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Hibernia anglicana, or, The history of Ireland, from the conquest thereof by the English, to this present time with an introductory discourse touching the ancient state of that kingdom and a new and exact map of the same / by Richard Cox ...
Cox, Richard, Sir, 1650-1733.
Wing C6722; ESTC R5067
to the Lord Justice 1422. whose Servants were on the Seventh of May attacked and defeated by the Irish Purcel Grant and five and twenty English more were slain and ten taken Prisoners and two hundred escaped to the Abby of Leix and to revenge this the Lord Justice invaded O Mores Country and defeated his terrible Army in the red Bog of Asby he relieved his own Men and burnt and preyed the Rebels Lands for four days until themselves came and sued for Peace And it seems O Dempsy notwithstanding his Oath of Obedience invaded the Pale and took the Castle of Ley from the Earl of Kildare which the Lord Justice had justly restored to the Earl whereupon Campion makes a severe Remark on the Irish That notwithstanding their Oaths and their Pledges they are no longer true than they feel themselves the weaker In the mean time Mac Mahon play'd the Devil in Vrgile and burnt and spoil'd all before him Camp 97. but the Lord Justice also revenged that Prank and forced Mac Mahon to submit and many other Noble Exploits did this good Governor for whose Success the Clergy of Dublin went twice every week in solemn Procession praying for his Victory over those disordered Persons which now in every Quarter of Ireland had apostatiz'd to their old Trade of Life and repined at the English And when I have mentioned a Deed made 9 Hen. 5. which is to be found Lib. GGG 24. at Lambeth whereby this Earl of Ormond constituted James Fitz-Girald Earl of Desmond his Seneschal of the Baronies or Signiories of Imokilly Inchicoin and the Town of Youghal during his Life I have no more to add but that this Victorious King after he had conquered France submitted to the common Fate on the last Day of August 1422 in the Flower of his Age and the Tenth Year of his Reign THE REIGN OF HENRY VI. King of England c. And LORD of IRELAND HENRY the Sixth was but nine Months old at the Death of his Illustrious Father 1422. and therefore the deceased King had by his last Will appointed John Duke of Bedford to be Regent of France Humphry Duke of Glocester to be Governour of England and Thomas Duke of Excester and Henry Bishop of Winchester to be Guardians of the Young King's Person All which was duly observed and the Infant King was proclaimed in Paris and the Nobility that were there swore Allegiance to him James Earl of Ormond continued Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and upon a Petition preferred by the House of Commons to the King about the manifold Murders Robberies Rapes Riots and other Misdemeanours committed by the Irish in England Lib. M. it was enacted there That all Persons born in Ireland should quit England within a time limited except Graduates in either University Clergymen beneficed those that have Land in England or are married there or those whose Parents are English and even such are to give Security of their good Behaviour And not long after came over Edmond Mortimer 1422. Earl of March and Vlster Lord Lieutenant He died afterwards of the Plague at the Castle of Trym which was his own Inheritance And in his stead came John Lord Talbot 1425. Lord Justice In whose time the Barretts a Family of good account near Cork did by Indenture covenant to be obedient to the Earl of Desmond who was exceeding Powerful and lorded it over great part of Munster with a high Hand This Governour resigned to James Earl of Ormond 1426. Lord Justice In whose time John Duke of Bedford 4 Instit 360. Regent of France obtained a Patent for all the Mines of Gold and Silver within England Ireland c. rendring to the Church the tenth Part to the King the fifteenth Part and to the Owner of the Soil the twentieth part And then Sir John de Gray 1427. Lord Lieutenant landed at Hoâth the thirty first of July and was sworn the next Day but no mention is made of any thing he did but that he went for England and left Edward Dantzy Bishop of Meath 1428. his Deputy He was for a time Treasurer of Ireland and dyed the fourth of January 1428. Upon Notice whereof Sir John Sutton Lord Dudly was sent over Lord Lieutenant He held a Parliament in Dublin Friday next after the Feast of All Saints 1429. at which it was enacted That the Sheriff upon Pain of Amercement should add to the Panel of Jurors the Place Estate and Mistery of every Juror And in the Preamble to this Act the Lord Lieutenant is Styled The Right Noble and Right Gracious Lord. And on the sixth of the same November the King was crowned at Westminster And soon after the Lord Lieutenant returned and left Sir Thomas Strange 1429. Lord Deputy in whose time the King was crowned at Paris 1431. and took the Oaths and Homage of the Nobility and People there And now happened the famous Case of the Prior of Lanthony which was That a Judgment in the Common Pleas being removed to the Irish Parliament was affirmed there Whereupon a Writ of Error was sent from England but the King's Bench in England would not take cognizance of a Judgment in the Parliament of Ireland to reverse it And therefore the Prior petitions the King That the Record may be transmitted to the House of Lords in England to be examined there Sir Thomas Stanly was made Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1432. and it seems that he called a Parliament which enacted two Statutes that were afterwards repealed by 11 Jac. 1 cap. 5. And then he went to England leaving Sir Christopher Plunket Lord Deputy 1432. he was afterwards Baron of Killine in Right of his Wife Heir of the Cusacks and his second Son became Baron of Dunsany But Sir Thomas Stanly 1435. Lord Lieutenant returned and gave a Check to the Irish who were insolent beyond Measure and incroaching everywhere on the Pale making the best Advantage of the King's Minority and the Absence of the Military Men in France but the Lord Lieutenant with the Power of Meath and Vriel took Moyle O Donel Prisoner and slew a great many of the Irish And afterwards about Michaelmas he went again to England and left Richard Talbot Archbishop of Dublin 1436. Brother to the Earl of Shrewsbury Lord Deputy he was sometime Lord Chancellor of Ireland and was elected Primate of Armagh but he refused to change his Bishoprick Lion Lord Wells 1438. Lord Lieutenant in whose time a second Law was made in England Lib. M. obliging the Irishmen to return into their Native Country And another Statute was made in Ireland to stop the Passage of any more into England And on the twelfth of June 17 Hen. 6. Robert Fitz-Geofry Cogan granted all his Lands in Ireland being half the Kingdom of Cork to James Earl of Desmond and gave a Letter of Attorney to put him in Possession of Kyrrygrohanmore Lib. G. Downdrinane
Favour and consequently luxurious they always followed the Court and hated to be put in Frontier Garrisons or Places of Danger They were says Cambrensis great Talkers Boasters and Swearers very Proud and Contemners of all others greedy of Places of Places of Honour and Profit but backward in undertaking any hazardous and dangerous Action or performing any Service that might deserve them Moreover many of the English and Welch were dispossest of their best and safest Castles to make Room for the Normans and forc'd to take others in Exchange on the Frontiers by which means they were impoverish'd and discourag'd Add to this That several of the faithful Irish who had submitted to the English Government and lived within their Quarters and thereby became acquainted with the English Conversations Humors Strength Policies Seats and Habitations were likewise dispossess'd to make Room for the Normans and thereby forced to revolt to the Irish and became the most Dangerous of all the Enemies as being most Knowing and most Provok'd And thus it came to pass that after Earl John had wasted his Army in small and unprofitable Skirmishes and had staid eight months and done no other Good than that he built the Castle of Tybrach perhaps Typerary Lismore and Ardfinin the King sent for him and his Beardless Counsellors and in his Room substituted John de Courcy Earl of Vlster Lord Lieutenant of Ireland he brought over with him about four hundred Volunteers 1185. September And soon after his arrival he made a Progress into Munster and Connaught to put those Countries in order but it seems he fell into an Ambush or had some Skirmish with the Irish for it is said That he lost twelve Knights in his Return from Connaught 1186. On Midsummer-day the Prime of Limerick slew four Knights and a great part of the Garrison of Ardfinin And soon after by a Slight drew that Garrison into an Ambush by exposing a Prey to their View which they thought to have taken but he fell upon them and surprized and slew most of them But the Irish had not so good luck in Meath where they of Kenally had made Incursions and taken a Prey for William Petit rescued the Prey defeated them with great Slaughter and sent an hundred of their Heads to Dublin Old Lacy was now busie building his Castle of Derwath and himself working with a Pick-ax for Diversion when one of the malicious and ungrateful Workmen took the Opportunity whilst he was stooping Cambden 151. and with another Pick-Ax knock'd out his Brains And it seems there was an Insurrection thereupon for it is said That Courcy and Young Lacy revenged the Murder and reduced all things to quiet But it seems afterwards there grew some Distast between Courcy and Lacy so that Lacy who was the better Courtier supplanted Courcy who was the better Soldier and got himself into his Room This Courcy came from Stoke-courcy commonly call'd Stogussy in the County of Somerset I find that Robert de Courcy was made a Baron at Westminster 33 Henry 1. but whether he was the Ancestor of this Family I will not determine This Earl of Vlster had a natural Son John Lord of Kilbarrock and Raheny who was murdered by the Lacyes so that it is the Brother of this Earl John that was the Ancestor of the Noble Family of Courcy Lord Baron of Kingsale In the mean time King Henry died in Normandy on the sixth Day of July 1189. He was so well pleased with the Conquest of Ireland Davis 11. that he placed the Title of Lord of Ireland in his Royal Style before his Hereditary Estates of Normandy and Aquitain Baron Finglas M. S. And yet that Country was at that Time so inconsiderable or so little improv'd that there were not five Castles or Piles for Defence of Irish building in the whole Kingdom Dublin Cork and Waterford were built by the Easterlings and all the rest have been built since the Reduction of Ireland This King was both Wise and Valiant he was also Generous to the highest Degree so that he deserved to be ranked among the bravest Princes of that or any other Age and perhaps had made as great a Figure in History as any of them if the Undutifulness of Becket and the Rebellion of his own Sons had not interrupted his Designs However there are some who will never forgive him the Conquest of Ireland and therefore do load his Memory with many Malicious Aspersions equally Ridiculous and False Polichronicon l. 7. c. 21. They say his Grandmother could not endure the Mass and that her Husband ordered four Knights to hold her by Force whilst the Priest was celebrating but in spight of them she flew out of the Window with two of her Sons and was never seen after And that 't is no Wonder they that come of the Devil should go to the Devil And that King Henry's Embassador urging the King's Son to have Peace with his Father was answered That it was Natural to their Brood to hate one another That Henry was a Bastard and that S. Bernard the Abbot prophesied of him That from the Devil he came and to the Devil he should go That his Father had gelded a Bishop and that himself had murdered S. Thomas of Canterbury That his Father had Carnal Knowledge of Henry's Queen Elianor and abundance more of such silly Stuff THE REIGN OF John Earl of Moreton LORD of IRELAND Afterwards King of England Duke of Normandy c. RICHARD I 1189. for his Valour Sirnamed Ceur de Lyon by unquestionable Right Succeeded his Father on the Throne of England and was crowned at Westminster the third Day of September 1189 but his Style was no more than Speed 482. Rex Anglor dux Normannor Acquitan comes Andegavor For John Earl of Moreton youngest Son of the deceased King by virtue of the aforesaid Donation at the Parliament at Oxford anno 1177 succeeded his Father in the Sovereignty of Ireland And therefore we find the Pope's Legate had Commission to exercise Jurisdiction in Anglia Davis 19. Wallia illis Hiberniae partibus in quibus Johanes Comes Moretonii potestatem habet dominium For tho' it be a Fundamental Maxim of State That Ireland must not be separated from the Crown of England And tho' it be also an undoubted Maxim of Law That the King cannot alien any part of his Dominions yet neither of these were thought to be transgressed by the aforesaid Donation because it was made to the King's Son whose Interest and Expectations in England were thought to be sufficient Security for his Good Behaviour What Controulment Earl John might have met with in the Soveraignty of Ireland if the King Richard had been at Leisure to inspect that Matter is incertain But it is manifest That the King was so taken up with his Voyage to the Holy Land and so embarassed by the unfortunate Consequences of it that he never did
aut servitio dicto Comiti Tyrone suisque Haeredibus impendendo ac immediate parebit obediet Domino Regi sub ejus pace defensione perpetuo remaenebit suaeque Celsitudini de tempore in tempus solvet Bonagium Bonnaught caetera omnia Debita quoties ad id per Dominum Deputatum Concilium requisitus rogatus fuerit c. And on the eighteenth of July the like Order was made between O Donel and his Sons and several Proprietors of Tyrconel and O Donel's Authority was limited and both Parties were obliged to obey the Order on pain of forfeiting all their Estate And about the same time Brian Mac Mahon and Hugh Oge made their Submissions at Kilmainham and were pardoned the five hundred Marks they had forfeited by breach of their former Articles Lib. D. In the mean time the Scotch Islanders sent some Forces to the assistance of the Irish in Vlster but Andrew Brereton with five and thirty Horse met with two hundred of them and defeated them with great slaughter and by his good Conduct quieted Vlster and was therefore made General or Governor thereof But the Lord Deputy being recall'd took Shipping at Houth on the 16th day of December and being offered Testimonials of his good Government from the Council he modestly refused saying That if his Innocence would not defend him he would use no other Remedy than his Belief of the Resurrection of the Dead He was certainly a brave Man and an excellent Governor and would have been sent back with Honour if his Infirmities whereof he died the next year had not prevented it Sir Francis Bryan 1549. Lord Justice was chosen by the Council on the twenty 7th day of Decemb and sworn at Christ-Church in Dublin on the 29th but he enjoyed this Honour but a little while for the County of Typerary being infested by O Carol the Lord Justice made a Journy thither in favour of the young Earl of Ormond who was but twelve years old to protect the Country and on the second of February died at Clonmel whereupon Sir William Brabazon Lord Justice was elected by the Council he committed the Government of the County of Typerary to Edmond Butler Archbishop of Cashel and made a Journy to Limerick where Teig O Carol submitted and entred into Covenants of paying a yearly Tribute into the Exchequer and of serving the King with a certain number of Horse and Foot at his own charge and of renouncing his Pretences to the Barony of Ormond and afterwards the same Teig O Carol surrendred to the King his Country of Ely O Carol containing ninety three Plow-Lands and a half and the King re-granted the same to him and Created him Baron of Ely and by O Carol's means Mac Morough O Kelly and O Mlaghlin were now taken into Protection and Pardoned and by the Lord Deputy's Mediation the Earls of Desmond and Thomond who were wrangling about Bounds and the protection of each others Tories or Out-laws were reconciled on the eleventh of March Lib. D. and about the same time Dermond O Sullevan a great man in the County of Cork was together with his Castle or dwelling-House accidentally blown up by Gunpowder and his Brother Amalfus who succeeded him was likewise not long after killed But Bulloign being restored to the French on the twenty-fifth day of April 1550. the King was thereby enabled to send eight thousand Pound of the Money received there and four hundred men of that Garrison into Ireland which he did And thereby the Lord Justice was put into a Condition of pursuing Charles Mac Art Cavenagh Ware 188. who was again in Rebellion and was proclaimed Traytor and the Lord Justice acquitted himself so well in that Matter August that he killed many of Cave-nagh's Followers and burnt the Country But the French King hearing that the English marched an Army into Scotland lookt upon that Assault of his Ally as a Breach of the Peace with him and therefore sent an hundred and sixty small Vessels with Ammunition and Corn to assist the Scots it hapned that sixteen of them were shipwrackt on the Coast of Ireland however the King of England to obviate any Designs the French might have against his Dominions set forth a Fleet of twenty Ships and Pinnaces under the Lord Cobham which guarded two Harbors on the South and one in the North toward Scotland On the twenty third of October Richard Butler second Son of Pierce Earl of Ormond was Created Viscount Mountgarret and a little before that viz. on the tenth of September Sir Anthony Saintleger Ware 190. Lord Deputy returned to Ireland and Sir Thomas Cusack was made Lord Chancellor To this Deputy Mac Carty submitted in humble Manner and was pardoned and it seems that this Lord Deputy had Orders to call a Parliament but I do not find that there was any in Ireland during this King's Reign On the fourth of November Charles Mac Art Cavenagh made his Submission to the Lord Deputy at Dublin in presence of the Earls of Desmond Thomond Clanrickard and Tyrone the Lords Mountgarret Dunboyn Cahir and Ibracan and renounced the Name of Mac Morough and parted with some of his usurped Jurisdiction and Estate But let us cast an eye on the Affairs of the Church and we shall find that the Reformation made but small progress in Ireland since the same year produced Bishops of each sort for on the tenth of May Arthur Macgenis was by provision of the Pope constituted Bishop of Dromore and confirmed therein by the King and Thomas Lancaster a Protestant was on the third day of September made Bishop of Kildare However Bish Brown's Life 13. on the sixth of February the King sent the following Order for the Liturgy of the Church of England to be read in Ireland in the English Tongue EDWARD by the Grace of God c. Whereas our Gracious Father King Henry the Eighth of happy Memory taking into consideration the bondage and heavy yoke that his true and faithful Subjects sustained under the Jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome as also the Ignorance the Commonalty were in how several fabulous Stories and lying Wonders misled our Subjects in both our Realms of England and Ireland grasping thereby the Means thereof into their hands also dispensing with the Sins of our Nations by their Indulgences and Pardons for Gain purposely to cherish all ill Vices as Robberies Rebellions Thefts Whoredoms Blasphemy Idolatry c. He our Gracious Father King Henry of happy Memory hereupon dissolved all Priories Monasteries Abbies and other pretended Religious Houses as being but Nurseries for Vice and Luxury more than for Sacred Learning Therefore that it might more plainly appear to the World that those Orders had kept the Light of the Gospel from his People he thought it most fit and convenient for the preservation of their Souls and Bodies that the Holy Scriptures should be Translated Printed and Placed in all Parish-Churches
Protestant Doctrines about Free-Will Predestination and Justification and illustrates the Doctrine of Justification by this plain Simile viz. As the Eye only sees yet if separated from the Body cannot see so Faith alone justifies yet if it be alone that is if it be separated from good Works it cannot justifie because saving Faith is always a fruitful Faith he shews that S. Patrick and Paladius opposed and confuted the Errors of Pelagius and Celestius about the Grace of God and both Claudius and Sedulius affirmed That no Man is without Sin except the Man Christ Jesus and that there is no Perfection in this Life and whatsoever Men have from God is of Grace because they have nothing of due The third Chapter treats of Purgatory and Prayer for the Dead and first he shews the Cheat of S. Patrick's Purgatory which that good Man never dream'd of his Treatise de tribus habitaculis relates to Heaven Earth and Hell and has not the least mention of Purgatory it was a later Invention of the Monks and so firmly believed by their Votaries that S. Caesarius a German Monk has the confidence to advise all those who doubt of Purgatory to go to Ireland to S. Patrick's Purgatory in Loghdirge and he shall be convinced And Doctor Tyrry assures us That it is famous over all Europe but O Sullevan has gone farther Sullevan 23 and in his Catholick History of Ireland has given us the description of the Rooms and Furniture in this Purgatory and the several sorts of Punishments inflicted there and has acquainted us with the Methods of getting in and safely getting out again But after all this has proved the most fulfom Cheat that ever was imposed on Mankind and being about the Year 1636 digged up by the Order of the Lords Justices this Purgatory was found to be a small Cave under Ground where the Damps arising from the Earth so influenced crazy Melancholy People as to make them dream or fancy whatever they were beforehand told they should see But to proceed the Primate quotes the Saying of Sedulius and the Canon of an ancient Irish Synod That after this Life either Life or Death succeedeth and that Christ has loosed our Guilt and finished our Punishment He shews the Forgery of a story on S. Brendan inserted into the new English Legend but not to be found in the Ancient Manuscript He observes That the Oblations made for the Dead in former times were Sacrifices of Thanksgiving and not of Propitiation because they were made for such as they were confident were in Heaven as for S. Brendon c. And he concludes with the Saying of Claudius and Colombanus That when we come to the Judgment Seat neither Job nor Daniel nor Noah can intreat for any one but every one must bear his own Burthen To which I add the Saying ascribed by the Synod to S. Patrick mentioned page 36. He who deserveth not to receive the Sacrifice in his Life how can it help him after his Death In the fourth Chapter he cites Sedulius telling us That 't is Impiety to adore any other but God and reproving the Heathen for Simplicity in thinking that the Invisible God would be worshipped by a Visible Image to which Claudius adds That God is not to be worshipped in Metal nor in Stone And S. Patrick assures us That no Creature is to be sworn by but only the Creator And as for the Liturgy there was no Uniformity therein but several Forms of Divine Service were used in divers Parts of the Kingdom that the Roman Use began to be introduced by the Pope's Legate in the twelfth Century and was perfected by Christianus Bishop of Lismore in the Synod of Cashel and confirmed by Henry II wherein it was ordered That all Divine Offices of Holy Church should thenceforward he handled in all Parts of Ireland according as the Church of England did observe them The Word Mass is synonimous to Liturgy and therefore used for Evening Prayer but it commonly signifies the Sacrament being the principle Part of Divine Service and the Word Sacrifice did import then what we understand by the Word Sacrament now and might be either offered to God or given to the People and not as the Mass is now wherein the Priest doth all He farther sheweth that they received the Sacrament in both kinds and instances Hildmer's Wife and S. Bridget and her Companions c. and particularly that the Popish Legends mention That one of S. Bridget's Miracles happened when she was about to drink out of the Chalice He shews that the Holy Men of those Ages did use the Phrase of Scripture and called the Sacrament the Body and Blood of our Saviour because they thought the Impossibility and Unreasonableness of Transubstantiation would secure Mankind from Mistake for Christ being alive in Heaven cannot be corporally in the Sacrament because he is there represented as Dead and his Body Broken and his Blood Shed and there is no such thing in rerum natura for Christ being Raised from the Dead dyeth no more Rom. 6. 9. He quotes Sedulius and Claudius Henry Crump and Johannes Scotus distinguishing between the Sacrament and the Body of Christ that was crucified In Chap. 5 he proves by the Epistle of Lanfrank to King Tiâlagh That the Irish did not use Chrism in Baptism and by the Testimony of S. Bernard That the Irish in his time did not understand or did neglect Confession Confirmation and Marriage he proves that Confession in former Times was Publick and that Penance was but a Testimony of Penitence and always preceded Absolution and cites Claudius to prove that Sacerdotal Absolution is declarative and ministerial and not absolute Sedulius calls Marriage a Gift but not Spiritual ergo 'tis no Sacrament the Synod attributed to S. Patrick prohibits the Incest of marrying a Brother's Wife which was the Case of Henry VIII and Kilianus suffered Martyrdom for dissolving such an Incestuous Marriage by Gozbertus Duke of Franconia and that Clemens Scotuâ was condemned by the Council of Rome anno 745 as a bringer in of Judaism among Christians by maintaing such Incestuous Marriages which Cambrensis says were common in Ireland he proves by Sedulius and S. Patrick That no Divorces were to be made except for the Cause of Fornication and that Coelibacy was so far from being enjoyned the Clergy That S. Patrick's Father was Calphurnius a Deacon and his Grandfather Potitus a Priest There was Order taken in the Synod held by S. Patrick Auâilius and Isserninus That the Wives of the Clergy should not walk abroad with their Heads uncovered and Gildas reprehends the Clergy for corrupting their Children by evil Example and he proves by the Epistle of Pope Innocent III That the Sons and Grandsons did use to succeed their Fathers and Grandfathers in Ecclesiastical Benefices To which I add That this was so true in the See of Armagh that they feared that Archbishoprick would be made hereditary no less than ten
the common sort are not only capable but also very apt to learn any thing that is taught them so that I do impute the Ignorance and Barbarity of the Irish meerly to their evil Customs which are so exceeding bad Davis 150. that as Sir John Davys says Whoever use them must needs be Rebels to all good Government and destroy the Commonwealth wherein they live and bring Barbarism and Desolation upon the Richest and most fruitful Land in the World But the Irish Capacities are not to be questioned at this Day since they have managed their Affairs with that dexterity and Courage that they have gotten the whole Kingdom of Ireland into their Possession and by wheedling some and frightning others they have expelled the Body of the English out of that Island However let us not be dismaid for they are but the same People our Ancestors have so often triumphed over and although they are not to be so contemned but that we may expect they will make one good Effort for their Estates and Religion yet we may still depend upon it That their Nature is still the same and not to be so changed but that they will again vail their Bonnets to a victorious English Army AN EPITOME OF S R WILLIAM PETTY'S LARGE SURVEY OF IRELAND Divided into its 4 Provinces 32 Counties and the Counties into Their Several Barronies wherein are Distinguished y e Archbishopricks Bishopricks Citty 's Places that Return Parliament Men. also the Roads Bogs and Bridges By Phillip Lea At the Atlas and Hercules in Cheapside near Fryday Street LONDON The History of IRELAND From The Conquest Thereof By the ENGLISH to this Time By RICHARD COX Esq r Printed For JOSEPH WATTS at y e Angell in S t Pauls Church Yard THE REIGN OF Henry Plantagenet FITZ-EMPRESS Conqueror and Lord of IRELAND HENRY the Second of that Name King of England a Brave and Powerful Prince ambitious of Glory and the Enlargment of his Empire cast his Eye upon Ireland as a Country most easie to subdue and of great Advantage to him when conquered There were not wanting some Learned Men who affirmed The King had very fair Pretences if not good Title to that Island Speed 472. for besides the Conquests which the Kings Arthur and Edgar had formerly made there Spencer's view 33. they alledged That it was by Leave of the British King Gurgunââs Campion 26 28. and under Stipulations of Tribute that the Irish were first permitted to settle themselves in that Kingdom Besides the first Inhabitants of Ireland were Britains and those People which the Irish Historians call Fir-bolg and Tuah de Danan i. e. Vir Belgus i. e. Populus Dannonius were no other than the Belga and Dannonit Ancient Inhabitants of England To which might be added That Bayon from whence the Irish pretend to come Lib. P. Lambeth 153. was part of the Kings Dominion So that either Way his Majesty was their natural Prince and Sovereign But however that were yet the King had ãâã cause of War against the Irish because of the Pyracies and Outrages they daily committed against his Subjects and the barbarous Cruelties they exercised on the English whensoever they fell into their Power buying and selling them as Slaves and using Turkish Tyranny over their Bodies Speed 473. so that the Irish themselves afterwards confessed That it was just their Land should be transfer'd to the Nation they had so cruelly handled Wherefore the King as well to revenge those Injuries as to recover that Kingdom put on a Resolution to invade it But first it was necessary to consult the Pope in that Matter because he pretended no less than three Titles to Ireland First the Universal Patent of Pascâ Oves which by their Interpretation was Synonimous to Rege Mundum Lib. P. Lambeth 48. Secondly the Donation of Constantine the Great whereby the Holy See was entituled to all the Islands of the Ocean Thirdly The Concession of the Irish Ibid. 154. on their Conversion to Christianity by which they granted the Temporal Dominion of their Country unto S. Peter's Chair And tho' the Answers to these Frivolous Pretences were easie and obvious viz. to the First That whatsoever Spiritual Jurisdiction was given by those Words yet our Saviour's Kingdom not being of this World it is certain no Temporal Dominion is granted thereby And to the Second That Constantine had never any Right or Possession in Ireland and therefore could not give to another what he had not himself And to the Third That the Allegation is false and the Popes had never any Temporal Dominion in Ireland but the same remain'd under their own Native Kings and Monarchs But this Forgery is yet more manifest Because the Irish were not converted by any Emissaries from Rome as appears by the Ancient Difference between the Churches of Ireland and Rome in some Baptismal Rites and the Time of celebrating the Feast of Easter Nevertheless the Pope's Licence in those Superstitious Times would create Reputation especially with the Clergy and his Benediction would as they fancied facilitate their Success and therefore it was thought fit That the King should send his Embassador John Salisbury to the Pope 1156. Sullevan 59. who was by Birth an Englishman and by Name Adrian IV. And how fond soever the Holy See doth now pretend to be of Ireland since the English Government and Industry have rendred it considerable 't is certain the Pope so little regarded it at that time when he received but small Obedience and less Profit from it that he was easily prevailed with to issue the following Bull. ADrian the Bishop Hanmer 107. the Servant of the Servants of God to his most dear Son in Christ the Noble King of England sendeth greeting and Apostolick Benediction Your Magnificence hath been very careful and studious how you might enlarge the Church of God here in Earth and encrease the Number of his Saints and Elect in Heaven in that as a good Catholick King you have and do by all means labour and travel to enlarge and increase God's Church by teaching the Ignorant People the True and Christian Religion and in abolishing and rooting up the Weeds of Sin and Wickedness And wherein you have and do crave for your better Furtherance the Help of the Apostolick See wherein more speedily and discreetly you proceed the better Success we hope God will send for all they which of a fervent Zeal and Love in Religion do begin and enterprize any such thing shall no doubt in the End have a Good and Prosperous Success And as for Ireland and all other Islands where Christ is known and the Christian Religion received it is out of all doubt and your Excellency well knoweth they do all appertain and belong to the Right of S. Peter and of the Church of Rome and we are so much the more ready desirous and willing to sow the acceptable Seed of God's Word because we know
the same in the latter Day will be most severely required at our Hands You have our well-beloved Son in Christ advertis'd and signified unto us That you will enter into the Land and Realm of Ireland to the end to bring them to Obedience unto Law and under your Subjection and to root out from among them their foul Sins and Wickedness as also to yield and pay yearly out of every House a yearly Pension of one Penny to S. Peter and besides also will defend and keep the Rites of those Churches whole and inviolate We therefore well allowing and favouring this your godly Disposition and commendable Affection do accept ratifie and Assent unto this your Petition and do grant That you for the dilating of God's Church the Punishment of Sin the Reforming of Manners planting of Virtue and the increasing of Christian Religion do enter to possess that Land and there to execute according to your Wisdom whatsoever shall be for the Honour of God and the Safety of the Realm And further also we do strictly charge and require That all the People of that Land do with all Humbleness Dutifulness and Honour receive and accept you as their Liege Lord and Sovereign reserving and excepting the Right of Holy Church to be inviolably preserved as also the yearly Pension of Peter-Pence out of every House which we require to be truly answered to S. Peter and to the Church of Rome If therefore you do mind to bring your Godly Purpose to effect endeavour to travail to reform the People to some better Order and Trade of Life and that also by your self and by such others as you shall think meet true and honest in their Life Manners and Conversation to the end the Church of God may be beautified the True Christian Religion sowed and planted and all other things done that by any means shall or may be to God's Honour and Salvation of Men's Souls whereby you may in the end receive of God's Hands the Reward of Everlasting Life and also in the mean time and in this Life carry a Glorious Fame and an Honourable Report among all Nations Together with this Bull the Pope sent King Henry a Gold-Ring as a Token of Investiture and somtime after a succeeding Pope Alexander III confirmed the former Grant by the following Breve ALexander the Bishop Hanmer 141. the Servant of the Servants of God to his dearly beloved Son the Noble King of England greeting Grace and Apostolick Benediction Forasmuch as things given and granted upon good Reason by our Predecessors are to be well allowed of ratified and confirmed we well considering and pondering the Grant and Priviledge for and concerning the Dominion of the Land of Ireland to Vs appertaining and lately given by Adrian our Predecessor We following his Steps do in like manner Confirm Ratifie and Allow the same reserving and saving to S. Peter and to the Church of Rome the yearly Pension of one Peny out of every House as well in England as in Ireland provided also that the Barbarous People of Ireland by your means be Reformed and Recovered from that filthy Life and abominable Conversation that as in Name so in Life and Manners they may be Christians and that as that Rude and Disordered Church being by you reformed the whole Nation may also with the Profession of the Name be in Acts and Deeds Followers of the same But saith Rossus of Warwick and he was no Protestant The King of England is not bound to rely on the Pope's Grant for Ireland Speed 472. nor yet to pay that Tax because he had a Precedent Claim to that Kingdom by hereditary Right Others object against these Bulls in another manner and particularly Philip O Sullevan who says They are void for many Reasons First Because they were obtained on false Suggestions and the Infallible Popes were deceived in their Grants Secondly That Regal or Sovereign Power is not granted by them but only that the Kings of England should be Lieutenants or Deputies to the Pope and Collectors of his Peter-Pence Thirdly That they were on a twofold Condition of paying Tribute and converting the People which not being performed the Bulls are void But because it is scarce credible that any Subject should be so Malicious against his Prince you shall have it in his own Words Rex hoc Decretum impetravit falsa Narrans ut ex ipso Decreto ego colligo pag. 59. Non Dominum Hiberniae sed Praefectum causa colligendi Tributi Ecclesiastici pag. 59. b. And again pag. 60. Non ut Rex aut Dominus Hiberniae sed ut a Pontifice Praefectus sic ego accepi ut Exactor Collector Pecunâae quae ad Sedem Apostolicam pertinebat pag. 61. Ac mihi quidem rem totam sollicita Mentis acie contemplanti nihil Juris esse penes Anglos videtur For besides says he their Title was founded in Adultery meaning Dermond Mac Morough's they have exercised Fraud and Cruelty against the Catholicks that entertained them kindly and the very Temples have not escaped them Hinc igitur nemo ignorabit Hiberniam non Jure sed Injuria Narratione minime vera Sullevan 61. fuisse ab Anglis primo obtenta pag. 61. b. Nor can any Body believe says he that the Pope ever design'd so great an Injustice as to deprive the Irish Kings of their Birth-right Ibid. 62. and give it to Strangers And then he tells us That Laurence O Toole Archbishop of Dublin did obtain of the Pope a Bull to deprive the English King of his Government in Ireland but he dyed in his Return in France and is since canonized But says he supposing the Popes Grant at first were good yet 't is forfeited by Breach of Condition since the English did neither propogate Religion nor pay the Peter-Pence Postea omni Jure plane exciderunt Conditiones a Papa dictas constitutasque transgressi Nam Pensionem Divi Petri de medio sustulerunt nullam certam Religionem nullam firmam Fidem habent pro Deo Ventrem Voluntatem Libidinem colunt By this and the Approbation this Scandalous and Lying Treatise met with in Spain and the Repetition of the same things by divers others in their bitter Libels on the English People and Government and particularly by the Author of Analecta Hiberniae it is manifest that there are some Enemies of the Crown of England so malicious and unjust that they would make use of the most frivolous Pretences in the World to wrest the Kingdom of Ireland from the Dominion of the English Kings But as God Almighty has hitherto even many times to a Miracle protected the British Interest in Ireland so I doubt not unless we are wanting to our own Preservation but that he will continue that Noble Island under the Jurisdiction of the Crown of England for ever In the mean time though we lay no stress on the Popes Bulls yet because they are Argumenta ad Hominem and
Fastnesses of that Country at a Place called the Earls Pace he was briskly assaulted by O Rian and his Followers but O Rian being slain by an Arrow shot at him by Nichol the Monk the rest were easily scattered and many of them slain It was here that Strongbow's only Son a Youth about seventeen Years old frighted with the Number and Ululations of the Irish run away from the Battle and made towards Dublin but being informed of his Fathers Victory he joyfully came back to congratulate that Success but the severe General having first reproach'd him with Cowardize caused him to be immediately executed by cutting him off in the Middle with a Sword so great an Abhorrence had they of Dastardliness in those Days that in imitation of the Old Romans they punish'd it with a Severity which how commendable soever it may be in a General was nevertheless unnatural in a Father The Tomb both of Father and Son is yet to be seen in the Body of Christ-Church in Dublin whereon formerly was this bald Epitaph alluding to this Story Nate ingrate Hanmer 147. mihi pugnanti Terga dedisti Non mihi sed Genti Regno quoque Terga dedisti When Strongbow came near Wexford he received the ill News of Fitz-Stephens his Misfortune as also that the Irish had burnt Wexford and were retired to the Island Begory or Betherni and were resolved to kill Fitz-Stephens if they were farther pursued Wherefore he turned aside towards Waterford and march'd to that City where he met Hervy who was returned with Letters from the King wherein the Earl was ordered immediately to repair into England Strongbow presently obeyed and met the King at Newnham near Glocester on his Journey towards Ireland with an Army The Earl behaved himself so dutifully that the King was soon appeased for Strongbow did not only renew his Fealty but did also surrender to the King the