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A29168 A complete history of England from the first entrance of the Romans under the conduct of Julius C├Žsar unto the end of the reign of King Henry III ... : wherein is shewed the original of our English laws, the differences and disagreements between the secular and ecclesiastic powers ... and likewise an account of our foreign wars with France, the conquest of Ireland, and the actions between the English, Scots and Welsh ... : all delivered in plain matter of fact, without any reflections or remarques by Robert Brady ... Brady, Robert, 1627?-1700. 1685 (1685) Wing B4186; ESTC R19638 1,289,549 1,106

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whole Council saith the Arch Deacon of Huntington without doubt then present at it was mad with Appeals Appeals to the Pope were now first used in England For in England Appeals were not in use until Henry Bishop of Winchester while he was the Popes Legat cruelly to his own mischief dragged them in and in this Council there were three Appeals to the Pope Besides these three there were many Appeals to Rome in this Kings Reign Upon the Vacancy of the [7.] Radulf de Dice●o Col. 506. lin 1. An. Do. 1136. Bishoprick of London the Dean and Canons could not agree in the Electing of a fit Person to be Bishop several were propounded The Canons without the knowledge of the Dean chose Anselm Abbat of St. Edmonds-Bury [8.] Ib. n. 30. An. Do. 1137. Anselm Appeals to the Pope and is Confirmed Bishop of London They privately take the Treasure of the Church and with their Elect that was laden with Money go to Rome Their success proved what a large Bag could do for at their return he was invested and had possession of the Bishoprick [9.] Ib. n. 50. An. Do. 1138. The Dean by two of the Canons and his Domestick Clerks Ralph de Langeford and Richard de Belmeis his Sollicitors Appeals to the Pope He having heard their Allegations and by them received the Arch-Bishop of Yorks Letter and Certificate concerning Anselm and with the [1.] Ibid. Col. 507. lin 4. The Dean of London Appeals to the Pope and Anselm is turned out Cardinals having seriously debated the matter pronounced by the Mouth of Alberic Bishop of Ostia That since the Election of the Canons was made without the knowledge of the Dean who ought to have had the first Voice it was therefore void [2.] Ibidem n. 50. And then the Pope committed the Care of the Church of London by the Kings favour to the Bishop of Winchester and so held it as it were in Commendam from the Pope two years This Man had ill luck for after he had possession of the Bishoprick of London [3.] Ibid. Col. 506. n. 50. Ordingus the Prior was chosen Abbat of St. Edmonds-Bury and so he lost both Richard de Belmeis aforesaid had been [4.] Ibidem Col 5●7 n. 10 20 30. An Appeal to the Pope for the Arch-D●aconry of Middlesex made Arch-Deacon of Middlesex but was too young to execute the Office which Hugh one of his Uncle Richard de Belmeis the then Bishop of London's Chaplains was to manage for him When Richard became ●it for the Office and his Uncle the Bishop of London was dead Hugh refused to restore it unto him He Appeals to the Pope who sends his Letters or Brief to the Bishops of Lincoln and Hereford to hear the Cause who gave it to Richard In the year 1147. Pope Eugenius held a Council at Rhemes [5.] Chron. Gervas Col. 1363. n. 30. The Clerks of the Church of York Appeal to the Pope He Deposeth the Arch-Bishop of York in this Council appeared some Clerks of the Church of York with Henry Murdack Abbat of Fountains accusing William Arch-Bishop of York That he was neither Canonically Elected nor Lawfully Consecrated but intruded by the King at length the foresaid William was Convicted and Deposed Alberic Bishop of Ostia pronouncing the Sentence and saying We Decree by Apostolick Authority That William Arch-Bishop of York be Deposed from the Bishoprick because Stephen King of England Nominated him before Canonical Election When as therefore [6.] Ibidem n. 40 50. The Pope Commands the Chapter to choose a new Arch-Bishop c. He that had the fewest Suffrages is made Arch-Bishop Pope Eugenius on his own Will and by the Consent of the smaller number of Cardinals had Deposed St. William Arch-Bishop of York the Chapter of that Church Convened by his Mandate chose an Arch-Bishop or rather Arch-Bish●ps the Major part of the Chapter chose Hilary Bishop of Chichester the other part chose Henry Murdac Abbat of Fountaines When both Elections were presented to the Pope he confirmed the Election of Henry Murdac and Consecrated him with his own Hands Strife between the Legat and Arch-Bishop While Henry Bishop of Winchester was the Popes Legat there were great Strife and Animosities between him and Theobald Arch-Bishop of Canterbury he stretching his [7.] Gervas Act. Pontif. Cantuarien Col. 1665. n. 20 30. Legantine Priviledge mightily beyond what he ought and called his own Arch-Bishop and the Bishops of England to meet him when and where he pleased Theobald taking it ill and scorning to be thus over-awed by the Industry of Thomas a * This was Thomas Becket afterward Arch-Bishop of Canterbury The Arch-Bishop made ●egat Appeals first used in England Clerk of London whom he sent to Rome he dealt so effectually with Pope Celestin who succeeded Innocent that he removed Henry and made Theobald his Legat. From hence arose great Discord Contentions and several Appeals never * Ibidem The Canon Law first used in England heard of before Then the Laws and Lawyers were first called into England meaning the Canon Law and Lawyers the first Teacher whereof was Master Vacarius who Read at Oxford These Appeals to Rome were very Chargeable and besides nothing could be done without Friends and Gifts or Presents This Kings Reign was not very long but never quiet and free from intestine War Confusion and Unsetledness which gave the Pope and Clergy great opportunities to incroach upon Regal Power and bring in such Laws The Reasons why those Appeals and Laws obtained in England Usages and Customs as were not before practised in this Nation For the King dare not oppose these Practises because his Title wholly depended upon the Popes Confirmation of his Election as they called it by half a dozen Persons and his Brother Henry Bishop of Winchester who set him up and was Legat a great part of his Reign dare not but comply in all things with the Pope if it were not his inclination so to do nor Arch-Bishop Theobald after him lest they might be Exauthorated and lose a place of mighty Power at this time as well as Profit Scutages Subsidies or Taxes I read of none during all this Kings Reign both Armies and Pretenders lived by Plunder and Rapine and maintained themselves chiefly by the Ruine and Destruction of their Adversaries their Men and Tenents King Stephen by his Wife Maud had [8.] Mr. Sandfords Geneal Hist f. 42. Baldwin his eldest Son who died in his Infancy 2. [9.] Ibidem Eustace Earl of Bologne he Married Constance Daughter of Lewis the Seventh King of France and Sister to Lewis the Gross and died without Issue 3. * See King Stephens Charter in the Append n. 35. William [1.] Ibidem f. 43. Earl of Mortaign and Bologn Lord of the Honours of Aquila or Eagle and Pevensey Married Isabel the Daughter and Heir of William the Third Earl of Waren and Surrey
into Ireland and goes from thence through England into Normandy to meet the Cardinals His Son and his Wife Margaret Crowned at Winchest A. D. 1172. They return into Normandy the King was at Dublin in Ireland and there remained until the beginning of Lent and then removed to Wexford where he staid until Easter Then Knowing That the Cardinals Theodin and Albert were sent into Normandy from the Pope He setled the affairs in Ireland as well as he could and passed to Milford Haven from thence to St. Davids from thence to Portsmouth from whence carrying along with him his Son Henry he passed into Normandy and found the Cardinals at Caen and by their advice made an agreement with the King of France about the Crowning of his Daughter and also by their Consent and advice sent back his Son into England and with him Rotrod Arch-Bishop of Roven Giles Bishop of Eureux and Roger Bishop of Worcester to Crown him and Margaret his Wife the Daughter of King Lewis and They Crowned them at Winchester in the Church of St. Swithen on the 27th of August And presently after the Coronation The King the Son and the Queen his Wife The Arch-Bishop of Roven and the Bishops of Eureux and Worcester Returned into Normandy About a moneth after [8] Append. N. 61. King Henry's Purgation for the Death of Thomas on the 27th of September Henry King of England the father and King Henry his Son and Rotrod Arch-Bishop of Roven and all the Bishops and Abbats of Normandy met at Abrinces now Auranches in the presence of Theodin and Albert the Cardinals In whose Audience The King of England the Father in the Church of St. Andrew the Apostle purged himself and asserted his innocence by Oath upon the Reliques of Saints and the holy Gospels That he neither Commanded nor desired the Arch-Bishop should be Slain and when he heard it he Grieved vehemently But because those Malefactors that Killed him could not be had and because he feared they might have perpetrated that Prophane Deed by Reason of the Commotion and Trouble they Observed in his mind he made the following Oath of Satisfaction H●s Oath of satisfaction and Pennance First he Sware That he would not D●part from Pope Alexander nor his Catholic Successors so long as they Acknowledged him a Catholic King He Sware also That he would not Hinder nor Suffer to be hindred Appeals but that they might freely be made in his Kingdom to the Pope in Ecclesiastical Causes But so as if any persons were suspected by him They should give security they would do no injury to him nor his Kingdom He Sware That from Christmass following he would undertake the Crusado and go to Jerusalem for three years and That if he were Diverted by going into Spain against the Saracens he would Give the Templars so much money as by their own judgment should be sufficient for the Mainteining 200 Souldiers one year for the Defence of the Land of Jerusalem He Pardoned all Clercs and Laics which were in Exile with Thomas and Granted they might freely and in Peace return to their own again He Sware also That he would Restore the possessions of the Church of Canturbury if any had been taken away as fully as it injoyed them a year before the Arch-Bishop went out of England He Sware also That the Customs which were brought in Contrary to the Churches of his Land in his time should be wholly laid aside and dismissed All these things he Sware to Observe in good Faith and without Deceit and Caused his Son Henry to do the like except in such things as referred to his own person And That they might remain in the memory of the Roman Church The King the Father caused his Seal to be put to the Writing which conteined these Articles or Heads together with the Seals of the Cardinals Who upon this Purgation Submission and Satisfaction Granted him a [9] Append. N. 62. Chart of Absolution On the Morrow after the Cardinals held a great [1] Hoved. f. 303. b. n. 50. A great Council in Normandy with the Decrees Council with the Arch-Bishop and Bishops and Clergy of Normandy and then and there the following Decrees were made and injoyned to be observed inviolably by all men I. That Children [2] Append. n. 63. A. D. 1172. should not be admitted to the Government and administration of Churches with Cure of Souls II. The Sons of Priests should not be placed in the Churches of their Fathers III. a. Lords of Maners that built Churches upon their fee put in Priests to serve the Cure and received such profits of the Church as they and the Priest agreed upon and the Priests only staid in the Cure as long as they pleased Laics should not receive part of the oblations of the Church IV. b. This fourth Canon was to the same purpose for they let them out annually to such as would serve the Cure and give most for them That Churches should not be Committed to annual V●cars V. That the Priests of great Churches which had sufficient Revenues should be Compelled to have another Priest under him VI. That Priests should not be Ordained without a certain Title VII Churches should not be let to annual farm VIII That nothing of the third part of the Tithes should be taken from the Priest that officiated IX c. That is such as built the Churches and were Patrons had liberty to present the first Clerc but not afterwards that was against the Liberty of the Church and Canons for investitures Those which held Titles by haereditary right might have leave to give them to what qualifyed Clerc he would upon Condition that * i e. after the first presentation after him They should revert to the Church to which they belonged X. The Husband ought not to turn Monk or Religious his wife staying in the World or remaining Secular Nor on the Contrary unless they were both past the works of the Flesh XI In the Advent of the Lord fasting and abstinency from flesh was Commanded to all that could bear it Especially to Clercs and Knights or Military Men. XII Jews or Jewish Clercs should not Exercise secular Authorities i. e. Covetous and Vsurers XIII Item de * These were French not English pounds novis libris Excommunicationis c. And the Goods of Dying people which the Priests carryed away and the Blessings in Marriage and Baptism and of the Forty and Eight pounds which were Exacted for the absolution of Excommunicated persons nothing was perfected because the Bishops of Normandy would not receive that Decree King Henry the Father [3] Hoved. f. 307. a. n. 40. King Henry gives the Arch-Bishopric to Richard Prior of Dover c. against the Prohibition of King Henry his Son and after an Appeal made to the Pope gave to Richard the Prior of Dover the Arch-Bishopric of Canturbury To Reginald the Son of Iocelin Bishop of Salisbury
the Title of King of England both Kings gave him Dorchester in Oxfordshire for his Bishops Seat But King Cenwalch divided his Nation into two Parishes or Paroches and erected another Bishoprick at Winchester where he placed Wine as Bishop The Heptarchy A. D. 6●6 Peada Prince of Mercia or Middle England his Father Penda yet living and remaining Pagan for the love he had for Alfrede the Christian Daughter of Oswi King of Northumberland whom he married The Me●cians converted Bede l. 3. c. 21. A. D. 656. became a Christian himself and propagated Christianity in his Dominions by the means and assistance of Finian a Bishop and of Cedda Adda Bett● and Diuma Partners The Controv●rsie about East●r Ibid. c. 25 26. A. D. ●64 The Question about the Observation of Easter and some other small Ecclesiastical Controversies much disturbed the Quiet of the Church and People at this time so as those of one party would scarce eat drink or communicate with the other the Scots followed the Quatodeciman way according to the Asian Tradition the English the Roman manner of observing Easter and some other small things Managed by Coleman and Wilfrid O●wy joyns with Wilfrid the Controversie was managed by Coleman a Scotch-man Bishop of Holy-Island and Wilfrid an English-man and Abbat at a meeting of divers of both Judgments at the Monastery of Streneshalch now Whitby in Yorkshire where in the opinion of King Oswy of Northumberland Wilfrid prevailed whom he made Bishop of York Ibid. l. 4. c. 1. Deusdedit Archbishop of Canterbury being dead Ercombert King of Kent and Oswy King of the Northumbrians sent Wighard to Rome desiring he might be ordained Bishop of the English Church who dying at Rome Pope Vitalian ordained Theodore a Monk then at Rome Theodore Archbishop of Canterbury A. D. 668. Ibid. c. 2. a Grecian born and very learned man in those times Archbishop of Canterbury he founded a Library and School there had the Greek and Latin Tongues taught with other Arts and Sciences he brought this Church to the Roman Order and Discipline in all things and 't is thought he was the first that had the Title of Archbishop though others before him are so called in his fifth year he called a Council at Hartford A Council called by him at Hartford A. D. 6●● in noteing the Acts whereof he stiles himself only Bishop of Canterbury and the other Bishops his Fellow-partners and Brethren in which it was decreed that such things as had been canonically decreed by the trans-marine Fathers should be kept and observed here he then produced the Book of Canons and out of them chose ten heads of such matters as he thought most necessary to be received here they are of small moment and who will may see them in Spelman's Councils he ejected Wilfrid out of his Bishoprick of York Fol. 153. A. D. 680. Bede l. 4. c. 17. but he was restored again by a Council held by Pope * See more of this at the latter end of the first part of this History Agatho at Rome This year at the command of Ecfrid King of Northumberland Edilred King of Mercia Another Council called at Hatfield by the c●mmand of four Kings Sp●lm concil fol. 169. Aldwulf King of East-Angles and Lothar King of Kent he called a Council at Hatfield in which were received the Canons of five Councils viz. Nice Constantinople Ephesus Calcedon and the fifth at Constantinople held against Theodore and Theodoret and those Constitutions made at Rome by the Synod held under Pope Martin Ibid. fol. 172. Anno Domini 648. which Agatho this year sent into England Bede l. 4. c. 18. This year likewise John chief Chantor of St. Peter at Rome brought over hither the yearly order and course of singings and readings as it was practised there Wilfrid was not idle although thrust out of his Bishoprick The Heptarchy A. D 692. for then by his preaching he converted the South-Saxons whose King Aedilwalch had been before baptized in Mercia Ibid l. ● c. 13. The South-Saxons converted Isle of Wight converted Bede l. 4. c. 2. Theodo●e erects Bishopricks in several places Dr. Marshams Preface to the first Volumn of the Monasticon After the same manner and by the same Wilfrid was the Isle of Wight converted and by others the other parts of Britain subject to the Saxons or English Theodore was the first Archbishop to whom the whole English Church submitted who travelling about all the Island in the Saxons Possession appointed and consecrated Bishops and erected Bishopricks in fit places and distinguished them into Paroches or * Not into such limits as now make Paroches or Parishes but Bishopricks Parish and Bishoprick all one in elder times Bede l. 3. c. 7. Fol. 188. South-Saxons and Kent ruled by West-Saxon Laws which were commonly called Parishes in Elder times so King Cenwalch is said to have divided his Province into two Parishes when he made a new Bishoprick at Winchester that was taken out of the Diocess of Dorchester Parishes (r.) Lambard says Ina began to reign in the year 712. and quitted his Government in the year 727. but I rather follow Spelman in his Councils who thinks his Laws might be published about the year as in the Margin here is noted to the Laws of the West-Saxons were subject the South-Saxons and the People of Kent Ina King of the West-Saxons about this time published his Laws which were made by the perswasion of his Father Cenred his Bishops Hedda and (ſ) 'T is probable Ina at that time might be the most powerful of all the Saxon Kings and have the Title of King of England and so Erkenwald who was Bishop of London might be called his Bishop or London then be under his Power Erkenwald and of his Earls or Elders and wise men Ina his Laws A. D. 692. among which were many that were meerly Ecclesiastick as the first That the Ministers of God observe their appointed form of living Lamb. Ll. Inae Laws meerly Ecclesiastick made by King Ina. the second about Baptism the third about working on the Lord's-day the fourth about first Fruits paid to the Church c. Not long after there was (t) It was called a great Council perhaps from the number of all sorts of People that were there not from the number of Divines or Religious which subscribed they being but fifteen Persons Archbishop of Canterbury called Archbishop of Britain at England and five of them Women a great Council held at Becanceld a place in Kent Withred the King thereof presiding in it A. D. 694. Becanceld Council where King Withred presided Spelm. Conc. fol. 191. where were also congregated Bertwald Archbishop of (u) The Archbishop of Canterbury in these antient times is sometimes called Archbishop of Britain sometimes of England Britain Toby Bishop of Rochester and all the Abbats Abbesses Priests Deacons (x) The Latin
to have been a (g) By Matth. of West Brampton and many others but not mentioned by Asser Malmsbury or in the Saxon Annals and therefore suspitious Monk and Bishop of Winchester took upon him at the request and importunity of his Nobility A. D. 836. the Government of the Kingdom of the West-Saxons his Father giving to his Brother Athelstan the Kingdoms of Kent Essex Surrey and Sussex Saxon Annals A. D. 836. or of the South-Saxons which afterwards by the Death or Cession of Ethelstan came under the Power of Ethelwolph Malms l. 2. c. 2. who being of a quiet and still temper the Danes made their advantage of him with whose Invasions the most part of his Reign he was mightily afflicted and with whom in one place or other there were Battels or Skirmishes almost every (h) Barely mentioned and briefly touched in the Succession of several years in the Saxons Annals and in Asser whom the rest follow inlarging upon them according to their Fancies Saxon Annals and Asser in these years and so forward The Danes harass Lindsey East-angles Kent London Canterbury and Rochester as that Duke Wulfheard fought against three and thirty of their Ships at Hampton A. D. 887. and the same year Consul Ethelhelm fought the Danes with the Dorsetshire men at Port where at first Ethelhelm but at last the Danes prevailed the next year Earl Herebert was killed in Battel of the Pagans and many others at Mereswar and the same year the Countries of Lindsey East-angles Kent c. were harassed and destroyed and many slain by them and the next year they made great slaughters at Canterbury London and Rochester and so forward nothing but insignificant Relations year sometimes the Saxons sometimes the Danes prevailing Ethelwolph Monarch A. D. 836. who by their often Invasions in every part of the Kingdom rather seemed to pray upon and wast than conquer and possess England if at any time they were repelled and very much beaten by the English Danes often beaten yet it availed not the English Their often fresh Supplies it availed nothing there coming presently greater Fleets with fresh Supplies and while the Saxons or English marched to oppose them in the East they shipped themselves and invaded the West or some other Quarter so that the People despaired of any means of Safety The King Nobility and Clergy over-set as it were and strangely afflicted with the Depredations of these Pagans Ingulph Historia Fol. 491. a. judging these Evils and Miseries to be the Consequences of their Sins bethought themselves of a wholsome and uniform Remedy as they affirmed it and a Security against their Enemies which was an (i) The General Meetings of the Bishops great or wise Men as they were frequently named Great Councils or Parliaments Tenth Mansion Hide or Family what it signifies or of the States or Baronage were called Witenage gemotes Mycel Synods great Councels and afterwards Paliaments Act of the great Council or Parliament in those days however it be commonly called the Grant of King Ethelwolph of the Tith of the Profits of all (k) Tiths might be paid by some Persons and in some places before this Grant but this was the first publick Act that imposed a necessity of paying them In Ingulph the Latin words are decimam Mansionem that is Hidam seu familiam the Tenth Hide or Family which perhaps ma●●elate to the Poor Parson which was to be maintained upon every Tenth Mansion as above noted or perhaps if the Tenth Mansion were given it might be the first Foundation of the Rectory and Glebe La●ds in every Parish for besides 't is said in Ingulph that the Tenth of all Goods were granted to the Church In others the Latin words are decimam partem terrarum per regnum nostrum the things granted however expressed were the Tithes of the Profits of all Lands as Selden concludes History of Tiths fol. 206 c. Ibid. fol. 207. for as he affirms whether it be the Tenth Hide the Tenth Mansion or Family or the Tenth part of the Land it is all one they being words that signifie the same things and import no more than the Tenth part of the Profits growing in them Lands Ethelwolph grants the Tiths of all England to the Church A. D. 855. Ibidem Ingulph histor 491. a. This Grant subscribed by all the Kings and Nobility in England Ibidem Ordered to be published in every Church free from all Burthens Taxes and Exactions (l) Free from Military Service building and repairing of Bridges and Castles called the Trimoda Necessitas to which all Lands whatsoever were subject whatsoever to the Church this Grant by the consent of that great Council was signed by all the Archbishops Bishops and Secular States of all England by Beorred King of Mercia and Edmund King of the East-angles then Subject and Tributary to Ethelwolph who after it was subscribed offered it upon the Altar of St. Peter the Apostle in the Cathedral at Winchester where the Council was held and the Bishops caused it to be published in every Church of their several Diocesses or (m) The Latin words are Per omnes Ecclesias in suis Parochiis Paroches This done he went to Rome leaving the Danes in Shepey Island and carried with him his beloved Son Al●rid and staying there a year returning through France he brought with him Judith Daughter of Charles King thereof Asser de gest Al●r fol. 2. whom he had married Ethelbald conspires against his Father Ib. In his absence Ethelbald his eldest Son Alstan Bishop of Sherborn and Eanwulf Earl of Somersetshire conspired against him and would have excluded him the Kingdom who foreseeing the Dangers and Miseries of a Civil War Ibid. fol. 3. Between Ethelbald and his Father the Kingdom is divided A. D. 858. out of his meer Clemency and great Condescention by the assent of his Nobles divided the Kingdom between himself and his Son he taking the East part and leaving the West part which was the best and greatest to Ethelbald two years after his return from Rome he disposed the Kingdom to his two eldest Sons and his Hereditary Estate to his other Sons and Daughters Ethelwold Ethelbald Ethelbert A. D. 858. For the advantage of his Soul he ordered that in his Hereditary Lands every Tenth Hide or Mansion should maintain one Poor Parson with Meat Drink and Cloathing he commanded likewise there should be three hundred Marks carried to Rome every year Ethelwold gives three hundred Marks to Rome Ibid. fol. 4. and to be thus disposed of one hundred Marks to buy Oyl for the Lamps in the Church of St. Peter as much to buy Oyl for the Lamps in the Church of St. Paul and the other hundred Marks to the Pope in this year he died To him Ethelbald and Ethelbert the two elder Brothers succeeded Ethelbald and Ethelbert Ibidem A. D. 860. Winchester sacked the former lived
Ibid. c. 50. should have her Nose and Ears cut-off 5. That a Widdow marrying within twelve months after her Husbands Death should lose her joynture and Dowry Ibid. c. 71. Cnute not long before he died appointed his eldest Son Swane Hoveden 251. a A. D. 1035. Cnute dies and disposeth his Kingdoms to his Sons by his first Wife (y) By most Writers reported to have been a Concubine she was Daughter to a Mercian Noble-man who is said to have been Earl of Northampton Elgiva to be King of Norway and his second Son (z) Others say he was elected King Ingulph Hist 509. a. and some that he was King only of the North parts of England and Harde Cnute of the South parts Harold by the same Woman to be King of England and Harde-Cnute his Son by Emme King of Danemarke This year he died in November at Shaftsbury and was buried at Winchester Harold according to some being chosen King by the Danes and Londoners Harold Hunt 209. a. whilst Earl Godwin and the English would have had for their King one of the Sons of Ethelred or Harde-Cnute the Son of Cnute but their attempt was in vain Malms l. 2. c 12 not being equal either in number or force to the Abettors of Harold and therefore he injoyed the Crown which was given to him by his Father A. D. 1036. as it is said in Hoveden before-cited however he came to be so King he was and innocent Elfred Elfred and many Normans slain a younger Son of Emme by Ethelred coming out of Normandy to visit his Mother then being at Winchester Harold Harde-Cnute Danes A. D. 1036. as 't is storied was by Earl Godwin and others by order of Harold together with many Normans that came to accompany him slain his Mother Emme not thinking her self safe here much grieved for the death of her Son cruelly murthered Hoved. 251. Emme flies to Baldwin Earl of Flanders went to Baldwin Earl of Flanders who received her honourably and assigned Brugis for the place of her abode where she remained three years whither her Son Harde-Cnute came out of Danemarke to visit her Malmsb. ibid. Hunting ibid. Hoved. 251. b. Harold dies Ibid. Flor. Wigorn. A. D. 1040. in the mean while having done nothing memorable Harold dies at Oxford some say London and was buried at Westminster Florence of Worcester says they divided the Kingdom of England by Lot and that the North part fell to Harold and the South to Harde-Cnute who was rejected because he came not out of Danemarke when sent for so soon as was expected and therefore Harold was elected King over all England A. D. 1035 1037. fol. 622. Harde-Cnute both English and Danes make him their King After his death all the Nobility both Danes and English sent to Brugis to Harde-Cnute to come and be their King the Children of Ethelred being neglected and post-poned for the easiness and ill fortune of their Father he arrives with sixty Ships manned with Danes and was of all People received with great applause but during his short Reign did nothing worthy a King save that he treated his half Brother Edward and his Mother Emme who came to him out of Normandy He laid a grievous Tax upon the Nation Ibidem At which Worcestershire People tumult very kindly and honourably he laid a grievous Tax upon the Nation for the payment of eight Marks to every Rower and twelve Marks to every Officer in his Fleet this caused the People to tumult and at Worcester the Country People and Citizens killed two of his Domestick Servants which he sent to gather his Tax but he chastised them severely for that Fact for he sent thither Leofric Earl of Mercia Godwin Earl of West-Saxony Siward Earl of Northumberland Their City and Country is burnt and plundered Ib. A.D. 1042. He dies suddenly c. who plundered and burnt the City and wasted all the Country when he had reigned about two years he died suddenly while he was drinking at a Nuptial Feast at Lambeth where Osgod a great Danish Lord had married his Daughter to Prudan another Potent Dane Edward the Confessor A. D. 1043. His Descent Edward commonly called the Confessor the eldest Son of Ethelred by Emme and half Brother to Edmund Ironside Son also of Ethelred by a former Wife being in England at the death of his half Brother Harde-Cnute was in a great straight not knowing what to do and thinking to retire into Normandy [1.] Malms de Gest R. R. l. 2. c. 13. fol. 45. a. n. 10. He applies himself to Earl Godwin applied himself to Earl Godwin who gave him other advice minds him whose Son he was and what great probability there was of his being King and withall promiseth his assistance upon Conditions to be agreed on between them Edward urged by necessity promiseth to make good all he asked Then a Council being called at London Godwin being very eloquent and powerful in perswading so prevailed in this Assembly that by the consent of almost all present He is declared King he was made King and [2.] Hoveden 252. a. crowned at Winchester anointed by Edsi Archbishop of Canterbury and Alfric Archbishop of York in the presence of almost all the Bishops of England And not long after by advice of the Earls Leofric Godwin Edward the Confessor of the Saxon Race A. D. 1043. and Siward he seized and took from his Mother Emm● all her Gold Silver Jewels and Treasure The reason assigned is that she was very hard and sparing towards him in the time of his Exile he married the Daughter of Earl Godwin by name Edith or Edgith Hor. Worcest He takes away Jewels and Treasury from his Mother Emme He Marries Earl Godwin's Daughter Edgith Malms ut sup Her Beauty Learning and Modesty as he had promised She was no ways like her Father or Brothers but was very beautiful learned humble and modest [3.] Histor Croy. 509. a. n. 30.40 50. Edward much addicted to the French Modes and Custom● Ibidem Ingulph reports he saw her often when he went to Court to see his Father who lived there and coming from School was often met by her and opposed solidly and smartly not only in Grammar but in Logick The same Historian there saith that though Edward was born in England yet having had his Education in Normandy he was almost become a French man and calling many from thence both Laies and Religious preferred them to great Offices and Dignities The chief amongst them were Robert a Monk whom he made first Bishop of London and then Archbishop of Canterbury and William his Chaplain whom he made Bishop of Dorchester with other Military men which he placed upon the Borders to defend them against the Welch Then the English under this King and the Normans which he brought in began to lay aside the English Rites and Customs and in many
or any of the Clergy should give Judgment concerning the Life of any Man or loss of Member nor by their Authority should countenance any that do it Another he held at Winchester [1.] Ibidem fol. 13. Anno Domini 1076. No Canon to Marry Priests in Burghs and Cities might retain their Wives wherein it was Decreed That no Canon should Marry and that Priests which lived in Burroughs and Villages that had Wives should not put them away but if they had none they were prohibited to take any and Bishops were to take care that they did not Ordain Married Men either Deacons or Priests [2.] In Appen n. 14. The Origin of Exempts and Peculiars Archbishop Lanfranc exempted all the Clerks or Parish-Priests of the Towns belonging to him or where he was Lord or presented to the Living in any Diocess from the Jurisdiction and Visitation of the Bishop which might be the Original of Peculiars These were the Ecclesiastical Affairs in England in the time of William the First what they were then in Normandy and how alike to them here may be seen in the Constitutions made there [3.] In Appen n. 15. 1080. In the last year of his Reign [4.] Flor● Wig. fol. 642. Anno Domini 1087. many of the chief Cities of England and London burnt Order vit fol. 663. C. almost all the chief Cities of England were burnt and the greatest and best part of London with the Church of St. Pauls King William dying on the Ninth of September 1087. as was noted before left Issue by Maud Daughter of Baldwin Earl of Flanders 1. Robert his eldest Son Florent Wigor fol. 642. Anno Domini 1087. according to the Will and Bequest of his Father succeeded him only in the Dukedom of Normandy 2. Richard his Second Son Order vit fol. 573. C. who following a hard Chace in Hunting in the New-Forest was mortally hurt by the Bough of an Hasle-Tree before either his years of Marriage or Knighthood 3. William commonly called Rufus succeeded his Father in the Kingdom of England Florent Wigor ut supra as he had given it to him in his last Will and Testament 4. Henry who after the death of his Brother William without Issue was King of England and Duke of Normandy * Order fol. 659. C. he had given him by his Father only Five thousand Pounds in Money Ibid. fol. 484. D. 548. B. C. 5. Cicely his Eldest Daughter first a Nun in the Monastery of Fescamp in Normandy afterward Abbess of the Holy Trinity in Cane where she died Anno Domini 1127. July 13. Ibidem fol. 544. C. 6. Constance Married to Alan Fergant or the Red Earl of Britain for the assurance of Peace between King William and him died without Issue Lib. 8. c. 34. 7. Adelidis or Alice his Third Daughter Contracted to Harold the Usurper Fol. 573. C. Seems to be the same with Agatha Script Norm f. 1070. as Gemeticensis affirms but at his death being Marriageble died a Virgin but Ordericus Vitalis mentions not this Contract between her and Harold Ibid. fol. 574. A. 8. Adela who was Married to Stephen Earl of Blois by whom she had four Sons William Theobald Henry and Stephen who by his Uncle King Henry the First was made Earl of Mortainge and by his means was Married to Maud Daughter and Heir of Eustachius Earl of Bulloign by whom he had that Earldom and also very great Possessions in England Ibid. 573. C. Seems to be the same with Adelidis or Adelis Script Norm f. 1070. 9. Agatha who died a Virgin but reported by Ordericus Vitalis to have been first Contracted to Harold the Usurper and afterward to Amfurcius King of Gallicia but died in her Journey thither not having ever seen him THE REIGN OF William Rufus OR William the Second THE Conqueror dying on the Ninth of October An. Do. 1087. [1.] Ord Vit. fol. 763. D. Rufus brings his Fathers Donation of England to Arch-Bishop Lanfranc Robert Bloiet his Chaplain immediately came over into England with his Son William and brought with him to Lanfranc Arch-Bishop of Canterbury the Donation of his Father [2.] Ibidem fol. 663. C. Who Anointed him King who having read it made haste with him to London and on Michaelmass-day Anointed him King in the old Church of St. Peter at Westminster having first promised [3.] Eadm fol. 13. n. 50. Upon the great Promises he made to him He was Knighted by Lanfranc upon his Faith and Oath by himself and all others he could procure to vouch him to Lanfranc being not over forward to grant his desires that he would in all matters through the whole Kingdom preserve Justice Equity and Mercy defend the Peace and Liberty of the Church against all Men and also in all things obey his Council and Precepts But though Lanfranc having been his Tutor * Malms de Gest Reg. fol. 67. b. n 30. Order Vital fol. 665. D. Eudo King Williams Steward a great Instrument in setting up Rufus and also having made him a Knight brought on by these fair Engagements was the great Instrument to promote him to the Crown yet (a) He was Son to Hubert de Rie Privado to both Edward the Confessor and William the Conqueror and Envoy in the greatest and most private Matters that passed between them Eudo his Fathers Steward was little less Instrumental in his obtaining it if there be any truth in the Story cited from the Manuscript in Cottons Library [4.] Monast 2. vol. fol. 900. n. 40.50 The Keys of the Treasury at Winchester delivered to Rufus by Sir William Dugdale for he upon the occasion of his Fathers Grant incited William Rufus to be active in his own Affair and then hastning into England so insinuated himself into William de Ponte-Arche that he obtained from him the Keys of the Treasury then at Winchester and passed to Dover where he obliged by Oath the Guardians of the Castle that they should not deliver the Keys of that Fortress to any without his Advice The like he did at Pevensey Hastings and other Maritime Castles pretending the King whose death was kept secret would stay yet in Normandy and would have good assurance of the safety of his Castles in England by him his Steward And having thus dispatched his Business he returned to Winchester and discovered the Kings death and by his Contrivance while the Nobles in Normandy were Consulting about the Succession William Rufus was advanced to the Throne In the mean time [5.] Orderic fol. 665. C. Robert Duke of Normandy distributed his Wealth amongst his Soldiers Robert Duke of Normandy his elder Brother plentifully distributed his Wealth among his Veteran Soldiers or Knights and by hope of Rewards brought into his Service a Multitude of young Soldiers but his [6.] Ibidem Treasure failing he borrowed of his Brother Henry Three thousand Pounds for which he
of Excommunication which Eadmer being present with Anselm in this Council says he [9.] Fol. 53. n. 10. The Heads of the Decrees which Anselm insisted on heard against such Laymen as gave the Investitures of Churches and against such as received them from the Hands of Lay-men and lastly against such as should do any Homage to any Layman for any Ecclesiastical Preferment This year Guido [1.] Ibid. fol. 58. n. 40. The Popes Legat not received in England Arch-Bishop of Vienne in France came into England by Command and in the Name of the Pope as his Legat of all Britain at which all Men admired seeing it was never heard of before that ever any Man was the Popes Legat in Britain except the Arch-Bishop of Canterbury and therefore he went as he came no Man taking him for Legat nor did he in any thing execute the Office When [2.] Ibid. fol. 59. n. 40. An Do. 1101. Easter was come the Messengers not returned from Rome and therefore the Debate between the King was deferred until their return which was not until towards the later end of Summer and then they only brought Pope [3.] Append. n. 18. Paschals Letters to the King against the giving of Investitures by Laymen in which he seems to be of the same opinion with his Predecessor Vrban The King [4.] Ibidem fol. 61. n. 40 50. The King demands of Anselm Homage He refuseth to do it Commands Anselm to Court and when he came required him to do him Homage and Consecrate those to whom he gave Bishopricks and Abbies He refused to do them and the King told him he would not lo