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A00173 The life or the ecclesiasticall historie of S. Thomas Archbishope of Canterbury; Annales ecclesiastici. English. Selections Baronio, Cesare, 1538-1607.; A. B., fl. 1639. 1639 (1639) STC 1019; ESTC S100557 287,552 468

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Archbishoppe was that sainct Thomas would not suffer him to punish a notarious offending Clearke which as shall bee manifested was not the only but one among other most iust occasions that moued saint Thomas to reproue the king whereupon grew this bitter dissention Yet Newborough would haue thus excused the king But let vs now follow the Archbishop returning home to his owne Church from the counsell of Towers that wee may search out the originall of this great controuersy which for seauen yeeres troubling the Romane Church found none effect for vniting this rented discord beetweene the king and him The Translation of S. Edward King of Englād and Cōfessour After the Archbishops returne vntill the translation of sainct Edward the king which was solemnized on the third of the Ides of October there remayned quiet peace and contentment beetweene the king and him but what afterwardes ensued these Authors beeing eye-witnesses of the proceedinges doe testify CONSIDERATIONS VPON the Preface LEt vs now heere behould the Christian world as at this tyme it presented it selfe Where first wee see the Pope Cardinals banished out of Rome Italy and all the mighty Emperour of Rome posessing all theyr dominiōs Ecclesiasticall temporall and mayntaineing Octauian that vsurping Scysmatick in the Papal throne The Emperour of Constantinople not intermedling with the Westerne Church and also lately ouerthrowne by the Ceciliās The king of Ierusalem though acknowledging Alexander his lawfull Pastor yet raigning a far of hardly able to defend the frontyers of Christendome against the Saracens The good king of Denmarke though lately showing himselfe an approued Catholike yet Frederickes Homager and diuorced by all Germany from assisting Pope Alexander Bohemia drowned in Germany and Hungary à remote kingdome and though subiect to the Romane Sea yet not able to succour her The king of Cecill though Alexanders faythfull freind yet soe incumbred with domesticall rebellions as hee could not rayse an army to restore him The kingdomes of Spaine though they wished him well yet soe ouercome with the Mahomet a Moores as they re states were miserable So hee was only left by God to the pious worthie king of France the powerfull king of England and in myne opinion the greatest king of the Norman race that euer swayd ouer this land for as Gilbert B. of London writing in the names of all the English Bishops to saint Thomas Archbishop of Canterbury sayth his dominions reached from the Perinean Mountaines to the Northerne seas and if Edward the III. Henry the V. and Edward the IV. hauing England Ireland Callis rather a tumultuous tytle then any peaceable countreyes or profitable reuenues in France were able to tryumph ouer France then how much was Henry the II. who beesides England Ireland had the Dutchyes of Normandy Aquitaine with the Earledome of Anioue his natiue soyle other honores in quiet possession to omitt Britaine that had a great dependance on him able to ouermatch the puissance of France To passe from this to his great reuerence affection to Pope Alexander I know no king that euer showed more and last to ascend to his actions the effectes of these Henry the II. drewe England France Spaine Ireland Norwaye to obey Pope Alexander and when the Emperour would haue surprysed at Mount Saon the king of France and thereby entralled the Pope Cardinalles spoyled them of all this renowned K. with his couragious army rescued them Now what a terrible attempt was it of the enemy of Mankind to withdrawe if hee could from the Pope such a king from the Church such a child But though the billowes of these seas were wonderfull yet God was more maruaylous in guiding sainct Peeters ship through them Considering all these euery indifferent man may in reading this Epistolary history iudge how great reason the Pope had as far as in conscience hee possibly could to forbeare this king soe well deseruing of the Apostolike Sea And also when inforced through iustice thereunto hee would haue executed against him the censures of the Church what a true heroicall vertuous acte it was to prefer the loue duty hee bore to Almighty God before the fauor of soe great such a deseruing freind And what aboue all others is most to bee marked in the proces of this matter although all the Bishops of this realme fearefully fowly wandred astray yea although saint Thomas of Canterbury himselfe like an other saint Peeter falling recouered againe rose to a glorious Martyrdome yet Pope Alexander whom it cheifely concerned neuer erred eyther infayth or infacte God so directed with his holy Ghost the gouernor of his Church Lastly to conclude with this famous kinge whose faire arysing sunne was soe ouerclowded with his turbulent passions as they molested the whole Church and gaue occasion though vnwitting to him of the Martyrdome of the glorious Saint hee returned neuertheles in the end soe clearly againe to himselfe as hee gaue that great satisfaction indured yea imposed vpon himselfe soe sharpe a pennance as was able to make his very enemys relent and a stony hearte with teares to pitty him Neither doe I thinke but the prayers merites of S. Thomas that conuerting his bloudy executioners to cōtrite penitētes through Christes passion saued their soules did in like sorte yea more effectually helpe to raise to the same eternall blessednes this king after hee departed this world in the Octaues of S. Peeter S. Paul An. 1189. beeing first penitēt cōfessing his sinnes receauing the most B. Sacrament This being deliuered by Card. Bar. out of Roger I haue precisely set downe because it is Cronicled that the king dyed out of charity beeing I thinke as false as that Pope Adrian according to the Scysmatickes fable was choaked with a flye or K. Iohn poysoned by a Monke THE ECCLESIASTICALL HISTORIE OF SAINCT THOMAS ARCHBISSOPPE OF CANTERBVRY THE olde enemie maketh continuall warre against the Church but the sonne of God who hath redeemed it with his owne blood will also by the blood of his owne membres bring the same to true and perfect liberty among which the glorious company of the Apostles and purple coulored army of holy martyrs hath the preheminence by whose doctrine the liuely stones in the building of the body of Christ are confirmed by whose blood as it were with morter and symonde they are ioyned together and vnited that the Church of God goeing forward and multiplying in piety the number of the faithfull might bee made fit for the building of an holy Temple in our Lord. And allbeit all Martirs in generall haue a supereminent prerogatiue of eternall glory The glory of martyrdome yet their title is more glorious and their Crowne more bright that haue deserued double honor by instructing of others making themselues an example to their flocke and laying downe their liues for their sheepe in the time of tryall for like as one starre exceedeth an other in
wee see nothing but shipwracke tbreatening instantly to deuoure vs nor any aduise lefte but that with our vttermost ability awakeing Christ Matth. 5. as it were sleeping in the ship wee crye out Lord saue us wee perish And heerin truly iniquity hath got a more fit occasion to vent her malice because hee seeth the state of the Roman Church as now more weakened whereby appeareth that whatsoeuer it bee good or ill sweete or sower which floweth downe on the head the same descending by the beard leaueth not the lowest hemme of the garment vntouched Iesus Christ is despoyled of that which by his blood hee purchased The secular power hath layd hands on his very patrimony Soe as neither the decrees of the holy fathers nor the constitutions of the Cannons whose very name among vs is growne odious are as now of force to patronise the Clergie whoe in tymes past haue bin by speciall priuiledge ex●mpted from this secular iurisdiction and because it is long and tedious to rechearse or prosecute in writting the iniuryes wee endure wee send to your Fatherhood Master Henry a man both to your Holynes and vs faithfull and familiar to wh●se relation wee haue commended all things in such sorte to bee declared particularly vnto you as hee hath s ene and heard them and if it pleaseth you credit him as much as you would our s lfe Know you neuerthelesse that if it might bee wee would far rather visit you in pe●son then by an other wee speake confidently to you as to our father and lord and what wee say wee humbly beeseech may bee concealed in all silence Nothing remayneth safe to vs since allmost all thinges are disclosed to the King which are spoken in our priuate chamber or whispered in our eare Woe bee to vs whoe are r●s●rued to these times in whose dayes these mischeifes are beefallen whoe in our former estate haue enioyed s●e great a liberty which now is recompenced with a hard and most vile slauery Wee would at the least haue fledd that wee might not see the patrimony of the crucifyed giuen ouer to spoyle but whither we knowe not vnlesse vnto him who is our refuge and vertue Concerning the Welshmen and Owen who calleth himselfe a prince wee beeseech your Lordship to bee prouident beecause our lord the King is heerewith wonderfully disturbed and moued to indignation And soe deere father and lord wee wish you all felicity To the same purpose and by the same Messinger Lib. 1. ep●st 19. 20. 21. 82. did hee writte to Humbald Cardinal and Bishop of Ostia hee sent alsoe letters to Bernard Bishop and Cardinall of Portua and likewise to Albert Preist and Cardinall with an other to Hyacinthe Deacon Cardinall all which are reserued intire in the same booke Alexander afterwards somewhat foreseeing these combates to come prepareth himselfe for resistance admonishing as well the Archbishop as all other Bishops of England not to yeeld a whit to the king against the Ecclesiasticall liberty and not to obserue whatsoeuer they had promised theyr prince in derogation of that immunity which was signifyed in writing to Thomas and all the Bishops of England with these words Lib. 1 epist 91. Wee would haue yee knowe that yee haue vndertaken the burden of your pastorall authority to the end yee should gouerne the Churches committed vnto your charge to the honour of God and the profit and saluation of your flockes in such sorte as the Francises of the same Churches should not by your defaultes in any wise bee impaired but conserued still in their estates by your studyes and endeauours whereupon wee will and command your brotherhoode by our Apostolicall letters and enioyne you in the vertue of obedience that if the renowned King of Englād shall at any time require of yee any thing contrary to the Ecclesiasticall liberty yee presume not in any case heerein to satisfy his minde nor yet beecome in any sorte bound vnto him especially against the Church of Rome neither yet bee yee soe bould as to bring in the f●rme of any new deuised promise or oath but only to obserue that which Bishops haue bin accustomed to sweare vnto their Kinges And if yee knowe that in any thing of this nature yee haue tyed your selues vnto your King obserue not by any meanes this your promise but bee rather carefull to recall it and endeauour to bee reconciled to God his Church for the lapse of this vnlawfull promise Thus wrote Alexand●r the most vigilant keeper of the sacred Cannons admitting nothing that was vsurped against them in fauour of the king allthough otherwise hee were very much beehoulding to the same prince for late receiued benefittes The rest followeth the next yeere Heere followeth the yeere 1164. and the 12. indiction A yeere to the Catholike Church in regard of many aduersities shee susteyned therein replenished with greifes and troubles And first concerning the state of English affaires more dangerous floods were daily there raised tending not only to ouerthrowe the Primate of Canterbury together with the whole Church of England but also to drowne if it had bin possible the holy Catholike Church it seife together with her high Bishoppe Alexander For Henry king of England prosecuting S. Thomas with an obstinate mind turned all his endeauours against the same Pope Alexander to remoue him from his sea But how all these deadly attemptes were managed receiue heere the relation After this turbulent encounter betweene the Bishops and the king and the departure caused by the kinges inraged fury for eschewing the imminent mischeifes whose forces daylie encreased and auoyding farr greater ruines which threatned the ouerthrow of the Catholicke Church S. Thomas is beesieged with the often and sundrie perswasions of many Bishops and Abbotts that hee should not in regard of one only word vnseasonably and vnreasonably cast himselfe together with the whole Church into soe open and apparant danger one Abbot among the rest affirming this to bee the opinion of Pope Alexander himselfe Thomas at lenght perswaded these by reasons sayeth Hubertin Quadrilogus charity enforceing him thereunto came to the King at oxford and promised hee would alter the word which the King tooke so offensiuely Whereupon the King his anger beeing now somewhat asswaged shewed the Archbishop a more pleasing countenance though inferiour to his wonted fashion the King moreouer sayd hee would haue according to this forme an instrumēt or obligation made for the obseruation of the royal customes in the publicke sight and hearing of the bishops and nobility of the kingdome But when Thomas was aduertised of the gathering together of a general assembly foreseing the ensuing mischeifes hee beegan to recall his consent yet againe hee is assaulted by the intreaty of many whereby hee is enforced for that instant to yeelde Galat 2. by the example of Peeter conforming himselfe to the Iewes with the Iewes at Antioch and of Paule often exercising the same A congregation of Bishoppes is appointed
being very bitterly incensed beegan to vexe him with more greiuous and exquisite molestations in such wise as it was apparant to all vnderstanding men the blood and life of the Archbishop was thirsted after Among other matters the king soe wrought The King incensed against Saine Thomas sendeth an embassage to the Pape as hee sent messangers to Pope Alexander and required two thinges at his hands first that hee would grant the legantine authority which was vsually committed to the Archbishop of Canterbury vnto the Archbishop of Yorke then that the Pope would confirme the artickles of the customes published in the Parliament of Claringtonne Vpon receipt of which message Alexander beeing on all sides beesieged with exceeding extremities seeing this warre now turned on the Apostolicall Sea laboured with his best and most ready endeauours to calme and appease the king and soe to yeeld to him insome what which neuerthelesse should with no preiudice derogate from the Chuch of Canterbury and thereupon did write in this sorte to the Archbishop Lib. 1 epist 4 The Popes epistle to S. Thomas cōcerning the Kinges dedemandes Although in regard of the wis●dome of your minde and sincerity of your faith wee would euer loue your pers●● with a more plentifull sweetnes of ch●ritie and a more enflamed desire and with a fare more feruent affection seeke the honour and exaltation of you as our most deare brother it is notwithstanding beehoofefull to vs and you who are a greate pillar of the Church warely to weigh the qualityes of the times and with a prouident moderation and dispensation to mitigate the wrath of the incensed king You on whom God hath beestowed a large talent of w●sedome and grace doe truly see in your discretion in what sorte our most deare sonne in Christ Henrie the renowned king of England maintaineth an outragious course in the gouerment of his kingdome and desireth to haue the same vnlawfull proceedinges strenthned wit● the authority of the Church of Rome whereby they may obtaine the greater confirmation and fauour Whereupon when in times past hee more instantly required of vs and our brethren by our reuerent brother the Bishoppe of Lyons and our beeloued sonne the Archdeacon of Poyters that hee might haue the power Legantine of all England graunted to the Arrchbishop of Yorke and beesought alsoe that wee would command as well you as all the Bishops vniuersally to keepe and conserue the ancient customes and dignities of his kingdome because wee did not yeeld to his desire according to his owne will instantly vpon returne of his embassadors scarce hearing the answer receaued from vs hee sent our beeloued sonnes Geffry his Archdeacon and Master Iohn vnto our presence and by them most earnestly required at our handes not only the former but also other far more vnreasonable demands and to the end wee should yeelde an easyer way to his desire hee procured letters vnto vs from your brotherhood and also the foresaid Bishop of Yorke For as hee prayed vs beefore that the ancient customes and dignitys might by our command bee conserued soe now againe of late hee most earnestly requested that in like sorte as your selfe and others had promised to obserue them they might in the same manner bee assured to him and his posterity Hew far the Pope graunted or denyed the Kings requests by the Sea Apostolicke But wee reiected his petition Notwithstanding least wee should incite him to ouermuch bitternes and more passionate trouble of mynde against vs and you least also it might bee suspected that this was any way hindred in regard of your selfe moreouer fearing hee might breake out into a more furious rage against you and beeing therefore desirous to bee more prouident for you and our selues with consideration of the dangerous times wee yealded so far to the king as to grante the Legantine letters to the aforesaid Archbishop And for that subiectes are truly bound to submitt themselues to their Princes desires and obey their wille wee aduise counsail and by all meanes exhorte your wisedome that as a prouident and discreete man measuring the necessity of the time and with faithfull consideration foreseeing what aduersityes may happen by reason thereof to you and your Church you would endeuour to yeelde to your King in all thinges sauing euer the honour of your Ecclesiasticall dignity and instant labor to recouer to your selfe his grace and fauour least in doeing otherwise you disquiet him to the hurte of you and our selues and they who are transported with an other spirit might thereby purchasse power to insult ouer you and vs. And w●e truly as oportunity shall serue will diligently and carefully treate with your King for your honor and augmentation and will employ all necessary trauell for conseruation of the lawes and dignityes of your Church and with all conueniency bee watchfull and prouident therein Dated at Senon the third of the Nones of March Reader you beehould Pope Alexander beesett with extremityes either to loose the kinges good will or grante his requestes and yeeld to him who laboureth to extorte a petition against the Churches liberty these two soe intangleing him the one of the kings demaundes hee satisfyed giuing the Legantine authority to the Bishop of Yorke the other hee absolutely denyed beeing the confirmation of the recited customes yea to the end this Legantine power conferred on the Bishop of Yorke might no way preiudice S. Thomas hee thought good soe to restrayne the same in his later letters that hee should vnderstand this Legation of his for England to bee confined with condition that notwithstanding hee should haue no authority graunted him ouer the Archbishop or Dioces of the Church of Canterbury Lib. 1. epist 5 Lib. 1. epist 3● 40. Pope Alexanders letters importing this restraint are extant which for breuity wee omitt thinking it sufficiēt if wee leaue them heere noted with their numbres in the margent It is alsoo apparant in the same letters of Pope Alexander that hee soe gaue the legation for England to the Bishop of Yorke as neuerthelesse hee would not suffer the Bishopps to bee exempted from the obedience they owed vnto the Archbishop of Canterbury to whom in very true right they were subiecte which rather enkindled the Kinges greater indignation who desired the Apostolicall Legantine authority for the Archbishop of Yorke of purpose to depose the Archbishop of Canterbury For Alexander hereupon inclined more to the cause of Sainct Thomas The Pope endeauoreth to succour S. Thomas and was soe far of from graunting to pleasure the King against him as hee most carefully watched to supporte his prosperity with the libertys of his Church commanding also the principall Monasteries of France to pray for him vnto allmighty God which is witnessed by a messinger sent from S. Thomas to his Holines in the conclusion of whose letter are these wordes worthie of memory Last of all wee petitioning his Holines that hee would commaund you to make your repaire
endeauour for her deliuery Vnlesse perchance you will imagin hee leaueth the shipp who entreth the Cock-boate to drawe her into the hauen This and much more in the beehalfe of saint Thomas wryteth his defendant Iohn of Salisbury But heare what the King of England did Cod Vatis lib 1 epistola 23. vpon the reporte of his departure Henry thus deluded hearing by some that saint Thomas was escaped by flight published his Edictes in this sorte against him and the Clearkes his followers Henry King of England to the seuerall Bishoppes ordayned in England Yee are not Ignorant in what euill sorte Thomas Archbisoppe of Canterbury hath proceeded against mee and my kindome and in what bad manner hee is departed And therefore I cōmand yee none of his Clearkes who after that his flight accompanyd him not any other Clearkes who derogated from the honor of mee and the honor of my kingdome receaue any renttes beelonging to them in your Bishoppickes otherwise then by my permission nor haue any assistance or aduice from yee Hee set out also an other proclamation for sequestring the reuenewes of the Archbishoppricke of Canterbury into the kinges handes Likewise hee published other decrees signifyed to S. Thomas from his friend by wryting in these wordes Please i● you to vnderstand Ibid epist 15 ibid. ep 14. Lawes on asted after the flight of S. Thamas that this is the tenor of the commissions sent by King Henry into England to wit That euery hauen bee most carefully guarded least any letters of interdiction bee any way brought into the land and if any Reguler person bringeth them in let his feete bee cut of if hee bee a Clearke let him lose his eyes and priuy members if a laye man let him bee hanged If a Leper let him be burned and if any Bishop for dread of this interdictiō will trauell out of the realme let him cary nothing with him beesides his staffe It is also his will that all schollers bee compelled to returne into their countrey or else to bee depriued of their Benefices and they that stay shall remayne without euer hope of returne likewise for those Priests who refuse to sing let them lose their priuy partes And let all who rebell bee depriued of their Benefices Thomas in the meane while hauing suffered this banishment sent these letters to Pope Alexander which Roger in his Chronickes of England recyteth the yeere following yet truly appertayning to this present S Thomas concerning hi● appeal to the Pope written with these wordes I flye for refuge most holy father vnto your audience that you who with soe greate a hazard of your selfe haue rescued the Churches liberty may now consider the only or cheifest cause of the persecution of my selfe who haue followed your example For I greeued to see the state of the Church by litle and litle to perish and her lawes infringed by the Auarice of Princes and thought this danger of sicknes was to bee preuented and by how much I knewe my selfe more bound to that lord of myne vnto whom next vnder God I am most ingaged soe much the more securely I supposed his vniust attemptes were to bee resisted vntill they preuayled who clowded from mee the cleere beames of his fauor Afterwardes as it is accustomed with Princes they raysed against mee slanders and false accusations whereby they might prosecute mee and I rather chose banishment then to yeelde to iniustice and to multiplye these mischeifes I was as a laye man called beefore the King to mak● satisfaction and where I hoped in my resistance for most assistance there was I especially deceaued for I found my lordes and fellowe brethren the Bishoppes prepared at the pleasure of the Courtiers to punish mee Thus allmost strangled with the inuasions of soe many I haue fled for succour to the audience of your Holines who neglecteth not those who are plunged in extremityes and vnder whom I stand ready to make good that I am nether to bee iudged there nor by them for what is this else father then to diminish and withdrawe from you the authority of your lawes yea what else then to submit spirituall Power to temporal iurisdiction this once suffered would open an example to many and therefore I iudged Christ fauoreth Caesar not a tia tirant it was with more constancy to bee withstood because the headlong way to doe hurte is to see but a weake resistance But they will say Those thinges are to bee giuen to Caesar which are Caesars yet allthough in many matters the king is to bee obeyed hee is neuerthelesse not to bee obeyed in those by which hee ceaseth to bee a king for such appertayne not to Caesar but to a Tyrant wherein the Bishoppes if not for my sake yet for their owne should haue resisted him For if the last iudgment is reserued for him who hath power to iudge both body and soule shall the highest Tribunal among men bee attributed to him who iudgeth according to his owne sense if these Bishoppes mayntaine the parte of iustice why did they assault mee why doe they reproue mee for appealing vnto him to auoyde whose determination of controuersyes is either vnlawfull or not expedient wherefore they haue vniustly accused mee or distrusted of your iustice for otherwise it were a double confusion to mee to bee conuicted before your Holines And haue I deserued persecution at their handes for whose cause I defended the bullwarke against soe greate a battery and had won the victory if only they would haue assisted but in all case is the head beeing left destitute by the members for how would it bee if the eyes should vse the tongue against th● head if they had well foreseene it they deuis●d but mischeefe to their owne confusion and our principall aduersaryes abused their assistance to bring them into slauery Because they haue accomplished all this How many wayes the Bishoppes of England offended against S. Thomas vpon soe greate a malice that to vndoe mee they would withall ouerthrowe themselues they haue herein neglected spirituall treasures for temporall trifles and fayled in the end of both Againe what an offence was it that when I cryed out against this iniustice and appealed to your audience they durst in iudgment comdemne mee their father what if they conspire with the Prince our aduersary against the whole Catholicke Church and truly most holy father you might haue bin suspitious thereof Yet wille they say they were bounde to their king as their temporal lord but to him in their bodyes to mee in their soules and to whom could they bee more obliged then to themselues Is it not better to lose corporall then spiritual riches But they will againe reply the king was not in this perilous tyme to bee prouoked O how subtilly doe they argue for their owne slauery yea they prouoke him who by their excesses giue winges to his will and pleasure For they might haue bin quiet had they not to quietly
assented And when is constancy more required then in the midst of our persecutors Are not Christes frindes tryed with persecutions If continually they yeelde when shall they ouercome Of necessity sometimes they must resist Condescend therefore most holy father to succour mee in my flight and persecution and remember that once I was in your age an eminent man but now for your sake wearyed out with iniuryes Put your power in execution restrayne them at whose instance the cause of this persecution came slilie creeping in Neither let the fault of any of these bee layde on my lord the King who is rather a practiser then inuentor of this wicked deuice Hetherto Roger but Pope Alexander heareing heereof declared first that S. Thomas was no waye bounde by his condemnation in this Conuenticle writing thus Cod Vatican lib. 1. epist 49. Pope Alexander to Thomas Archbishop of Canterbury That the inferior cannot iudge his superior and him especially to whom in the right of Prelacy hee is knowne to bee subordinate and helde bound in the chaynes of obedience as welle diuine as humane lawes doe showe and this especially in the decrees of the holy fathers is more manifestly declared Wherefore with carefull consideration weyghing this wee to whom it beelongeth to reforme errours and amend that which for want of correction may leaue a pernicious example to posterity and moreouer beecause the Church ought not by reason of the offence of any particular person to sustayne any losse or discommoditie doe adiudge the sentence to bee absolutely voyde and declare by the Apostolical authority the same to bee of no force which by the Bishops and Barons of England in reguard you appeared not vpon the Kinges first summons was presumptiously pronounced against you whereby the sayd Bishops and Barons depriued you of all your moueable goods as well against the forme of law as contrary to the Ecclesiasticall custome and that especially since you had noe moueables but only of the Churches goods Alsoe wee determine the sayd sentence to bee hereafter of no power nor any ability to preiudice or indammage you your successors or the Church committed to your gouermēt Thus wrote Pope Alexander whoe likewise by other letters commanded restitution to bee made of all thinges taken away from the Archbisgop or any others Ibid. epist 32. vpon any occasion concerning him But that the state of the Church of England may appeare more playnly I would haue you vnderstand how these letters which by the kinges Embassadors where returned backe to his Holines agayne were first imparted to the Archbishop of Yorke vnto whom at the kinges request was decreed the Legantine authority for England but in reguard Pope Alexander had in his later letters as wee see confined him that hee should not by reason of his iurisdiction challenge any power to himselfe either ouer the person of Saint Thomas or the Archbishoppricke of Canterbury the king as frustrate of his intention who was only bent by prerogatiue of this Legate to depose S. Thomas commanded the letters of legation now vnprofitable for his purpose to bee remaunded backe to the Pope by his Embassadors designed thereunto Concerning this there are other letters extant declaring soe much in these wordes To his most beeloued lord his assured sendeth greeting and euer wisheth him well to fare THrough the mercy of Almighty God who neuer forsaketh those Lib. 1. epist 6. who repose theire trust in him it soe fell out as the same day wherein my lord the Pope was certifyd of Octauians death the Imbassadors of the kinges L and H to witt Lewes and Henry came to the Court the English truly pretending on their kinges beehalfe a shewe of exceeding humility both in open wordes and letters consonant to their speech seemed soe far to moue my lord the Pope and some of his Cardinalls that as by reporte of those who fauoured you I vnderstood they hardly could abstayne from teares wherefore after many allegations in what sorte and with what affection the kinges Maiestie receaued Pope Alexander and how great reuerence hee euer shewed to him the which hee would continew during his life these flourishes finished they returned vnto his Holines many letters concerning the legantine power which your Archdeacon obtayned dishonestly for England during the tyme I remayned with you but the condition wheruppon hee procured the same letters my lord the King by the mouth of his Embassadors absolutely renounced as neuer made or desired by him The Popes Holines soe willingly and gladly receaued the same letters back againe as if a thing most wished were now offered him in such manner as some there present maruelled very much You perceaue reader in all thinges hitherto hādled before Bope Alexander in the case of S. Thomas how hee fauored euer his side Lib. 1. epist 24. and was from the first in the passage of this busines inclined to asist him in regard wherof let Iohn of Salisbury reprou himselfe who in the beeginninge of these tumultes wryting to S. Thomas beecōmeth soe bad a prophet of Pope Alexāders proceedinges saying many thinges make against you fewe for you for mightie persons will come who are bountifull in the largesse of money which Rome neuer despised and will bee supported not only with their owne but alsoe my Lord the kinges authority whom the courte ought in no case to displease c. You may see therefore how vntruly and rashly hee censured of Pope Alexanders constancy supposing hee might bee conquered with gould who was stronger then steele Another imbassage also ensued The imbassage of the Bishoppe● of England ●hainst Saint Thomas addressed from the keng to Pope Alexāder by the Archbishops ād Bishops of Englād who were all admitted to publicke audiēce wherein the Cōsistory first of thē all the Bishop of Lōdon houlding the first place did first beegin thus to speake Vnto you Father appertayneth the care and watchfull eye ouer the Catholicke Church that both the discreete may by your wisedom bee fostred vp to the exāple of manners ād the vnaduised by the Apostolical authority suppressed and chasticed to reduce them to wisedom But in the depth of your discretion the man cannot bee conceaued to bee wise who presuming in the strength of his owne witt endeauoreth to disturbe the band of vnion among his brethen the tranquillity of the Church and the deuotion of the king A dissention hath lately sprung in England beetweene the kingdome and the Preisthood vpon an occasion but light and of litle importance which might haue bin easily extinguished had a moderate medicine bin thereunto applyed but my lord of Canterbury being herein singular in his owne conceyte and not guided by our counsel insisted seuerely beeyond reason neuer considering this ill affected time or what manner of mischeife may ensue vpon such a headlong entreprise and soe weaued intangling snares for the dest●uction of himselfe and his brethren and had but our assent fauored his designes the
of an Idoll nor yet will there fayle some who possessing our seates and vsurping our chaires will with all the deuotion of their myndes obey him Many there are who doe now foretaste this wishing that scandalls would once arise and playne ways bee peruerted to crooked pathes Wherfore father wee doe not lament or bee wayle our owne misfortunes but vnles you preuent these mischeifes wee doe forseeing dread a foule subuersion to threaten and hang ouer the Church of God neither sooner would wee wish a day of this loathed life to perish then that wherin wee were borne to see such manner of spectacles Allmighty God deare father in Christ preserue you long in health and prosperity And thus wrote the Bishop of London to Pope Alexander But Pope Alexander who sought by the Bishop of Londons meanes the kinges recouery desired much more by his owne pastor sainct Thomas to perfect the same who neuer fayled of his office and as at all tymes hee admonished him by his letters soe now more amply in wryting hee thought good to perswade his king in manner following To his beeloued Lord Henry by the grace of God King of England Duke of Normādy and Aquitayne and Earle of Anioue Lib. 1. Epist 65. Thomas by the same grace the humble seruant of the Church of Canterbury sometimes temporally his but now much more wisheth him in our Lord all true repentance with amendment Expecting wee haue expected that our Lord would looke vpon you The Epistell of sainct Thomas to King Henry and that beeing conuerted you would doe pennance departing from your peruerse wayes and that you would cut off from you the wicked by whose suggestestion and counsell as it is tought you are now fallen downe allmost into the depth But God forbid it should bee into that depth whereof it is sayde Prouerb 18. The sinner when hee commeth into the depth will contemne And allthough wee haue hetherto forborne in vayne considering in silence and with all affection expectin if any messinger would come and reporting say your sonne king and Lord beeing now long inueagled with deceiptes and drawne on to the Churches destruction by the inspiration of the heauenly clemency in the abundance of exceeding humility hasteneth himselfe for the Churches deliuery with making all satisfaction and amendes Allthough there is yet no such thing wee not withstanding will neuer cease with humble and daily deuotion to beeseech Allmighty God that what wee haue long and earnestly wished both of you and for you wee may with a speedy and fruitefull effect obtayne And beehould thereupon it cōmeth to passe that the care of the Church of Canterbury ouer whō our Lord hath at this present placed our preistood though vnworthie while you doe there rule the temporall estate doth not soe neerely touch vs in regard of our continued discommodious exile as otherwise moue vs to direct to your Maiestie letters of admonition exhortation and correction that wee bee not to great a dissembler of your offences if any there bee which in verie deede are beeing the ground of our no smale greife those yea cheefely those wee say which concerne the Church of God and his Clergie beeing diuers ways committed by you without regarde of person or dignity and that wee appeare not theerin too negligent to the hazard of your soules saluation For hee is doubtlesse guilty of the facte who forbeareth to amend what hee ought to correct It is written Not only they who doe but those who consent are adiuged partakers of the crime And truly they consent who when they may and ought resist not or at the least reproue not the offendor for the error beeing not resisted is allowed and truth beeing not defended is oppressed neither auoydeth hee suspition of secret association who forbeareth to withstand a manifest offence For as most excellent Prince a small Citty cannot lessen the prerogatiue of a potent kingdome soe ought not your royal power to disturbe or alter the bounds of the Churches religious gouerment It is euer consonant to the rules of iustice that iudgment bee ministred to the preistes of God by a preistly councell The iurisdiction of the Preisthood distinguished from the iurisdiction of the kingdome For Bishopps whatsoeuer they are although as men they run astray yet if they fall not from their faith neither can nor ought they to bee censured by the secular power It is the parte of a good and godly Prince to repaire ruinous and decayed Churches to build them anew to honor the preistes of God and supporte them with all reuerence like Constantine that vertuous Emperor of most famous memory who sayd when a cause of the Clergie was brought beefore him yee ought not to hee iudged by any secular authority who are only reserued to the iudgment of Allmighty God And wee reade that the holy Apostles and their successors whose power is warranted by the word of God himselfe doe command That no persecutions nor disturbances bee raised nor yet that any should enuy them who labour in the feild of our Lord nor that the stewardes of the eternall king should bee banished from their Seas For who maketh question but that Preistes are the Masters and fathers of kinges and all faithfull beeleiuers and is it not then a point of miserable madnes for the sonne to endeauour to bring his father into subiection or the scholler his Master and with vniust lawes to reduce him vnder his rule who as hee ought to beelieue hath power to loose and bind him not only in earth but in heauen alsoe If you are a good and Catholike king and soe will remayne as wee beelieue and hope you will let vs say vnder your Maiesties correction you are a chylde and not a Bishop of the Church and ought to learne of Preistes and not to teach them and in matters Ecclesiasticall to follow them not to guyde them You haue the priuiledges of your power which you haue obtayned from God for administring your temporall lawes to the end that beeing not vngratefull to him for his benefitts you should vsurpe nothing contrary to the disposition of his heauenly order but that with a more sober mynde you should vse those things which now rather perchance through the counsell of the malitious then the inclination of your owne mynde you abuse against his ordinance yeelde therefore speedely with all humility and all manner of satisfaction least otherwise the hand of God beeing bent against you shoote his arrowe at you as at a marke for the Allmighty hath bent his bowe to strike you openly with his arrowe if you repent not Bee not ashamed whatsoeuer the malignant suggest in your mynde and the Traytors not only to you but also to God himselfe doe whispering murmer in your eares to humble your selfe vnder the mighty hand of God for it is hee who exalting the humble throweth downe the prowde who in reuenge for iniuryes offered to him and his beereaueth Princes of their
the same place cry out against you and say Aryse ô Lord adiudge thy cause call to mynde the scornes and iniuryes which are all day long offered by the king of England and his to thee and thyne forget not the reproches of thy Church which thou hast founded with thy blood reuenge ô Lord the blood of thy seruantes afflictions which are beeyond number infinite the pryde of these who hate and persecute thee and thyne ascendeth soe high as wee cannot longer indure them My Lord and king whatsoeuer your followers haue committed will all bee required at your hands for hee apparantly hath donne the iniury who hath giuen occasion of doeing the iniury Assuredly vnles you restrayne your handes from disturbing the people the sonne of the Allmighty himselfe will vppon the sighes of the settered vpon the sighes of those who crye out to him come in the rod of his fury beecause the tyme is now at hand to iudge against you iustice in equity and in the seuerity of his spirit for hee knoweth how to take away the spirit of Princes and is terrible among the kinges of the earth wee speake not thus vnto you to cōfound your face or prouoke you to farther indignation and anger as perchance the malitious who swarme about you and lye in wayte day and night for our destruction indeauoring to alienate your mynde from vs will with their wicked and vniust suggestions whispering murmur against vs Giue them ô God according to their workes and according to the naughtines of their inuentions but that wee may make you more cautions and wary in the prouision and care of your soule