if this Opinion should spread it self among the People they should lose this part of their Income by which the Wealth of their Order would be greatly diminish'd Wherefore he was order'd by the Synod on a day prefix'd to recant out of the Pulpit at Paul's Cross but before the time came he fled out of England whereupon he was pronounc'd contumacious by Edicts set forth against him and afterwards in open Court proclaim'd a Heretick and his Opinion was adjudg'd to be impious by the Decrees of both Vniversities which the University of Oxford presently signified by their Letters to the Archbishop and the Synod which are yet extant Shortly after the Synod being inform'd that he was at Rome sent Messengers to apprehend him and accuse him before the Pope who were allow'd a Farthing in the
were engag'd with the French who are in strict conjunction with the Scots by an ancient and even natural Alliance that is between the two Nations and therefore that it would be very hazardous to invade the French before England was secur'd from the Scots at home To this Speech of the Earl's reply'd John Duke of Exeter a Man of great Wisdom and Learning which he had acquir'd in the Universities of Italy whither he was sent by his Father who design'd him for the Church He very eloquently maintained That the French ought first to be invaded upon whose aid the Scots relying infested the English That if they were subdued the Scots would come in of themselves according to this Aphorism of the Physicians That the Remedy must be first applied to the Cause of the Disease and that in order to the healing a Wound effectually the peccant Humour must first of all be purg'd For from whence said he do the Scots draw the first rudiments either of Learning or Arms but from their Education in France How can the Scotch Nobility be maintain'd if those Pensions should fail which they use to receive from France or if that Kingdom should be subdued with what Nation will the Scots maintain any Commerce or from whom will they implore Assistance Not from Denmark that King is allied to you by marriage with your Sister not from Portugal or Castile both those Princes are your Cousin-Germans not from Italy that is too remote not from Germany or Hungary they are both in league with us so that the Scots will submit to you of themselves when the French are conquer'd as the Tree necessarily withers when the Sap fails He also shew'd in the Instances of Malcolm and David Bruce that the Scots never invaded England but when the English were at war with France and therefore he propos'd that the Earl of Westmorland should be sent with some choice Troops to hinder them from attempting any thing in the King's absence He concluded that the Conquest of France would be a rich and plentiful reward of their Victory in comparison of which that of Scotland was but poor and inconsiderable The King and the Nobility were so much inclin'd in favour of this Opinion but especially the Dukes of Clarence Bedford and Glocester the King's Brethren who were enflam'd with the desire of acquiring Honur and Renown in the War with France by the Example of their Ancestors that when it came to be voted after the usual manner they all concurred in their Opinion with the Archbishop and cried out confusedly in the House War War with France By this means the Archbishop obtain'd great commendation of Posterity for his Wisdom who by this Counsel of his promoted a very successful War and averted a very great Calamity from the Church The King having dissolv'd the Parliament with great diligence provided his Army and Navy and made all other necessary preparations for such a War designing to invade France the next Year In the beginning of which that he might proceed according to the Law of Nations he sent Ambassadors into France the Bishops of Durham and Norwich to demand the Kingdom of King Charles who receiv'd them civilly and told them that he would shortly send Ambassadors into England to return an Answer to their Demands The Fleet and Army being ready for this Expedition and the Soldiers being order'd to rendezvouz at Southampton in order to embark on Board the Fleet The King in his Journy thither staid some time at Winchester where the French Ambassadors came to him who were the Earl of Vendosme William Bouratier Archbishop of Bourges Peter Fremell Bishop of Lisieux and Walter Cole Secretary to the King The Archbishop of Bourges made an Eloquent Oration in the name of the rest in which after he had largely and floridly describ'd the Miseries of War and the Advantages of Peace he offer'd the King in marriage the Lady Catharine King Charle's Daughter if he would desist from the War promising for her Dowry a great Sum of Money and some part of those Provinces which the King demanded by right of Inheritance The King only answer'd at that time that he would consider of the Conditions which they propos'd and the next day sitting on his Throne and attended with a great number of the Nobility the Ambassadors being call'd in he told them that the Conditions which they offer'd were such as he could not accept of with honour and calling Henry Archbishop of Canterbury he commanded him to give a fuller Anser to the Archbishop of Bourges Oration which he did to this effect That the King as soon as he came to the Crown thought nothing of greater importance than to maintain peace as well at home amongst his own Subjects as abroad with Foreign Princes For which cause he had call'd a Parliament in which having setled his Affairs at home he had sent Ambassadors into France to claim his right and to demand that part of the Kingdom of France which the Kings of England had held for some Ages by a lawful possession But seeing his Ambassadors had brought back no Answer from King Charles that he had levied an Army and provided all things necessary for the War and that he was now ready to pass over into France and revenge the wrong they had done him when he perceiv'd they made no account of his Right Nevertheless that he might testify to all the World how averse he was from shedding Christian Blood by the mutual Butchery of War that he would remit something of his Right that he would disband his Army and establish a Peace between the two Nations by marriage with Catharine upon condition that they would restore to him the Dutchies of Aquitain and Anjou and the other Dominions which his Ancestors enjoy'd in France neither forcibly nor clandestinely nor precariously That unless these Conditions were accepted the King would immediately enter France with his Army and lay it waste with Fire and Sword nor would he ever desist from slaughter and revenge till he had reduc'd it to his obedience and had recover'd the Dominion transmitted to him by right of Inheritance from his Predecessors And lastly That he call'd God Almighty both for a Witness and Avenger of his Cause whose Majesty he trusted would be propitious to so just a War When the Archbishop had done speaking the King interpos'd and with his Royal Word confirm'd all that he had deliver'd in more copious and Rhetorical Terms To which when the Archbishop of Bourges began to reply with reproachful Language and to reflect upon the King with more freedom than consisted with the Character of an Ambassador the King only reprimanded him for the liberty which he took and commanded the Ambassadors to depart the Kingdom under safe Conduct The King soon after follow'd them setting sail from Southampton with his whole Army on the 13 th of
Legate to Constance with a large Commission in which full power was granted him to lay down the Pontificate in his Name Whereupon the Legate putting on the Pontifical Robes and sitting in the Papal Chair as representing the Person of Gregory read his Commission publickly and resign'd the Papacy Benedict also being deserted by Ferdinand King of Arragon who had hitherto obey'd him by the Sentence of the Council was divested of the Popedom And that these Depositions of the Popes might appear to be lawful it was determin'd by a Decree of the Council that a General Council doth derive its Power immediately from Christ and that the Pope is subordinate to it After this they consulted about chusing a new Pope and it was agreed upon by the Council that six men out of each Nation should be deputed to go into the Conclave with the Cardinals and elect a Pope Now all things were manag'd in the Council by the Suffrages of five Nations the Germans the Italians the English the French and the Spaniards for it was in this Council that the English were first allow'd to be a Nation Out of them were chosen the Bishops of London Bath Worcester and Litchfield with the Abbot and Dean of York The third day after their entrance into the Conclave the Bishop of London leading the way with these words I Richard Bishop of London come to my Lord Cardinal Colonna all the rest follow'd his Example and chose Otho Colonna a Roman Prince and Cardinal of St. George of the Golden Fleece on the 11 th of November which being St. Martin's day the Pope took the Name of Martin the Fifth This Decree of the Council of Constance concerning the power of a General Council extreamly troubled the succeeding Popes insomuch that it was repealed by Leo the Tenth in the last Lateran Council since which a great many of the Canonists in their Commentaries and the Popish Divines in their long Disputations have disallow'd it either out of flattery to the Popes or else out of fear as having lost that liberty of speaking and writing which every one enjoy'd at the time of the Council of Constance when there was no Pope For Peter Ancharanus who was Advocate of the Council Baldus and Panormitanus gave it openly as their Opinion at that time That the Pope was subordinate to a Council and might be depos'd by it following herein the Authority of the Gloss of Archdiaconus and Geminianus who had deliver'd the same before in their Writings with whom Felinus and other more modern Authors do agree who approve the Council of Constance and maintain the same Opinion Nor is the Power of a Council restrain'd within such narrow limits that immediately upon the creation of a Pope it loses its Authority and can make no Decrees without the consent of the new Pope as Philip Decius imagined who is therefore deservedly censur'd by Charles Molinaeus and Panormitanus further adds That if the Pope dye or be depos'd in the time of a Council that then the power of Election is in the Council and not in the Cardinals alledging this Instance of the Council of Constance in which Martin the Fifth was chosen by the Cardinals and others to whom that Power was delegated by the Council But though this Decree was establish'd at that time in this Council of Constance yet it was afterwards of no force in the Council of Trent in which the Ambition of the Cardinals prevail'd who upon the death of Paul the Third who died in the time of the Council posted from Trent to Rome to create a new Pope But the Council of Constance by vertue of their Supream Authority in the beginning of their Session gave Commission under the Seals of the several Nations to Henry Bishop of Winchester and John Bishop of Litchfield to gather the Moneys due to the Chamber of Rome in England The Election of Martin the Fifth caus'd an incredible joy all over Christendom for every one thought that by this means the Peace of the Church would be re-establish'd The first notice of it in England was given by the Archbishop to the Synod and was presently divulged by Thanksgivings and solemn Processions This Synod was appointed by the Archbishop to be held at London on the 26 th of November upon a Command from the King by Letters out of France Thither came Thomas Bishop of Durham Lord Chancellour of England Thomas Beaufort Duke of Exeter Henry Percy Earl of Northumberland and Ralph Nevil Earl of Westmorland being sent from the Regent John Duke of Bedford to desire of the Clergy a supply of Money for the King who was then carrying on the War successfully in France which being seconded by the Request of the Archbishop they granted two Tenths In this Synod also Robert Gilbert Doctor of Divinity and Warden of Merton College in a long and eloquent Oration having first prais'd the University of Oxford laid before them the miserable Condition of the Students there who after many years spent in the study of the Sciences were not call'd thence to receive any reward of their Labours but were suffer'd to grow old in the University His Example was follow'd by Thomas Kington Doctor of Law and Advocate of the Arches who pleaded the same Cause for the University of Cambridge they both intreated in behalf of both Universities that by a Decree of the Synod some care might be taken to prefer them Whereupon it was decreed That all Livings whose yearly income amounted to sixty Marks should by the Patrons be given only to Doctors of Divinity Law or Physick those that were worth fifty Marks a year only to Licentiates in those Faculties or Batchelors of Divinity and those which did not exceed forty Marks yearly only to Masters of Arts or Batchelors of Law This related to those Benefices to which was annex'd the Cure of Souls The same Order almost was taken in those which are call'd Sinecures according to their respective Values It was further added That this Decree should not extend to those who had taken Degrees by some particular Grace But because it was provided by the Statutes of both Universities that the Students of Divinity should take no Degree in that Faculty till they had commenc'd Masters of Arts and that no Student of Canon Law should be created Doctor except he had studied the Civil Law this Condition was added to the Decree in favour of the Monks and Canon Lawyers that it should not be in force unless those Statutes were repeal'd For which purpose Thomas Felde Dean of Hereford and Thomas Lentwardyn Chancellor of St. Paul's in London were sent by the Synod to Oxford to treat about this Affair with the Masters of Arts by whose Suffrages the University is govern'd This was also signified to the Masters of Arts of Cambridge by Letters from the
abroad again some Opinions which he had recanted in the Synod two years before for which he was said to be relaps'd into Heresy His Tenets were these That God alone was to be invok'd by the Prayers of the Faithful that that Worship was due to Christ himself not upon the account of his Human Nature but of his Divine Nature only that it was not lawful to pray to Saints or any other created Being that those that offer'd Gifts to the Image of the Cross or of the Saints were guilty of Idolatry that a Monastick Life was contrary to the Institutions of Christ that the Administration of Civil Affairs and all Secular Government was forbidden to Priests by Christ himself and that many of those Opinions that were condemn'd as impious by the Council of Constance were Orthodox All these Assertions were referr'd by the Archbishop as Judge in this Affair to the four Orders of Mendicant Fryers who were to examine whether they were agreable to the Holy Scriptures and the Sense of the Fathers and the Lawyers were order'd to consider what punishment was to be inflicted on one relapsed into Heresy The Divines deliver'd their Opinion That the Tenets maintain'd by him were impious and contrary to the Holy Scriptures and the Decrees of the Church of Rome As to matter of Law William Lyndewood Official of the Court of Arches Thomas Brown Dean of the same Court and the other Lawyers answer'd That one suspected of Heresie was to be debarr'd from the Communion of the Church for a year and if after this probation he repented of his Errors he was to be receiv'd again into the bosom of the Church but if he relaps'd into Heresy again he was to be reputed guilty of a capital Crime and deliver'd over to the Secular Power whereupon by the Sentence of the Synod he was declar'd a Heretick and solemnly devested of his Orders Soon after the end of this Synod the whole Kingdom was seiz'd with the greatest consternation imaginable upon the News of the King's death who having pursued the Dauphin with too much heat as far as Bourges on the 31 st of August died at Bois de Vinciennes about three Miles from Paris of a violent Fever which he had contracted by his excessive Fatigues He died in a very unlucky time for King Charles his Father-in-Law pin'd away with grief for the death of his Son King Henry who was very dear to him and died within twenty days after The King's Body was brought over into England and buried at Westminster The Inheritance of both Kingdoms descended to Henry the Sixth who was then an Infant the government of which was left by the late King in his Will to his two Brothers that of England to Humphry Duke of Glocester and that of France to John Duke of Bedford till his Son should come of Age the care of whose Education was committed to Henry Beaufort Bishop of Winchester and Thomas Beaufort Duke of Exeter his Great Uncles Certainly no King of England ever excell'd King Henry the Fifth in all vertuous Qualifications nor was there any one whose death was so prejudicial to the Kingdom He was adorn'd with all the Accomplishments both of Body and Mind that could be desir'd in a Prince with Prudence Courage Constancy Modesty Bounty Eloquence Beauty and Strength all which being attended with a singular good Fortune procur'd him a wonderful esteem amongst Foreigners and are celebrated as well by the French Writers as by those of our own Nation The Duke of Glocester that he might settle the Affairs of the Kingdom according to the Injunctions of his Brother King Henry call'd a Parliament at Westminster on the 9 th of November and first of all he commanded the Archbishop of Canterbury to declare to both Houses the cause of their meeting for Thomas Bishop of Durham upon the death of the King had resign'd the Seal and other marks of the Chancellorship to which this Office belongs to the Duke of Glocester at Windsor and had laid down the Place The Archbishop having spoken largely in praise of the Vertues of King Henry the Fifth and made honourable mention of his Actions in France came to speak of the Young King and affirm'd that it was by the special favour of Almighty God that a Son of such promising hopes should succeed so great a Father that his very Title of the Sixth was attended with a lucky Omen for as the number Six was the most compleat of all the rest because in so many days God Almighty had made this vast Fabrick of the World so this King Henry the Sixth of that Name would be the greatest of all his Predecessors that he would compleat what his Father had so prosperously begun in France and that as he was descended both from the Kings of England and France so he would at length enjoy both those Crowns which were devolv'd to him by lawful Inheritance That he in the King's Name did declare to the Peers and all the People that they should enjoy all the Privileges and Immunities granted to them by his Highness's Predecessors and that he was commanded to give them three Reasons for calling this Parliament Which were That Governors might be assign'd the King by a publick Act that they might consult about the Peace of the Realm and the Administration of Justice and that they might provide for the defence of the Kingdom against the Insults of Foreign Enemies Lastly He exhorted them by the Example of Jethro Moses's Father-in-law to make choice of the best and wisest of the Nobility to take upon them the government of the King and Kingdom and besought them that they would use their utmost endeavours for the safety of the King and the benefit of their Country When the Archbishop had done speaking the Protectorship was unanimously confirm'd to the Duke of Glocester and some of the most Eminent of the Bishops and Nobility were appointed to be of the Privy Council till the King should come of Age of which the Archbishop was nam'd first But he having lost his King and Patron who had advanc'd him to the highest Honors and who dearly lov'd him when the Parliament was dissolv d retir'd within the Bounds of his Province in which he perform'd the Duties of his Function with great diligence For the Year after the death of Henry the Fifth by his Metropolitical Authority he visited the Diocesses of Chichester and Salisbury and the next year that of Lincoln in which Visitations he revers d all those things that had been acted amiss by the Ordinaries and examin'd into the Faith and Manners of the People In his journy through the Diocess of Lincoln he came to Higham Ferrers the Town where he was born in which out of a pious and commendable design of adorning the Place of his Nativity he dedicated a Noble College which he had formerly begun there to the Honour of
Pound out of all Ecclesiastical Preferments The Examination of this Matter being referr'd by the Pope to Branda Cardinal of Placenza he was condemn'd to perpetual Imprisonment unless he repented of his Error but afterwards escaping out of Prison he return'd into England and having preach'd a Sermon at Paul's Cross he abjur'd his Error with a formal Oath The Archbishop also by his Mandate enjoin'd the Franciscans that as often as they preach'd to the People they should teach them that personal Tythes were commanded to be paid both by the Laws of God and the Constitutions of the Holy Fathers The same Year after the Synod was ended the Archbishop by his Prudence dispell'd a dreadful Storm that threatned the Kingdom which was rais'd by the Dissentions of the Nobility For Henry Beaufort Son to John Duke of Lancaster by Catharine Swinford his third Wife being puff d up with the nobility of his Birth and the great Wealth which he had got together out of the Bishoprick of Winchester and not brooking the Rule of Humphry Duke of Glocester the Lord Protector he began to maintain an open enemity against him the Quarrel being afterwards more enflam'd on both Sides and many of the Nobility and others engaging in either Party they both went Arm'd and attended with their Servants and Adherents and a great number of Profligate and Seditious Persons wearing Arms by their Example went about the Streets of London and their Number was so great that the Citizens shut up their Shops and left off their Trades and were forc'd to keep Guard Day and Night in all the Streets of the City to repress the Insolence of these Mutineers Upon this the Archbishop accompanied with Peter Duke of Conimbra Son to the King of Portugal who was lately come into England to visit the King his Cousin rid through the City eight times in one Day betwixt the Duke's and the Bishop's Palaces and prevail'd so far upon them both by his Authority and Intreaties that they laid down their Arms and Matters were compos'd for a time But the Bishop though he had quitted his Arms had not yet relinquish'd his Hatred for soon after by Letters sent into France to the Duke of Bedford he accus'd the Duke of Glocester desiring the Duke of Bedford to come over into England with all speed if he tender'd the Safety of the King and the Peace of the Kingdom which otherwise must of necessity be involv'd in Blood and the devastations of a Civil War The Duke though the War went on succesfully in France by the surrender of a great many strong Towns and the defeat of a great Army of the French in a pitcht Battel at Vernoil yet esteeming the success of Affairs in France to depend upon the Peace of England immediately upon the receit of these Letters he committed the Administration of his Office to Thomas Beauchamp Earl of Warwick and came with all speed into England in the beginning of the Year 1426. and having call'd a Parliament at Leicester he examin'd the Quarrel between his Brother and the Bishop When they had both shew'd the causes of their discontent and from arguing began to break out into greater heats at the Duke of Bedford's entreaty they agreed to refer all Differences on both Sides to the determination of Arbitrators of whom Henry Archbishop of Canterbury was nam'd first after him Thomas Duke of Exeter John Duke of Norfolk Thomas Bishop of Durham Philip Bishop of Winchester John Bishop of Bath Humphry Earl of Stafford William Alnewyke Keeper of the Privy Seal and Ralph Cromwell who order'd them to join hands and in a set form of words to be repeated by them both to forgive all Injuries on both Sides and be friends with one another which Reconciliation was confirm'd by the Votes of the whole Parliament In this Session a supply of Money was granted for levying Soldiers for which end also about this time the Archbishop assembled a Synod at London on the 15 th of April Thither came John Kempe Archbishop of York and Lord Chancellor of England with Walter Hungerford Lord Treasurer and the Lord Chancellor having extoll'd the great pains and diligence of the Duke of Bedford in an Eloquent Oration the Synod granted the King half a Tenth The Bishop of Winchester who was created Cardinal thsi Year by Pope Martin the next Year went over with the Duke of Bedford into France and at Calais in the great Church of that Place he put on the Cap and other Ensigns of that Dignity with great solemnity on Candlemas-day He had sought this Honor with great earnestnss eight years before in the time of King Henry the Fifth and had obtain'd a Promise of it of Pope John the Twenty third who design'd to promote him very speedily and to appoint him his Legate à latere in England with a very large Authority But the Archbishop perceiving his Ambition at that time interpos'd with the King who was then in France by Letters which he wrote to him in a grave and modest style in which he shew'd That the Power of the Pope's Legates did derogate very much from the Dignity of the King from the Laws of the Land and from the Privileges of the Church of England A Copy of this Letter the Original of which is yet to be seen written with the Archbishop's own Hand we have here subjoin'd Sovereyn Lord as your humble Prest and debout Bedeman I recommand me to your Hygnesse desyreing evermore to heare and knowe of your gracious speed he le of body and of soule also my Lordys your brethren and all your royal hoste And as hertly as I can or may thanke Almightie God and Lord of all strengths and hostes that so graciously hath continued his mygty hond upon you sythen the time of your beginning hedirtoward into your most worship your Leige menys most hertly gladnesse and abating of the hy pride of your enemies And besech God both day and night with all your subgetts both spirituel and temporel so continue his hy Grace upon you and yowre that the mow come to the effect of your hy labor pees of both your regmes after your hertly desires Gracious Lord like it to remember you that be your moost worthie letters written at your towne of Caen rrb. day of September you charged me that be the abys of my Lord your brother of Bedford and of your Chaunceler sholde be ordeygned that all maner of men of your subgets wat astaat or condicion that thei were should abstyne letter of wrytes or pursuit making to the Pope after his election till the time that he have writen to you and ye againe to him as it hath be acustumed of honeste of your lond for the which cause neither I nor non odir man as ferforth as it may be knowe hath yit written nor sent ne no leve hath of passage to the
Pope in behalf of the Archbishop who had incurr'd his displeasure for opposing the excessive Power of the Court of Rome And indeed it was but reasonable that he who for promoting the common good of all and maintaining the Honour of the Kingdom so little dreaded the Pope's Anger should be defended by the publick Authority But the Bishop of Winchester beside his Title of Cardinal had the power of Legate in England conferr'd upon him by the Pope with a very large Commission or as they commonly term'd it a Faculty which Power he exercis'd with so great Avarice and got together such a prodigious Wealth that he was generally styl'd the Rich Cardinal The Year after this he return'd into England and having open'd his Commission in the presence of Humphry Duke of Glocester the Protector and many of the Bishops and Nobility Richard Caudray who was appointed Proctor for the King by the Duke of Glocester and the Privy Council expresly declar'd That by a particular Prerogative of the Kings of England which they had enjoy'd ever since the memory of man no Legate from the Pope could come into England without the King's leave and therefore if the Cardinal of Winchester by vertue of his Legantine Office should act any thing contrary to this Right of the King 's that he in the King's Name did interpose and disown all his Authority Whereupon the Cardinal promis'd openly before the Duke of Glocester and all that were present that he would not exercise his Office of Legate without the King's leave and that he would act nothing in it that might any ways infringe or derogate from the Rights Immunities and Privileges of the King or Kingdom Now upon his being made Cardinal and Legate he was oblig'd to lay down his Place of Lord Chancellor Laid down the Office of Chancellor as obliged which he did the Year before in the Parliament at Westminster he ought also to have been removed from the Privy Council but in respect of the Nobility of his Birth and his near alliance to the King by a particular favour he was allow'd to keep his Place there except when any But kept his Place in the Council with exception matter was to be debated between the King and the Pope for then it was expresly concluded that he should not be present which Limitation was confirm'd y Rot. Parliam ann 8 H. 6. the next Year by Act of Parliament and order'd to be entred in the Journals of the Privy Council Now the chief Reason that mov'd the Pope to create the Bishop of Winchester a Cardinal was that he might employ him in the War that he design'd The Pope rais'd imm against the Bohemians Who had pull'd down the Monasteries c. against the Bohemians who having embrac'd the Doctrine of Wickliff had pull'd down the Monasteries and Images and having abolished almost all the Rites and Ceremonies of the Romish Church had openly revolted from the Government of the Pope He therefore The Cardinal made General in the Bohemian War c. made him his General in the Bohemain War and appointed him Legate in Hungary Bohemia and all Germany with a far larger Commission by which He could pardon Rapes on Nuns c. he was impower'd to pardon Rapes committed upon Nuns to dispense with Marriages contracted within the fourth degree of Consanguinity with the Age of Persons to be admitted to Orders and Benefices with Interdicts and many other things which were contrary to the Constitutions of the Canon Law He was to demand a Tenth of the English Clergy for the War he was also order'd to demand a Tenth of the English Clergy for the Service of this War For this cause the Archbishop being sollicited by the Pope's Bull and being also press'd by Letters from the King to consider of raising Money for carrying on the War in France call'd a Synod at London which began on the 5 th of July In their first Session at the request of the Archbishop of York Lord Chancellor and Walter Hungerford Lord Treasurer they granted the King half In the next Synod half a Tenth is given the King a Tenth The Synod was afterwards prorogu'd by reason of the excessive heat of the Summer to St. Martin's day in November following and then again to the 29 th of October the next Year at which time the Archbishop of York was sent to them again from the King together with the Duke of Norfolk the Earls of Warwick Stafford and Salisbury th e Lords Cromwell Tiptoft and Hungerford at whose desire a Tenth and a half And in another a Tenth and an half was granted and solemn Processions were order'd to be made for the success of the Duke of Bedford who went on Duke of Bedford had besieg'd Orleans prosperously and had now besieg'd Orleans a noble City upon the River Loyre These Concessions of Tenths which were granted so readily by the z 8 H. 6. c. 1. Synod were rewarded by an Act made in the Parliament holden at this time at Westminster by which The same Priviledge was granted to the Clergy which the Members of the House of Commons do enjoy when they are chosen to serve in Parliament For those Grants the Members of the Synod c. were freed from Arrests which was that neither they nor their Servants should be arrested while they were assembled in Convocation nor in their journy thither But Conzo Zuolanus the Pope's Nuntio came often to the Synod and pleaded in behalf of the Pope but to no purpose The Pope's Nuntio prevail'd not in the Synod When he could not obtain of them a Supply for the War with the Bohemians which he had sollicited in a long and pressing Oration he produc'd the For shewing his Letters for a Tenth Pope's Letters before the Synod in which he signified that he had impos'd a Tenth upon the Kingdom of England for the support of the Bohemian War which so incensed the whole Synod that they absolutely denied to grant a Tenth However at the importunity of the Pope He was denied but got 8 d. per Mark from Livings With a Salvâ praerogativâ Regiâ they gave him Eight pence in every Mark out of all Benefices according to their respective values provided that this grant were not contrary to the King's Prerogative and the Laws of the Land After this John Jourdelay John Galle Robert Heggley Ralph Mungyn Thomas Garenter all men in Orders with several others were brought before the Synod who were accus'd of Heresy for holding divers corrupt Opinions concerning the Sacrament of the Altar the Adoration of Images Religious Pilgrimages and the Invocation of Saints for maintaining that the Pope was Antichrist and not God's Heresy in holding the Pope to be Antichrist c. Vicegerent that the Divine Oracles were contain'd only in the Scriptures and not in the Legends or Lives of the
not to be restrain'd by a new Pope 85 And that on the Pope's death a new Election belongs to the Council Ib. Yet during that of Trent the Cardinals chose Paul the Third Ib. That of Constance gave order about t h M due by England to Rome 86 The Election of Pope Martin was mightily liked Ib. London Synod grants the King two Tenths 87 By a Decree therein Students of both Universities were provided for Ib. Which was opposed and laid aside 89 Pope Martin at pleasure fill'd the Episcopal Sees in England Ib. Whose Clergy were quiet during the Council of Constance Ib. Martin first claim'd an universal Right of Presentation 90 In two years made thirteen Bishops in the See of Canterbury Ib. His Appropriations censur'd Ib. The English neglected in the Grants of the Roman Dignities 91 Martin afterwards agreed to some redress Ib. In uniting Parishes Ib. And for a power to Bishops therein Ib. For avoiding the Unions made in time of the Schism Ib. For recalling Dispensations for nonresidence Ib. For lessening the Number of Cardinals and for their equal promotion Ib. The King required that Pope not to meddle with his Presentations 92 That no French be preferred in Aquitain c. Ib. That Irish Livings be given to those that understand English Ib. That the Bishops there promote the English Speech only Ib. That French be not preferr'd to Monasteries in England Ib. That the Pope supply the King with some of the English Mony Ib. The Pope not answering favourably 't was declared the King would take his course 93 The French and Germans declare against the Pope's Provisions Ib. The former revived the Laws to restrain him Ib. That if he were