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Word A Word B Word C Word D Occurrence Frequency Band MI MI Band Prominent
cause_n effect_n necessary_a voluntary_a 1,389 5 11.0339 5 false
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ID Title Author Corrected Date of Publication (TCP Date of Publication) STC Words Pages
A77245 A defence of true liberty from ante-cedent and extrinsecall necessity being an answer to a late book of Mr. Thomas Hobbs of Malmsbury, intituled, A treatise of liberty and necessity. Written by the Right Reverend John Bramhall D.D. and Lord Bishop of Derry. Bramhall, John, 1594-1663. 1655 (1655) Wing B4218; Thomason E1450_1; ESTC R209599 138,196 261

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free_a to_o make_v it_o either_o of_o the_o italian_a spanish_a or_o french_a fashion_n indifferent_o but_o after_o it_o be_v make_v it_o be_v necessary_a that_o it_o be_v of_o that_o fashion_n whereof_o he_o have_v make_v it_o that_o be_v by_o a_o necessity_n of_o supposition_n but_o this_o do_v neither_o hinder_a the_o cause_n from_o be_v a_o free_a cause_n nor_o the_o effect_n from_o be_v a_o free_a effect_n but_o the_o one_o do_v produce_v free_o and_o the_o other_o be_v free_o produce_v so_o the_o contradiction_n be_v vanish_v in_o the_o second_o part_n of_o his_o answer_n he_o grant_v that_o there_o be_v some_o free_a agent_n and_o some_o contingent_a agent_n and_o that_o perhaps_o the_o beauty_n of_o the_o world_n do_v require_v it_o but_o like_o a_o shrewd_a cow_n which_o after_o she_o have_v give_v her_o milk_n cast_v it_o down_o with_o her_o foot_n in_o the_o conclusion_n he_o tell_v we_o that_o nevertheless_o they_o be_v all_o necessary_a this_o part_n of_o his_o answer_n 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for_o help_v and_o do_v what_o he_o can_v to_o defend_v himself_o but_o all_o will_v not_o serve_v the_o servant_n be_v innocent_a if_o he_o be_v to_o be_v try_v before_o a_o court_n of_o areopagite_n or_o suppose_v the_o ruffian_n do_v not_o take_v it_o from_o he_o by_o force_n but_o draw_v their_o sword_n and_o threaten_v to_o kill_v he_o except_o he_o deliver_v it_o himself_o no_o wise_a man_n will_v conceive_v that_o it_o be_v either_o the_o master_n intention_n or_o the_o servant_n duty_n to_o hazard_v his_o life_n or_o his_o limb_n for_o save_v of_o such_o a_o trifle_a sum_n but_o on_o the_o other_o side_n suppose_v this_o servant_n pass_v by_o some_o cabaret_fw-la or_o tennis-court_n where_o his_o camerad_n be_v drink_v or_o play_v shall_v stay_v with_o they_o and_o drink_v or_o play_v away_o his_o money_n and_o afterward_o plead_v as_o t._n h._n do_v here_o that_o he_o be_v overcome_v by_o the_o mere_a strength_n of_o temptation_n i_o trow_v neither_o t._n h._n nor_o any_o 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protagoras_n a_o atheist_n begin_v his_o book_n thus_o concern_v the_o god_n i_o have_v nothing_o to_o say_v whether_o they_o be_v or_o they_o be_v not_o for_o which_o his_o book_n be_v condemn_v by_o the_o athenian_n to_o be_v burn_v the_o fire_n be_v a_o necessary_a agent_n but_o the_o sentence_n or_o the_o application_n of_o the_o fire_n to_o the_o book_n be_v a_o free_a act_n and_o therefore_o the_o burn_a of_o his_o book_n be_v free_a much_o more_o the_o rational_a will_n be_v free_a which_o be_v both_o a_o voluntary_a agent_n and_o act_n voluntary_o my_o second_o reason_n against_o this_o distinction_n of_o liberty_n from_o compulsion_n but_o not_o from_o necessitation_n be_v new_a and_o demonstrate_v clear_o that_o to_o necessitate_v the_o will_n by_o a_o physical_a necessity_n be_v to_o compel_v the_o will_n so_o far_o as_o the_o will_n be_v capable_a of_o compulsion_n and_o that_o he_o who_o do_v necessitate_v the_o will_n to_o evil_a after_o that_o manner_n be_v the_o true_a cause_n of_o evil_a and_o ought_v rather_o to_o be_v blame_v than_o the_o will_n itself_o but_o t._n h._n for_o all_o he_o say_v he_o be_v not_o surprise_v can_v be_v content_v upon_o better_a advice_n to_o steal_v by_o all_o this_o in_o silence_n and_o to_o hide_v this_o tergiversation_n from_o the_o eye_n of_o the_o reader_n he_o make_v a_o empty_a show_n of_o brave_v against_o that_o famous_a and_o most_o necessary_a distinction_n between_o the_o elicit_a and_o imperate_a act_n of_o the_o will_n first_o because_o the_o term_n be_v improper_a second_o because_o they_o be_v obscure_a what_o trivial_a and_o grammatical_a objection_n be_v these_o to_o be_v use_v against_o the_o universal_a currant_n of_o divine_n and_o philosopher_n verborum_fw-la ut_fw-la nummorum_fw-la it_o be_v in_o word_n as_o
from_o the_o special_a influence_n of_o any_o outward_a determine_a cause_n and_o so_o it_o be_v only_o a_o necessity_n upon_o supposition_n concern_v medea_n choice_n the_o strength_n of_o the_o argument_n do_v not_o lie_n either_o in_o the_o fact_n of_o medea_n which_o be_v but_o a_o fiction_n or_o in_o the_o authority_n of_o the_o poet_n who_o write_v thing_n rather_o to_o be_v admire_v than_o believe_v but_o in_o the_o experience_n of_o all_o man_n who_o find_v it_o to_o be_v true_a in_o themselves_o that_o sometime_o reason_n do_v show_v unto_o a_o man_n the_o exorbitancy_n of_o his_o passion_n that_o what_o he_o desire_v be_v but_o a_o pleasant_a good_a that_o what_o he_o lose_v by_o such_o a_o choice_n be_v a_o honest_a good_a that_o that_o which_o be_v honest_a be_v to_o be_v prefer_v before_o that_o which_o be_v pleasant_a yet_o the_o will_n pursue_v that_o which_o be_v pleasant_a and_o neglect_v that_o which_o be_v honest_a st._n paul_n say_v as_o much_o in_o earnest_a as_o be_v feign_a of_o medea_n that_o he_o approve_a not_o that_o which_o he_o do_v and_o that_o he_o do_v that_o which_o he_o hate_v rom._n 7.15_o the_o roman_a story_n be_v mistake_v there_o be_v no_o bribe_n in_o the_o case_n but_o affection_n whereas_o i_o urge_v that_o those_o thing_n which_o be_v near_a to_o the_o sense_n do_v move_v more_o powerful_o he_o lay_v hold_v on_o it_o and_o without_o answer_v to_o that_o for_o which_o i_o produce_v it_o infer_v that_o the_o sense_n of_o present_a good_a be_v more_o immediate_a to_o the_o action_n than_o the_o foresight_n of_o evil_a consequent_n which_o be_v true_a but_o it_o be_v not_o absolute_o true_a by_o any_o antecedent_n necessity_n let_v a_o man_n do_v what_o he_o may_v do_v and_o what_o he_o ought_v to_o do_v and_o sensitive_a object_n will_v lose_v that_o power_n which_o they_o have_v by_o his_o own_o fault_n and_o neglect_v antecedent_n or_o indeliberate_a concupiscence_n do_v sometime_o but_o rare_o surprise_v a_o man_n and_o render_v the_o action_n not_o free_a but_o consequent_a and_o deliberate_v concupiscence_n which_o proceed_v from_o the_o rational_a will_n do_v render_v the_o action_n more_o free_a not_o less_o free_a and_o introduce_v only_o a_o necessity_n upon_o supposition_n last_o he_o say_v that_o a_o man_n mourning_n more_o for_o the_o loss_n of_o his_o child_n than_o for_o his_o sin_n make_v nothing_o to_o the_o last_o dictate_v of_o the_o understanding_n yes_o very_o much_o reason_n dictate_v that_o a_o sin_n commit_v be_v a_o great_a evil_n than_o the_o loss_n of_o a_o child_n and_o aught_o more_o to_o be_v lament_v for_o yet_o we_o see_v daily_o how_o affection_n prevail_v against_o the_o dictate_v of_o reason_n that_o which_o he_o infer_v from_o hence_o that_o sorrow_n for_o sin_n be_v not_o voluntary_a and_o by_o consequence_n that_o repentance_n proceed_v from_o cause_n be_v true_a as_o to_o the_o latter_a part_n of_o it_o but_o not_o in_o his_o sense_n the_o cause_n from_o whence_o repentance_n do_v proceed_v be_v god_n grace_n prevent_v and_o man_n will_n concur_v god_n prevent_v free_o man_n concur_v free_o those_o inferior_a agent_n which_o sometime_o do_v concur_v as_o subordinate_a to_o the_o grace_n of_o god_n do_v not_o can_v determine_v the_o will_n natural_o and_o therefore_o the_o former_a part_n of_o his_o inference_n that_o sorrow_n for_o sin_n be_v not_o voluntary_a be_v untrue_a and_o altogether_o groundless_a that_o be_v much_o more_o true_o and_o much_o more_o proper_o say_v to_o be_v voluntary_a which_o proceed_v from_o judgement_n and_o from_o the_o rational_a will_n than_o that_o which_o proceed_v from_o passion_n and_o from_o the_o sensitive_a will_n one_o of_o the_o main_a ground_n of_o all_o t._n h._n his_o error_n in_o this_o question_n be_v that_o he_o acknowledge_v no_o efficacy_n but_o that_o which_o be_v natural_a hence_o be_v this_o wild_a consequence_n repentance_n have_v cause_n and_o therefore_o it_o be_v not_o voluntary_a free_a effect_n have_v free_a cause_n necessary_a effect_n necessary_a cause_n voluntary_a effect_n have_v sometime_o free_a sometime_o necessary_a cause_n numb_a 24._o j._n d._n fiftly_o and_o last_o the_o divine_a labour_n to_o find_v out_o a_o way_n how_o liberty_n may_v consist_v with_o the_o prescience_n and_o decree_n of_o god_n but_o of_o this_o i_o have_v not_o very_o long_o since_o occasion_n to_o write_v a_o full_a discourse_n in_o answer_n to_o a_o treatise_n against_o the_o prescience_n of_o thing_n contingent_a i_o shall_v for_o the_o present_a only_o repeat_v these_o two_o thing_n first_o we_o ought_v not_o to_o desert_n a_o certain_a truth_n because_o we_o be_v not_o able_a to_o comprehend_v the_o certain_a manner_n god_n shall_v be_v but_o a_o poor_a god_n if_o we_o be_v able_a perfect_o to_o comprehend_v all_o his_o action_n and_o attribute_n second_o in_o my_o poor_a judgement_n which_o i_o ever_o do_v &_o ever_o shall_v submit_v to_o better_a the_o ready_a way_n to_o reconcile_v contingence_n and_o liberty_n with_o the_o decree_n and_o prescience_n of_o god_n and_o most_o remote_a from_o the_o altercation_n of_o these_o time_n be_v to_o subject_v future_a contingent_n to_o the_o aspect_n of_o god_n according_a to_o that_o presentiallity_n which_o they_o have_v in_o eternity_n not_o that_o thing_n future_a which_o be_v not_o yet_o existent_a &_o coexistent_a with_o god_n but_o because_o the_o infinite_a knowledge_n of_o god_n encircle_v all_o time_n in_o the_o point_n of_o eternity_n do_v attain_v to_o their_o future_a be_v from_o whence_o proceed_v their_o objective_n and_o intelligible_a be_v the_o main_a impediment_n which_o keep_v man_n from_o subscribe_v to_o this_o way_n be_v because_o they_o conceive_v eternity_n to_o be_v a_o everlasting_a succession_n and_o not_o one_o indivisible_a point_n but_o if_o they_o consider_v that_o whatsoever_o be_v in_o god_n be_v god_n that_o there_o be_v no_o accident_n in_o he_o for_o that_o which_o be_v infinite_o perfect_a can_v be_v further_o perfect_v that_o as_o god_n be_v not_o wise_a but_o wisdom_n itself_o not_o just_a but_o justice_n itself_o so_o he_o be_v not_o eternal_a but_o eternity_n itself_o they_o must_v needs_o conclude_v that_o therefore_o this_o eternity_n be_v indivisible_a because_o god_n be_v indivisible_a and_o therefore_o not_o successive_a but_o altogether_o a_o infinite_a point_n comprehend_v all_o time_n within_o itself_o t._n h._n the_o last_o part_n of_o this_o discourse_n contain_v his_o opinion_n about_o reconcile_a liberty_n with_o the_o prescience_n and_o decree_n of_o god_n otherwise_o than_o some_o divine_n have_v do_v against_o who_o he_o have_v former_o write_v a_o treatise_n out_o of_o which_o he_o only_o repeat_v two_o thing_n one_o be_v that_o we_o ought_v not_o to_o desert_n a_o certain_a truth_n for_o not_o be_v able_a to_o comprehend_v the_o certain_a manner_n of_o it_o and_o i_o say_v the_o same_o as_o for_o example_n that_o he_o ought_v not_o to_o desert_n this_o certain_a truth_n that_o there_o be_v certain_a and_o necessary_a cause_n which_o make_v every_o man_n to_o will_v what_o he_o will_v though_o he_o do_v not_o yet_o conceive_v in_o what_o manner_n the_o will_n of_o man_n be_v cause_v and_o yet_o i_o think_v the_o manner_n of_o it_o be_v not_o very_o hard_a to_o conceive_v see_v that_o we_o see_v daily_o that_o praise_n dispraise_n reward_n punishment_n good_a and_o evil_a sequell_n of_o man_n action_n retain_v in_o memory_n do_v frame_n and_o make_v we_o to_o the_o election_n of_o whatsoever_o it_o be_v that_o we_o elect_v and_o that_o the_o memory_n of_o such_o thing_n proceed_v from_o the_o sense_n and_o sense_n from_o the_o operation_n of_o the_o object_n of_o sense_n which_o be_v external_a to_o we_o and_o govern_v only_o by_o god_n almighty_a and_o by_o consequence_n all_o action_n even_o of_o free_a and_o voluntary_a agent_n be_v necessary_a the_o other_o thing_n he_o repeat_v be_v that_o the_o best_a way_n to_o reconcile_v contingency_n and_o liberty_n with_o the_o prescience_n and_o decree_n of_o god_n be_v to_o subject_v future_a contingent_n to_o the_o aspect_n of_o god_n the_o same_o be_v also_o my_o opinion_n but_o contrary_a to_o what_o he_o have_v all_o this_o while_n labour_v to_o prove_v for_o hitherto_o he_o hold_v liberty_n and_o necessity_n that_o be_v to_o say_v liberty_n and_o the_o decree_n of_o god_n irreconcilable_a unless_o the_o aspect_n of_o god_n which_o word_n appear_v now_o the_o first_o time_n in_o this_o discourse_n signify_v somewhat_o else_o beside_o god_n will_v and_o decree_n which_o i_o can_v understand_v but_o he_o add_v that_o we_o must_v subject_v they_o according_a to_o that_o presentiality_n which_o they_o have_v in_o eternity_n which_o he_o say_v can_v be_v do_v by_o they_o that_o conceive_v eternity_n to_o be_v a_o everlasting_a succession_n but_o only_o by_o they_o that_o conceive_v
certain_o the_o proper_a natural_a motion_n of_o water_n as_o of_o all_o heavy_a body_n be_v to_o descend_v direct_o downward_o towards_o the_o centre_n as_o we_o see_v in_o rain_n which_o fall_v down_o perpendicular_o though_o this_o be_v far_o from_o a_o free_a act_n which_o proceed_v from_o a_o rational_a appetite_n yet_o it_o be_v a_o natural_a act_n and_o proceed_v from_o a_o natural_a appetite_n and_o have_v its_o reason_n within_o in_o self_n so_o have_v not_o the_o current_n of_o the_o river_n in_o its_o channel_n which_o must_v not_o be_v ascribe_v to_o the_o proper_a nature_n of_o the_o water_n but_o either_o to_o the_o general_a order_n of_o the_o universe_n for_o the_o better_a be_v and_o preservation_n of_o the_o creature_n otherwise_o the_o water_n shall_v not_o move_v in_o sea_n and_o river_n as_o they_o do_v but_o cover_v the_o face_n of_o the_o earth_n and_o possess_v their_o proper_a place_n between_o the_o air_n and_o the_o earth_n according_a to_o the_o degree_n of_o their_o gravity_n or_o to_o a_o extrinsecall_a principle_n while_o one_o particle_n of_o water_n thrust_v and_o force_v forward_o another_o and_o so_o come_v a_o current_n or_o at_o least_o so_o come_v the_o current_n to_o be_v more_o impetuous_a to_o which_o motion_n the_o position_n of_o the_o earth_n do_v contribute_v much_o both_o by_o restrain_v that_o fluid_a body_n with_o its_o bank_n from_o disperse_v itself_o and_o also_o by_o afford_v way_n for_o a_o fair_a and_o easy_a descent_n by_o its_o proclivity_n he_o tell_v we_o sad_o that_o the_o water_n want_v liberty_n to_o go_v over_o the_o bank_n because_o there_o be_v a_o extrinsecall_a impediment_n but_o to_o ascend_v up_o the_o channel_n it_o want_v not_o liberty_n but_o power_n why_o liberty_n be_v a_o power_n if_o it_o want_v power_n to_o ascend_v it_o want_v liberty_n to_o ascend_v but_o he_o make_v the_o reason_n why_o the_o water_n ascend_v not_o up_o the_o channel_n to_o be_v intrinsical_v and_o the_o reason_n why_o it_o ascend_v not_o over_o the_o bank_n to_o be_v extrinsecall_v as_o if_o there_o be_v not_o a_o rise_n of_o the_o ground_n up_o the_o channel_n as_o well_o as_o up_o the_o bank_n though_o it_o be_v not_o so_o discernible_a nor_o always_o so_o sudden_a the_o natural_a appetite_n of_o the_o water_n be_v as_o much_o against_o the_o ascend_n over_o the_o bank_n as_o the_o ascend_a up_o the_o channel_n and_o the_o extrinsecall_a impediment_n be_v as_o great_a in_o ascend_v up_o the_o channel_n as_o over_o the_o bank_n or_o rather_o great_a because_o there_o it_o must_v move_v not_o only_o against_o the_o rise_a soil_n but_o also_o against_o the_o succeed_a water_n which_o press_v forward_o the_o former_a either_o the_o river_n want_v liberty_n for_o both_o or_o else_o it_o wan_n liberty_n for_o neither_o but_o to_o leave_v his_o metaphorical_a faculty_n and_o his_o catachresticall_a liberty_n how_o far_o be_v his_o discourse_n wide_o from_o the_o true_a moral_a liberty_n which_o be_v in_o question_n between_o we_o his_o former_a description_n of_o a_o free_a agent_n that_o be_v he_o who_o have_v not_o make_v a_o end_n of_o deliberate_v though_o it_o be_v wide_a from_o the_o mark_n yet_o it_o come_v much_o near_o the_o truth_n than_o this_o definition_n of_o liberty_n unless_o perhaps_o he_o think_v that_o the_o water_n have_v do_v deliberate_v whether_o it_o will_v go_v over_o the_o bank_n but_o have_v not_o do_v deliberate_v whether_o it_o will_v go_v up_o the_o channel_n numb_a 30._o t._n h._n sixth_o i_o conceive_v nothing_o take_v beginning_n from_o itself_o but_o from_o the_o action_n of_o some_o other_o immediate_a agent_n without_o itself_o and_o that_o therefore_o when_o first_o a_o man_n have_v a_o appetite_n or_o will_n to_o something_o to_o which_o immediate_o before_o he_o have_v no_o appetite_n nor_o will_n the_o cause_n of_o his_o will_n be_v not_o the_o will_n itself_o but_o something_o else_o not_o in_o his_o own_o dispose_n so_o that_o where_o as_o it_o be_v out_o of_o controversy_n that_o of_o voluntary_a action_n the_o will_n be_v a_o necessary_a cause_n and_o by_o this_o which_o be_v say_v the_o will_n be_v also_o cause_v by_o other_o thing_n whereof_o it_o dispose_v not_o it_o follow_v that_o voluntary_a action_n have_v all_o of_o they_o necessary_a cause_n and_o therefore_o be_v necessitate_v j._n d._n this_o sixth_o point_n do_v not_o consist_v in_o explicate_v of_o term_n as_o the_o former_a but_o in_o two_o proof_n that_o voluntary_a action_n be_v necessitate_v the_o former_a proof_n stand_v thus_o nothing_o take_v beginning_n from_o itself_o but_o from_o some_o agent_n without_o itself_o which_o be_v not_o in_o its_o own_o dispose_n therefore_o etc._n etc._n concedo_fw-la omne_fw-la i_o grant_v all_o he_o say_v the_o will_n do_v not_o take_v beginning_n from_o itself_o whether_o he_o understand_v by_o will_n the_o faculty_n of_o the_o will_n which_o be_v a_o power_n of_o the_o reasonable_a soul_n it_o take_v not_o beginning_n from_o itself_o but_o from_o god_n who_o create_v and_o infuse_v the_o soul_n into_o man_n and_o endow_v it_o with_o this_o power_n or_o whether_o he_o understand_v by_o will_n the_o act_n of_o willing_a it_o take_v not_o beginning_n from_o itself_o but_o from_o the_o faculty_n or_o from_o the_o power_n of_o willing_a which_o be_v in_o the_o soul_n this_o be_v certain_a finite_a and_o participate_v thing_n can_v be_v from_o themselves_o nor_o be_v produce_v by_o themselves_o what_o will_v he_o conclude_v from_o hence_o that_o therefore_o the_o act_n of_o willing_a take_v not_o its_o beginning_n from_o the_o faculty_n of_o the_o will_n or_o that_o the_o faculty_n be_v always_o determine_v antecedent_o extrinsecal_o to_o will_v that_o which_o it_o do_v will_n he_o may_v as_o soon_o draw_v water_n out_o of_o a_o pumice_n as_o draw_v any_o such_o conclusion_n out_o of_o these_o premise_n second_o for_o his_o take_v a_o beginning_n either_o he_o understand_v a_o beginning_n of_o be_v or_o a_o begin_n of_o work_v and_o act_v if_o he_o understand_v a_o beginning_n of_o be_v he_o say_v most_o true_o that_o nothing_o have_v a_o beginning_n of_o be_v in_o time_n from_o itself_o but_o this_o be_v nothing_o to_o his_o purpose_n the_o question_n be_v not_o between_o we_o whether_o the_o soul_n of_o man_n or_o the_o will_n of_o man_n be_v eternal_a but_o if_o he_o understand_v a_o beginning_n of_o work_v or_o move_n actual_o it_o be_v a_o gross_a error_n all_o man_n know_v that_o when_o a_o stone_n descend_v or_o fire_n ascend_v or_o when_o water_n that_o have_v be_v heat_v return_n to_o its_o former_a temper_n the_o beginning_n or_o reason_n be_v intrinsical_v and_o one_o and_o the_o same_o thing_n do_v move_v and_o be_v move_v in_o a_o diverse_a respect_n it_o move_v in_o respect_n of_o the_o form_n and_o it_o be_v move_v in_o respect_n of_o the_o matter_n much_o more_o man_n who_o have_v a_o perfect_a knowledge_n and_o prenotion_n of_o the_o end_n be_v most_o proper_o say_v to_o move_v himself_o yet_o i_o do_v not_o deny_v but_o that_o there_o be_v other_o beginning_n of_o humane_a action_n which_o do_v concur_v with_o the_o will_n some_o outward_a as_o the_o first_o cause_n by_o general_a influence_n which_o be_v evermore_o requisite_a angel_n or_o man_n by_o persuade_v evil_a spirit_n by_o tempt_v the_o object_n or_o end_n by_o its_o appetibility_n the_o understanding_n by_o direct_v so_o passion_n and_o acquire_v habit_n but_o i_o deny_v that_o any_o of_o these_o do_v necessitate_v or_o can_v necessitate_v the_o will_n of_o man_n by_o determine_v it_o physical_o to_o one_o except_o god_n alone_o who_o do_v it_o rare_o in_o extraordinary_a case_n and_o where_o there_o be_v no_o antecedent_n determination_n to_o one_o there_o be_v no_o absolute_a necessity_n but_o true_a liberty_n his_o second_o argument_n be_v ex_fw-la concessis_fw-la it_o be_v out_o of_o controversy_n say_v he_o that_o of_o voluntary_a action_n the_o will_n be_v a_o necessary_a cause_n the_o argument_n may_v be_v thus_o reduce_v necessary_a cause_n produce_v necessary_a effect_n but_o the_o will_n be_v a_o necessary_a cause_n of_o voluntary_a action_n i_o may_v deny_v his_o major_n necessary_a cause_n do_v not_o always_o produce_v necessary_a effect_n except_o they_o be_v also_o necessary_o produce_v as_o i_o have_v show_v before_o the_o burn_a of_o protagoras_n his_o book_n but_o i_o answer_v clear_o to_o the_o minor_a that_o the_o will_n be_v not_o a_o necessary_a cause_n of_o what_o it_o will_v in_o particular_a action_n it_o be_v without_o controversy_n indeed_o for_o it_o be_v without_o all_o probability_n that_o it_o will_n when_o it_o will_v be_v necessary_a but_o that_o it_o will_v this_o or_o that_o now_o or_o then_o be_v free_a more_o express_o the_o act_n of_o the_o will_n may_v be_v consider_v three_o way_n
either_o in_o respect_n of_o its_o nature_n or_o in_o respect_n of_o its_o exercise_n or_o in_o respect_n of_o its_o object_n first_o for_o the_o nature_n of_o the_o act_n that_o which_o the_o will_n will_v be_v necessary_o voluntary_a because_o the_o will_n can_v be_v compel_v and_o in_o this_o sense_n it_o be_v out_o of_o controversy_n that_o the_o will_n be_v a_o necessary_a cause_n of_o voluntary_a action_n second_o for_o the_o exercise_n of_o its_o act_n that_o be_v not_o necessary_a the_o will_n may_v either_o will_n or_o suspend_v its_o act_n three_o for_o the_o object_n that_o be_v not_o necessary_a but_o free_a the_o will_n be_v not_o extrinsecal_o determine_v to_o its_o object_n as_o for_o example_n the_o cardinal_n meet_v in_o the_o conclave_n to_o choose_v a_o pope_n who_o they_o choose_v he_o be_v necessary_o pope_n but_o it_o be_v not_o necessary_a that_o they_o shall_v choose_v this_o or_o that_o day_n before_o they_o be_v assemble_v they_o may_v defer_v their_o assemble_v when_o they_o be_v assemble_v they_o may_v suspend_v their_o election_n for_o a_o day_n or_o a_o week_n last_o for_o the_o person_n who_o they_o will_v choose_v it_o be_v free_o in_o their_o own_o power_n otherwise_o if_o the_o election_n be_v not_o free_a it_o be_v void_a and_o no_o election_n at_o all_o so_o that_o which_o take_v its_o beginning_n from_o the_o will_n be_v necessary_o voluntary_a but_o it_o be_v not_o necessary_a that_o the_o will_n shall_v will_v this_o or_o that_o in_o particular_a as_o it_o be_v necessary_a that_o the_o person_n free_o elect_v shall_v be_v pope_n but_o it_o be_v not_o necessary_a either_o that_o the_o election_n shall_v be_v at_o this_o time_n or_o that_o this_o man_n shall_v be_v elect_v and_o therefore_o voluntary_a act_n in_o particular_a have_v not_o necessary_a cause_n that_o be_v they_o be_v not_o necessitate_v numb_a 31._o t._n h._n seventhly_o i_o hold_v that_o to_o be_v a_o sufficient_a cause_n to_o which_o nothing_o be_v want_v that_o be_v needful_a to_o the_o produce_v of_o the_o effect_n the_o same_o be_v also_o a_o necessary_a cause_n for_o if_o it_o be_v possible_a that_o a_o sufficient_a cause_n shall_v not_o bring_v forth_o the_o effect_n than_o there_o want_v somewhat_o which_o be_v needful_a to_o the_o produce_v of_o it_o and_o so_o the_o cause_n be_v not_o sufficient_a but_o if_o it_o be_v impossible_a that_o a_o sufficient_a cause_n shall_v not_o produce_v the_o effect_n then_o be_v a_o sufficient_a cause_n a_o necessary_a cause_n for_o that_o be_v say_v to_o produce_v a_o effect_n necessary_o that_o can_v but_o produce_v it_o hence_o it_o be_v manifest_a that_o whatsoever_o be_v produce_v be_v produce_v necessary_o for_o whatsoever_o be_v produce_v have_v have_v a_o sufficient_a cause_n to_o produce_v it_o or_o else_o it_o have_v not_o be_v and_o therefore_o also_o voluntary_a action_n be_v necessitate_v j._n d._n this_o section_n contain_v a_o three_o argument_n to_o prove_v that_o all_o effect_n be_v necessary_a for_o clear_v whereof_o it_o be_v needful_a to_o consider_v how_o a_o cause_n may_v be_v say_v to_o be_v sufficient_a or_o insufficient_a first_o several_a cause_n single_o consider_v may_v be_v insufficient_a and_o the_o same_o take_v conjoint_o be_v sufficient_a to_o produce_v a_o effect_n as_o two_o horse_n joint_o be_v sufficient_a to_o draw_v a_o coach_n which_o either_o of_o they_o single_o be_v insufficient_a to_o do_v now_o to_o make_v the_o effect_n that_o be_v the_o draw_v of_o the_o coach_n necessary_a it_o be_v not_o only_o require_v that_o the_o two_o horse_n be_v sufficient_a to_o draw_v it_o but_o also_o that_o their_o conjunction_n be_v necessary_a and_o their_o habitude_n such_o as_o they_o may_v draw_v it_o if_o the_o owner_n of_o one_o of_o these_o horse_n will_v not_o suffer_v he_o to_o draw_v if_o the_o smith_n have_v shod_a the_o other_o in_o the_o quick_a and_o lame_v he_o if_o the_o horse_n have_v cast_v a_o shoe_n or_o be_v a_o resty_a jade_n and_o will_v not_o draw_v but_o when_o he_o listen_v than_o the_o effect_n be_v not_o necessary_o produce_v but_o contingent_o more_o or_o less_o as_o the_o concurrence_n of_o the_o cause_n be_v more_o or_o less_o contingent_a second_o a_o cause_n may_v be_v say_v to_o be_v sufficient_a either_o because_o it_o produce_v that_o effect_n which_o be_v intend_v as_o in_o the_o generation_n of_o a_o man_n or_o else_o because_o it_o be_v sufficient_a to_o produce_v that_o which_o be_v produce_v as_o in_o the_o generation_n of_o a_o monster_n the_o former_a be_v proper_o call_v a_o sufficient_a cause_n the_o late_a a_o weak_a and_o insufficient_a cause_n now_o if_o the_o debility_n of_o the_o cause_n be_v not_o necessary_a but_o contingent_a than_o the_o effect_n be_v not_o necessary_a but_o contingent_a it_o be_v a_o rule_n in_o logic_n that_o the_o conclusion_n always_o follow_v the_o weak_a part_n if_o the_o premise_n be_v but_o probable_a the_o conclusion_n can_v be_v demonstrative_a it_o hold_v as_o well_o in_o cause_n as_o in_o proposition_n no_o effect_n can_v exceed_v the_o virtue_n of_o its_o cause_n if_o the_o ability_n or_o debility_n of_o the_o cause_n be_v contingent_a the_o effect_n can_v be_v necessary_a three_o that_o which_o concern_v this_o question_n of_o liberty_n from_o necessity_n most_o near_o be_v that_o a_o cause_n be_v say_v to_o be_v sufficient_a in_o respect_n of_o the_o ability_n of_o it_o to_o act_v not_o in_o respect_n of_o its_o will_n to_o act_v the_o concurrence_n of_o the_o will_n be_v needful_a to_o the_o production_n of_o a_o free_a effect_n but_o the_o cause_n may_v be_v sufficient_a though_o the_o will_v do_v not_o concur_v as_o god_n be_v sufficient_a to_o produce_v a_o thousand_o world_n but_o it_o do_v not_o follow_v from_o thence_o either_o that_o he_o have_v produce_v they_o or_o that_o he_o will_v produce_v they_o the_o blood_n of_o christ_n be_v a_o sufficient_a ransom_n for_o all_o mankind_n but_o it_o do_v not_o follow_v therefore_o that_o all_o mankind_n shall_v be_v actual_o save_v by_o virtue_n of_o his_o blood_n a_o man_n may_v be_v a_o sufficient_a tutor_n though_o he_o will_v not_o teach_v every_o scholar_n and_o a_o sufficient_a physician_n though_o he_o will_v not_o administer_v to_o every_o patient_a forasmuch_o therefore_o as_o the_o concurrence_n of_o the_o will_n be_v needful_a to_o the_o production_n of_o every_o free_a effect_n and_o yet_o the_o cause_n may_v be_v sufficient_a in_o sensu_fw-la diviso_fw-la although_o the_o will_v do_v not_o concur_v it_o follow_v evident_o that_o the_o cause_n may_v be_v sufficient_a and_o yet_o something_o which_o be_v needful_a to_o the_o production_n of_o the_o effect_n may_v be_v want_v and_o that_o every_o sufficient_a cause_n be_v not_o a_o necessary_a cause_n last_o if_o any_o man_n be_v dispose_v to_o wrangle_v against_o so_o clear_a light_n and_o say_v that_o though_o the_o free_a agent_n be_v sufficient_a in_o sensu_fw-la diviso_fw-la yet_o he_o be_v not_o sufficient_a in_o sensu_fw-la composito_fw-la to_o produce_v the_o effect_n without_o the_o concurrence_n of_o the_o will_n he_o say_v true_a but_o first_o he_o betray_v the_o weakness_n and_o the_o fallacy_n of_o the_o former_a argument_n which_o be_v a_o mere_a trifle_n between_o sufficiency_n in_o a_o divide_a sense_n and_o sufficiency_n in_o a_o compound_a sense_n and_o see_v the_o concurrence_n of_o the_o will_n be_v not_o predetermine_v there_o be_v no_o antecedent_n necessity_n before_o it_o do_v concur_v and_o when_o it_o have_v concur_v the_o necessity_n be_v but_o hypotheticall_a which_o may_v consist_v with_o liberty_n numb_a 32._o t._n h._n last_o i_o hold_v that_o ordinary_a definition_n of_o a_o free_a agent_n namely_o that_o a_o free_a agent_n be_v that_o which_o when_o all_o thing_n be_v present_a which_o be_v needful_a to_o produce_v the_o effect_n can_v nevertheless_o not_o produce_v it_o imply_v a_o contradiction_n and_o be_v nonsense_n be_v as_o much_o as_o to_o say_v the_o cause_n may_v be_v sufficient_a that_o be_v necessary_a and_o yet_o the_o effect_n not_o follow_v j._n d._n this_o last_o point_n be_v but_o a_o corollary_n or_o a_o inference_n from_o the_o former_a doctrine_n that_o every_o sufficient_a cause_n produce_v its_o effect_n necessary_o which_o pillar_n be_v take_v away_o the_o superstructure_n must_v needs_o fall_v to_o the_o ground_n have_v nothing_o leave_v to_o support_v it_o last_o i_o hold_v say_v he_o what_o he_o be_v able_a to_o prove_v be_v something_a so_o much_o reason_n so_o much_o trust_v but_o what_o he_o hold_v concern_v himself_o not_o other_o but_o what_o hold_v he_o i_o hold_v say_v he_o that_o the_o ordinary_a definition_n of_o a_o free_a agent_n imply_v a_o contradiction_n and_o be_v nonsense_n that_o which_o he_o call_v the_o ordinary_a definition_n of_o liberty_n be_v the_o very_a definition_n
interposition_n of_o the_o earth_n to_o be_v the_o cause_n of_o the_o eclipse_n of_o the_o moon_n or_o the_o most_o certain_a occurrent_a in_o the_o nature_n of_o thing_n and_o now_o that_o i_o have_v answer_v t._n h._n his_o argument_n draw_v from_o the_o private_a conception_n of_o man_n concern_v the_o sense_n of_o word_n i_o desire_v he_o serious_o without_o prejudice_n to_o examine_v himself_o and_o those_o natural_a notion_n which_o he_o find_v in_o himself_o not_o of_o word_n but_o of_o thing_n these_o be_v from_o nature_n those_o be_v by_o imposition_n whether_o he_o do_v not_o find_v by_o experience_n that_o he_o do_v many_o thing_n which_o he_o may_v have_v leave_v undo_v if_o he_o will_v and_o omit_v many_o thing_n which_o he_o may_v have_v do_v if_o he_o will_v whether_o he_o do_v not_o something_n out_o of_o mere_a animosity_n and_o will_v without_o either_o regard_n to_o the_o direction_n of_o right_a reason_n or_o serious_a respect_n of_o what_o be_v honest_a or_o profitable_a only_o to_o show_v that_o he_o will_v have_v a_o dominion_n over_o his_o own_o action_n as_o we_o see_v ordinary_o in_o child_n and_o wise_a man_n find_v at_o some_o time_n in_o themselves_o by_o experience_n and_o i_o apprehend_v this_o very_a defence_n of_o necessity_n against_o liberty_n to_o be_v partly_o of_o that_o kind_n whether_o he_o be_v not_o angry_a with_o those_o who_o draw_v he_o from_o his_o study_n or_o cross_v he_o in_o his_o desire_n if_o they_o be_v necessitate_v to_o do_v it_o why_o shall_v he_o be_v angry_a with_o they_o any_o more_o than_o he_o be_v angry_a with_o a_o sharp_a winter_n or_o a_o rainy_a day_n that_o keep_v he_o at_o home_n against_o his_o antecedent_n will_v whether_o he_o do_v not_o sometime_o blame_v himself_o and_o say_v o_o what_o a_o fool_n be_v i_o to_o do_v thus_o and_o thus_o or_o wish_v to_o himself_o o_o that_o i_o have_v be_v wise_a or_o o_o that_o i_o have_v not_o do_v such_o a_o act_n if_o he_o have_v no_o dominion_n over_o his_o action_n if_o he_o be_v irresistible_o necessitate_v to_o all_o thing_n what_o he_o do_v he_o may_v as_o well_o wish_v o_o that_o i_o have_v not_o breathe_v or_o blame_v himself_o for_o grow_v old_a o_o what_o a_o fool_n be_v i_o to_o grow_v old_a numb_a 34._o t._n h._n for_o the_o seven_o point_n that_o all_o event_n have_v necessary_a cause_n it_o be_v there_o prove_v in_o that_o they_o have_v sufficient_a cause_n further_o let_v we_o in_o this_o place_n also_o suppose_v any_o event_n never_o so_o casual_a as_o for_o example_n the_o throw_a ames-ace_n upon_o a_o pair_n of_o dice_n and_o see_v if_o it_o must_v not_o have_v be_v necessary_a before_o it_o be_v throw_v for_o see_v it_o be_v throw_v it_o have_v a_o beginning_n and_o consequent_o a_o sufficient_a cause_n to_o produce_v it_o consist_v partly_o in_o the_o dice_n partly_o in_o the_o outward_a thing_n as_o the_o posture_n of_o the_o party_n hand_n the_o measure_n of_o force_n apply_v by_o the_o caster_n the_o posture_n of_o the_o part_n of_o the_o table_n and_o the_o like_a in_o sum_n there_o be_v nothing_o want_v that_o be_v necessary_o requisite_a to_o the_o produce_v of_o that_o particular_a cast_n and_o consequent_o that_o cast_v be_v necessary_o throw_v for_o if_o it_o have_v not_o be_v throw_v there_o have_v want_v somewhat_o requisite_a to_o the_o throw_v of_o it_o and_o so_o the_o cause_n have_v not_o be_v sufficient_a in_o the_o like_a manner_n it_o may_v be_v prove_v that_o every_o other_o accident_n how_o contingent_a soever_o it_o seem_v or_o how_o voluntary_a soever_o it_o be_v be_v produce_v necessary_o which_o be_v that_o j._n d._n dispute_v against_o the_o same_o also_o may_v be_v prove_v in_o this_o manner_n let_v the_o case_n be_v put_v for_o example_n of_o the_o weather_n it_o be_v necessary_a that_o to_o morrow_n it_o shall_v rain_v or_o not_o rain_v if_o therefore_o it_o be_v not_o necessary_a it_o shall_v rain_v it_o be_v necessary_a it_o shall_v not_o rain_v otherwise_o it_o be_v not_o necessary_a that_o the_o proposition_n it_o shall_v rain_v or_o it_o shall_v not_o rain_v shall_v be_v true_a i_o know_v there_o be_v some_o that_o say_v it_o may_v necessary_o be_v true_a that_o one_o of_o the_o two_o shall_v come_v to_o pass_v but_o not_o single_o that_o it_o shall_v rain_v or_o it_o shall_v not_o rain_v which_o be_v as_o much_o as_o to_o say_v one_o of_o they_o be_v necessary_a yet_o neither_o of_o they_o be_v necessary_a and_o therefore_o to_o seem_v to_o avoid_v that_o absurdity_n they_o make_v a_o distinction_n that_o neither_o of_o they_o be_v true_a determinatè_fw-fr but_o indeterminatè_fw-la which_o distinction_n either_o signify_v no_o more_o than_o this_o one_o of_o they_o be_v true_a but_o we_o know_v not_o which_o and_o so_o the_o necessity_n remain_v though_o we_o know_v it_o not_o or_o if_o the_o meaning_n of_o the_o distinction_n be_v not_o that_o it_o have_v no_o meaning_n and_o they_o may_v as_o well_o have_v say_v one_o of_o they_o be_v true_a tytyrice_o but_o neither_o of_o they_o tupatulice_n j._n d._n his_o former_a proof_n that_o all_o sufficient_a cause_n be_v necessary_a cause_n be_v answer_v before_o numb_a 31._o and_o his_o two_o instance_n of_o cast_a ames-ace_n &_o rain_v to_o morrow_n be_v altogether_o impertinent_a to_o the_o question_n now_o agitate_a between_o we_o for_o two_o reason_n first_o our_o present_a controversy_n be_v concern_v free_a action_n which_o proceed_v from_o the_o liberty_n of_o man_n will_n both_o his_o instance_n be_v of_o contingent_a action_n which_o proceed_v from_o the_o indetermination_n or_o contingent_a concurrence_n of_o natural_a cause_n first_o that_o there_o be_v free_a action_n which_o proceed_v mere_o from_o election_n without_o any_o outward_a necessitation_n be_v a_o truth_n so_o evident_a as_o that_o there_o be_v a_o sun_n in_o the_o heaven_n and_o he_o that_o doubt_v of_o it_o may_v as_o well_o doubt_v whether_o there_o be_v a_o shell_n without_o the_o nut_n or_o a_o stone_n within_o the_o olive_n a_o man_n proportion_v his_o time_n each_o day_n and_o allot_v so_o much_o to_o his_o devotion_n so_o much_o to_o his_o study_n so_o much_o to_o his_o diet_n so_o much_o to_o his_o recreation_n so_o much_o to_o necessary_a or_o civil_a visit_n so_o much_o to_o his_o rest_n he_o who_o will_v seek_v for_o i_o know_v not_o what_o cause_v of_o all_o this_o without_o himself_o except_o that_o good_a god_n who_o have_v give_v he_o a_o reasonable_a soul_n may_v as_o well_o seek_v for_o a_o cause_n of_o the_o egyptian_a pyramid_n among_o the_o crocodile_n of_o nilus_n second_o for_o mix_a action_n which_o proceed_v from_o the_o concurrence_n of_o free_a and_o natural_a agent_n though_o they_o be_v not_o free_a yet_o they_o be_v not_o necessary_a as_o to_o keep_v my_o former_a instance_n a_o man_n walk_v through_o a_o street_n of_o a_o city_n to_o do_v his_o occasion_n a_o tile_n fall_v from_o a_o house_n and_o break_v his_o head_n the_o break_n of_o his_o head_n be_v not_o necessary_a for_o he_o do_v free_o choose_v to_o go_v that_o way_n without_o any_o necessitation_n neither_o be_v it_o free_a for_o he_o do_v not_o deliberate_v of_o that_o accident_n therefore_o it_o be_v contingent_a and_o by_o undoubted_a consequence_n there_o be_v contingent_a action_n in_o the_o world_n which_o be_v not_o free_a most_o certain_o by_o the_o concurrence_n of_o free_a cause_n as_o god_n the_o good_a and_o bad_a angel_n and_o man_n with_o natural_a agent_n sometime_o on_o purpose_n and_o sometime_o by_o accident_n many_o event_n happen_v which_o otherwise_o have_v never_o happen_v many_o effect_n be_v produce_v which_o otherwise_o have_v never_o be_v produce_v and_o admit_v such_o thing_n to_o be_v contingent_a not_o necessary_a all_o their_o consequent_a effect_n not_o only_o immediate_a but_o mediate_v must_v likewise_o be_v contingent_a that_o be_v to_o say_v such_o as_o do_v not_o proceed_v from_o a_o continue_a connexion_n and_o succession_n of_o necessary_a cause_n which_o be_v direct_o contrary_a to_o t._n h._n his_o opinion_n three_o for_o the_o action_n of_o bruit_n beast_n though_o they_o be_v not_o free_a though_o they_o have_v not_o the_o use_n of_o reason_n to_o restrain_v their_o appetite_n from_o that_o which_o be_v sensitive_o good_a by_o the_o consideration_n of_o what_o be_v rationaly_a good_a or_o what_o be_v honest_a and_o though_o their_o fancy_n be_v determine_v by_o nature_n to_o some_o kind_n of_o work_n yet_o to_o think_v that_o every_o individual_a action_n of_o they_o and_o each_o animal_n motion_n of_o they_o even_o to_o the_o least_o murmur_n or_o gesture_n be_v bind_v by_o the_o chain_n of_o unalterable_a necessity_n to_o the_o extrinsical_a cause_n or_o object_n i_o see_v no_o ground_n for_o it_o christ_n say_v one_o
of_o these_o sparrow_n do_v not_o fall_v to_o the_o ground_n without_o your_o heavenly_a father_n that_o be_v without_o a_o influence_n of_o power_n from_o he_o or_o exempt_v from_o his_o disposition_n he_o do_v not_o say_v which_o your_o heavenly_a father_n cast_v not_o down_o last_o for_o the_o natural_a action_n of_o inanimate_a creature_n wherein_o there_o be_v not_o the_o least_o concurrence_n of_o any_o free_a or_o voluntary_a agent_n the_o question_n be_v yet_o more_o doubtful_a for_o many_o thing_n be_v call_v contingent_a in_o respect_n of_o we_o because_o we_o know_v not_o the_o cause_n of_o they_o which_o real_o &_o in_o themselves_o be_v not_o contingent_a but_o necessary_a also_o many_o thing_n be_v contingent_a in_o respect_n of_o one_o single_a cause_n either_o actual_o hinder_v or_o in_o possibility_n to_o be_v hinder_v which_o be_v necessary_a in_o respect_n of_o the_o joint_a concurrence_n of_o all_o collateral_a cause_n but_o whether_o there_o be_v a_o necessary_a connexion_n of_o all_o natural_a cause_n from_o the_o beginning_n so_o as_o they_o must_v all_o have_v concur_v as_o they_o have_v