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Word A Word B Word C Word D Occurrence Frequency Band MI MI Band Prominent
cause_n effect_n necessary_a voluntary_a 1,389 5 11.0339 5 false
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ID Title Author Corrected Date of Publication (TCP Date of Publication) STC Words Pages
A49423 A letter about liberty and necessity written to the Duke of Newcastle / by Thomas Hobbes. With observations upon it by a learned Prelate of the Church of England lately deceased. Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679.; Laney, Benjamin, 1591-1675. Observations upon a letter of Mr. T. Hobbs to the Duke of Newcastle. 1676 (1676) Wing L343; ESTC R14544 24,278 120

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a_o letter_n about_o liberty_n and_o necessity_n write_v to_o the_o duke_z of_o newcastle_n by_o thomas_n hobbes_n of_o malmesbury_n with_o observation_n upon_o it_o by_o a_o learned_a prelate_n of_o the_o church_n of_o england_n late_o decease_v london_n print_v by_o j._n grover_n for_o w._n crook_n at_o the_o green_a dragon_n without_o temple-bar_n 1676._o imprimatur_fw-la anton._n saunders_n ex_fw-la reverendissimo_fw-la archiepisc_n cant._n à_fw-la sacris_fw-la domesticis_fw-la exit_fw-la aedibus_fw-la lambethanis_n jan._n 19_o 1675_o 6._o mr._n hobbes_n his_o opinion_n about_o liberty_n and_o necessity_n send_v in_o a_o letter_n to_o the_o duke_z of_o newcastle_n first_o i_o conceive_v that_o when_o it_o come_v into_o a_o man_n mind_n to_o do_v or_o not_o to_o do_v some_o certain_a action_n if_o he_o have_v no_o time_n to_o deliberate_v the_o do_n of_o it_o or_o abstain_v necessary_o follow_v the_o present_a thought_n he_o have_v of_o the_o good_a or_o evil_a consequence_n thereof_o to_o himself_o as_o for_o example_n in_o sudden_a anger_n the_o action_n shall_v follow_v the_o desire_n of_o revenge_n in_o sudden_a fear_n the_o thought_n of_o escape_n also_o when_o a_o man_n have_v time_n to_o deliberate_v but_o deliberate_v not_o because_o never_o any_o thing_n appear_v that_o shall_v make_v he_o doubt_v of_o the_o consequence_n the_o action_n follow_v his_o opinion_n of_o the_o goodness_n or_o harm_n of_o it_o these_o action_n i_o call_v voluntary_a my_o lord_n if_o i_o understand_v he_o right_o call_v they_o spontaneous_a i_o call_v they_o voluntary_a because_o those_o action_n which_o follow_v immediate_o the_o last_o appetite_n be_v voluntary_a and_o here_o where_o be_v one_o only_a appetite_n that_o one_o be_v the_o last_o beside_o i_o see_v it_o be_v reasonable_a to_o punish_v a_o rash_a action_n which_o can_v not_o be_v just_o do_v by_o man_n to_o man_n unless_o the_o same_o be_v voluntary_a for_o no_o action_n of_o man_n can_v be_v say_v to_o be_v without_o deliberation_n though_o never_o so_o sudden_a because_o it_o be_v suppose_v he_o have_v time_n to_o deliberate_v all_o the_o precedent_a time_n of_o his_o life_n whether_o he_o shall_v do_v that_o kind_n of_o action_n or_o not_o and_o hence_o it_o be_v that_o he_o that_o kill_v in_o a_o sudden_a passion_n of_o anger_n shall_v nevertheless_o be_v just_o put_v to_o death_n because_o all_o the_o time_n wherein_o he_o be_v able_a to_o consider_v whither_o to_o kill_v be_v good_a or_o evil_n shall_v be_v hold_v for_o one_o continual_a deliberation_n and_o consequent_o the_o kill_v shall_v proceed_v from_o election_n second_o i_o conceive_v when_o a_o man_n deliberate_v whether_o he_o shall_v do_v a_o thing_n or_o not_o do_v it_o that_o he_o do_v nothing_o else_o but_o consider_v whether_o it_o be_v better_a for_o he_o to_o do_v it_o or_o not_o to_o do_v it_o and_o to_o consider_v a_o action_n be_v to_o imagine_v the_o consequence_n of_o it_o both_o good_a and_o evil_n from_o whence_o it_o be_v to_o be_v infer_v that_o deliberation_n be_v nothing_o else_o but_o alternate_a hope_n and_o fear_v or_o alternate_a appetite_n to_o do_v or_o quit_v the_o action_n of_o which_o he_o deliberate_v three_o i_o conceive_v that_o in_o all_o deliberation_n that_o be_v to_o say_v in_o all_o alternate_a succession_n of_o contrary_a appetite_n the_o last_o be_v that_o which_o we_o call_v the_o will_n and_o be_v immediate_o before_o the_o do_n of_o the_o action_n or_o next_o before_o the_o do_v of_o it_o become_v impossible_a all_o other_o appetite_n to_o do_v and_o to_o quit_v that_o come_v upon_o a_o man_n during_o his_o deliberation_n be_v usual_o call_v intention_n and_o inclination_n but_o not_o will_n there_o be_v but_o one_o will_n which_o also_o in_o this_o case_n may_v be_v call_v the_o last_o will_n though_o the_o intention_n change_v often_o four_o that_o those_o action_n which_o a_o man_n be_v say_v to_o do_v upon_o deliberation_n be_v say_v to_o be_v voluntary_a and_o do_v upon_o choice_n and_o election_n so_o that_o voluntary_a action_n and_o action_n proceed_v from_o election_n be_v the_o same_o thing_n and_o that_o of_o voluntary_a agent_n it_o be_v all_o one_o to_o say_v he_o be_v free_a and_o to_o say_v he_o have_v make_v a_o end_n of_o deliberate_v five_o i_o conceive_v liberty_n to_o be_v right_o define_v in_o this_o manner_n liberty_n be_v the_o absence_n of_o all_o the_o impediment_n to_o action_n that_o be_v not_o contain_v in_o the_o natural_a and_o intrinsical_v quality_n of_o the_o agent_n as_o for_o example_n the_o water_n be_v to_o be_v see_v descend_v free_o or_o to_o have_v liberty_n to_o ascend_v up_o the_o channel_n of_o the_o river_n because_o there_o be_v no_o impediment_n and_o though_o the_o water_n can_v ascend_v yet_o man_n say_v it_o never_o want_v the_o liberty_n to_o ascend_v but_o the_o power_n or_o faculty_n because_o the_o impediment_n be_v in_o the_o nature_n of_o the_o water_n and_o intrinsical_v so_o also_o we_o say_v he_o that_o be_v tie_v want_v liberty_n to_o go_v because_o that_o the_o impediment_n be_v not_o in_o he_o but_o in_o his_o bond_n whereas_o we_o say_v not_o so_o of_o he_o that_o be_v sick_a or_o lame_a because_o the_o impediment_n be_v in_o himself_o six_o i_o conceive_v that_o nothing_o take_v beginning_n from_o itself_o but_o from_o the_o action_n of_o some_o other_o immediate_a agent_n without_o itself_o and_o that_o therefore_o when_o first_o a_o man_n have_v a_o appetite_n or_o will_n to_o something_o to_o which_o immediate_o before_o he_o have_v no_o appetite_n nor_o will_n the_o cause_n of_o his_o will_n be_v not_o the_o will_n itself_o but_o something_o else_o not_o in_o his_o own_o dispose_n so_o that_o whereas_o it_o be_v out_o of_o controversy_n of_o voluntary_a action_n the_o will_n be_v a_o necessary_a cause_n and_o by_o this_o which_o be_v say_v the_o will_n be_v also_o cause_v by_o other_o thing_n which_o it_o dispose_v not_o it_o follow_v that_o voluntary_a action_n have_v all_o their_o necessary_a cause_n and_o therefore_o be_v necessitate_v seven_o i_o hold_v that_o to_o be_v a_o sufficient_a cause_n to_o which_o nothing_o be_v want_v that_o be_v needful_a to_o the_o produce_v of_o the_o effect_n the_o same_o also_o be_v a_o necessary_a cause_n for_o if_o it_o be_v possible_a that_o a_o sufficient_a cause_n shall_v not_o bring_v forth_o the_o effect_n than_o there_o want_v somewhat_o which_o be_v needful_a to_o the_o produce_v of_o it_o and_o so_o the_o cause_n be_v not_o sufficient_a but_o if_o it_o be_v impossible_a that_o a_o sufficient_a cause_n shall_v not_o produce_v the_o effect_n then_o be_v a_o sufficient_a cause_n a_o necessary_a cause_n for_o it_o be_v say_v to_o produce_v a_o effect_n necessary_o that_o can_v but_o produce_v it_o hence_o be_v manifest_a that_o whatsoever_o be_v produce_v have_v have_v a_o sufficient_a cause_n to_o produce_v it_o else_o it_o have_v not_o be_v and_o therefore_o also_o voluntary_a action_n be_v necessitate_v last_o i_o hold_v that_o the_o ordinary_a definition_n of_o a_o free_a agent_n namely_o that_o a_o free_a agent_n be_v that_o which_o when_o all_o thing_n be_v present_a which_o be_v needful_a to_o produce_v the_o effect_n can_v nevertheless_o not_o produce_v it_o imply_v a_o contradiction_n and_o be_v nonsense_n be_v as_o much_o as_o to_o say_v the_o cause_n may_v be_v sufficient_a that_o be_v necessary_a and_o yet_o the_o effect_v not_o follow_v my_o reason_n for_o the_o first_o 5_o point_n where_o it_o be_v explicate_v 1._o what_o spontaneity_n be_v 2._o what_o deliberation_n be_v 3._o what_o will_v propension_n and_o appetite_n be_v 4._o what_o a_o free_a agent_n be_v 5._o what_o liberty_n be_v there_o can_v be_v no_o other_o proof_n offer_v but_o every_o man_n own_o experience_n by_o reflection_n on_o himself_o and_o remember_v what_o he_o use_v to_o have_v in_o his_o mind_n that_o be_v what_o he_o himself_o mean_v when_o he_o say_v a_o action_n be_v spontaneous_a a_o man_n deliberate_v such_o be_v his_o will_n that_o agent_n or_o action_n be_v free_n now_o he_o that_o so_o reflect_v upon_o himself_o can_v but_o be_v satisfy_v that_o deliberation_n be_v the_o consider_v of_o the_o good_a and_o evil_a sequels_fw-fr of_o the_o action_n to_o come_v that_o by_o spontaneity_n be_v mean_v inconsiderate_a proceed_n or_o else_o nothing_o be_v mean_v by_o it_o that_o will_v be_v the_o last_o act_n of_o our_o deliberation_n that_o a_o free_a agent_n be_v he_o that_o can_v do_v if_o he_o will_v and_o forbear_v if_o he_o will_v and_o that_o liberty_n be_v the_o absence_n of_o external_n impediment_n but_o to_o those_o that_o out_o of_o custom_n speak_v not_o what_o they_o conceive_v but_o what_o they_o hear_v and_o be_v not_o able_a or_o will_v not_o take_v the_o pain_n to_o consider_v what_o they_o think_v when_o they_o
agent_n that_o he_o can_v change_v his_o will_n and_o make_v that_o not_o to_o be_v last_o which_o once_o be_v last_o that_o be_v he_o have_v power_n over_o his_o last_o will_n i_o mean_v over_o that_o which_o for_o the_o time_n be_v the_o last_o and_o be_v as_o serious_a and_o resolve_v as_o the_o last_o and_o for_o those_o action_n which_o he_o call_v only_a intention_n and_o inclination_n i_o see_v no_o reason_n why_o they_o shall_v not_o be_v call_v will_n see_v 1._o they_o be_v act_n of_o the_o will_n for_o no_o application_n of_o the_o soul_n to_o any_o thing_n upon_o a_o reason_n can_v proceed_v from_o the_o inferior_a sensitive_a part_n and_o therefore_o must_v either_o be_v act_n of_o the_o will_n or_o be_v nothing_o at_o all_o and_o 2_o by_o mr._n hobbe_n own_o rule_n and_o definition_n of_o will_n every_o one_o of_o those_o successive_a appetite_n be_v will_n because_o till_o another_o consequent_a appetite_n follow_v they_o be_v the_o last_o for_o the_o time_n and_o therefore_o in_o their_o course_n and_o turn_v all_o be_v wi_n indeed_o after_o they_o be_v change_v and_o unwil_v again_o i_o think_v no_o man_n desire_v they_o shall_v be_v still_o call_v will_n when_o they_o cease_v to_o be_v at_o all_o four_o point_n to_o say_v he_o be_v a_o free_a agent_n be_v all_o one_o to_o say_v he_o have_v make_v a_o end_n of_o deliberation_n here_o i_o shall_v call_v mr._n hobbs_n again_o to_o his_o own_o reflection_n whether_o a_o man_n can_v be_v say_v to_o be_v free_a before_o he_o have_v make_v a_o end_n of_o deliberation_n rather_o than_o after_o as_o when_o i_o desire_v to_o have_v a_o friend_n dine_v with_o i_o i_o meaning_n to_o ask_v he_o first_o whether_o he_o be_v engage_v or_o resolve_v for_o any_o other_o company_n do_v use_v these_o word_n sir_n be_v you_o free_a and_o if_o he_o answer_v i_o that_o he_o be_v free_a i_o present_o apprehend_v that_o he_o be_v not_o resolve_v for_o any_o particular_a but_o be_v still_o capable_a of_o a_o resolution_n to_o dine_v with_o i_o not_o but_o that_o he_o may_v be_v say_v to_o be_v free_a too_o that_o have_v make_v a_o end_n of_o deliberation_n but_o in_o another_o sense_n that_o be_v he_o be_v free_a from_o all_o doubt_n that_o come_v by_o deliberation_n but_o the_o same_o may_v be_v free_a also_o before_o deliberation_n be_v end_v but_o it_o be_v from_o particular_a determination_n and_o resolution_n which_o be_v the_o freedom_n we_o defend_v to_o do_v or_o not_o to_o do_v and_o this_o seem_v to_o be_v a_o great_a and_o more_o proper_a freedom_n than_o the_o other_o for_o he_o that_o be_v free_a from_o deliberation_n act_v indeed_o free_o but_o it_o be_v in_o that_o one_o way_n to_o which_o he_o be_v resolve_v but_o he_o that_o be_v so_o free_a as_o to_o go_v any_o way_n be_v more_o free_a than_o he_o that_o go_v but_o free_o in_o one_o way_n five_o point_n liberty_n be_v the_o absence_n of_o all_o impediment_n to_o action_n that_o be_v not_o contain_v in_o the_o nature_n and_o intrinsical_a quality_n of_o the_o agent_n if_o it_o will_v content_v mr._n hobbs_n that_o shall_v be_v allow_v to_o be_v one_o sense_n of_o the_o word_n but_o if_o i_o may_v have_v leave_n to_o do_v but_o what_o he_o desire_v i_o shall_v do_v reflect_v i_o find_v another_o sense_n and_o the_o very_a same_o which_o be_v deny_v by_o he_o a_o liberty_n from_o necessity_n as_o when_o a_o father_n recommend_v a_o wife_n to_o his_o son_n the_o son_n have_v no_o doubt_n liberty_n to_o take_v that_o wife_n in_o mr._n hobbs_n his_o sense_n and_o yet_o if_o the_o same_o son_n shall_v desire_v his_o father_n to_o give_v he_o his_o liberty_n the_o father_n will_v present_o apprehend_v that_o he_o desire_v somewhat_o that_o he_o have_v not_o give_v he_o that_o be_v leave_v as_o well_o to_o refuse_v she_o if_o he_o see_v cause_n as_o to_o take_v she_o he_o will_v not_o cavil_v with_o he_o and_o say_v you_o have_v the_o liberty_n in_o that_o you_o be_v tie_v to_o she_o but_o if_o he_o mean_v to_o give_v he_o his_o liberty_n his_o meaning_n also_o will_v be_v to_o absolve_v he_o of_o the_o necessity_n to_o take_v she_o by_o this_o we_o see_v that_o no_o advantage_n be_v get_v to_o mr._n hobbs_n by_o reflection_n which_o show_v a_o liberty_n from_o necessity_n reflect_v also_o six_o point_n be_v a_o argument_n to_o prove_v that_o all_o action_n be_v necessitate_v because_o they_o have_v necessary_a cause_n i_o deny_v the_o consequence_n for_o when_o he_o say_v that_o all_o action_n have_v their_o necessary_a cause_n his_o meaning_n be_v if_o his_o meaning_n agree_v with_o the_o reason_n he_o give_v of_o it_o that_o it_o be_v necessary_a they_o have_v cause_n because_o say_v he_o nothing_o can_v have_v beginning_n from_o it●_n self_n now_o can_v any_o one_o imagine_v that_o a_o reflect_a man_n shall_v think_v this_o a_o good_a consequence_n nothing_o can_v have_v beginning_n from_o itself_o and_o therefore_o every_o thing_n be_v necessitate_v that_o because_o a_o effect_n must_v necessary_o be_v produce_v by_o some_o cause_n that_o therefore_o the_o cause_n do_v necessary_o produce_v that_o effect_n for_o good_a sir_n reflect_v again_o and_o bethink_v yourself_o that_o as_o some_o effect_n can_v be_v produce_v but_o by_o a_o concurrence_n of_o many_o cause_n together_o every_o one_o of_o these_o be_v necessary_a to_o the_o produce_v of_o the_o effect_n and_o yet_o not_o any_o one_o of_o these_o do_v necessitate_v the_o effect_n but_o rather_o it_o be_v necessary_a that_o nothing_o shall_v be_v effect_v if_o that_o cause_n be_v single_a and_o alone_a seven_o point_n be_v another_o argument_n to_o prove_v that_o voluntary_a action_n be_v necessitate_v because_o they_o have_v sufficient_a cause_n and_o all_o sufficient_a cause_n be_v necessary_a that_o all_o sufficient_a cause_n be_v necessary_a sufficient_a may_v have_v a_o double_a meaning_n either_o when_o there_o be_v sufficient_a virtue_n and_o aptness_n in_o the_o thing_n to_o produce_v the_o 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to_o call_v it_o let_v reflection_n be_v judge_n as_o when_o a_o man_n have_v a_o good_a seat_n for_o a_o house_n all_o material_n workman_n and_o money_n to_o defray_v the_o charge_n he_o may_v and_o common_o do_v use_v to_o say_v he_o have_v all_o thing_n requisite_a and_o needful_a to_o build_v a_o house_n and_o then_o too_o when_o his_o will_n be_v yet_o suspend_v and_o unresolved_a whether_o to_o use_v they_o or_o not_o therefore_o yourself_o or_o if_o you_o will_v reflection_n be_v judge_n you_o have_v clap_v the_o nonsense_n upon_o your_o own_o head_n but_o enough_o of_o the_o point_n let_v we_o see_v if_o we_o can_v mend_v ourselves_o with_o the_o reason_n of_o they_o reason_n wipe_v your_o eye_n i_o beseech_v you_o for_o never_o be_v there_o such_o reason_n see_v before_o such_o mystery_n discover_v for_o the_o first_o point_n yea_o for_o five_o of_o the_o eight_o point_n the_o reason_n be_v that_o they_o have_v no_o reason_n for_o he_o say_v they_o can_v be_v prove_v but_o 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too_o he_o lay_v down_o a_o proposition_n more_o general_a than_o the_o question_n that_o all_o event_n never_o so_o casual_a have_v necessary_a cause_n if_o i_o shall_v grant_v this_o yet_o the_o voluntary_a agent_n may_v be_v free_a though_o the_o work_n which_o he_o produce_v be_v necessary_a this_o i_o shall_v show_v in_o the_o instance_n which_o be_v bring_v to_o prove_v this_o proposition_n the_o first_o be_v of_o the_o chance_n of_o a_o die_v i_o confess_v that_o though_o it_o be_v very_o casual_a to_o the_o caster_n yet_o it_o do_v necessary_o come_v to_o pass_v upon_o such_o posture_n and_o motion_n of_o the_o hand_n and_o die_v as_o happen_v to_o meet_v together_o at_o that_o time_n yet_o i_o say_v too_o that_o as_o to_o the_o caster_n of_o the_o die_v it_o be_v not_o necessary_a because_o he_o have_v a_o double_a power_n over_o that_o chance_n to_o have_v hinder_v it_o if_o he_o please_v for_o either_o he_o may_v not_o have_v throw_v the_o dice_n at_o all_o or_o he_o may_v have_v so_o order_v the_o motion_n and_o posture_n of_o his_o hand_n that_o can_v have_v cause_v another_o chance_n yea_o more_o desire_v to_o avoid_v controversy_n as_o much_o as_o mr._n hobbs_n do_v to_o make_v they_o i_o grant_v also_o that_o there_o be_v a_o time_n when_o and_o a_o respect_n wherein_o voluntary_a agent_n be_v in_o the_o same_o condition_n with_o natural_a and_o do_v act_v necessary_o for_o not_o only_o a_o natural_a agent_n sole_o and_o single_o do_v work_v his_o proper_a natural_a effect_n necessary_o as_o the_o fire_n necessary_o heat_n but_o also_o when_o they_o be_v in_o conjunction_n together_o as_o it_o be_v a_o corporation_n of_o cause_n whether_o that_o be_v casual_a as_o the_o motion_n and_o posture_n of_o the_o hand_n meet_v with_o suitable_a posture_n with_o the_o die_n and_o the_o table_n do_v produce_v necessary_o a_o certain_a chance_n or_o whether_o it_o be_v artificial_a as_o the_o medicine_n compound_v of_o several_a drug_n do_v necessary_o produce_v a_o common_a effect_n beyond_o the_o virtue_n of_o their_o particular_a nature_n apart_o which_o belong_v to_o they_o only_o in_o that_o conjunction_n and_o society_n of_o operation_n so_o likewise_o a_o voluntary_a agent_n constant_o resolve_v and_o actual_o cooperate_n with_o other_o sufficient_a cause_n do_v as_o necessary_o produce_v the_o effect_n as_o any_o natural_a agent_n work_v either_o alone_a or_o in_o conjunction_n and_o society_n so_o as_o in_o this_o case_n if_o mr._n hobbs_n seek_v for_o a_o adversary_n i_o assure_v myself_o he_o will_v find_v none_o and_o if_o he_o think_v he_o have_v find_v a_o truth_n it_o be_v but_o such_o as_o be_v never_o lose_v but_o when_o we_o affirm_v voluntary_a agent_n to_o be_v free_a from_o necessity_n in_o act_v we_o look_v upon_o they_o in_o another_o state_n and_o condition_n for_o they_o act_n not_o like_o natural_a agent_n who_o work_n immediate_o follow_v and_o flow_v from_o their_o be_v but_o have_v a_o progressive_a operation_n that_o be_v before_o any_o thing_n beside_o their_o be_v they_o deliberate_v resolve_v and_o fall_v to_o execution_n and_o there_o be_v a_o time_n for_o all_o these_o allow_v and_o though_o when_o they_o be_v come_v to_o that_o perfect_a state_n and_o progress_n that_o they_o have_v pass_v the_o irrevocable_a resolve_v will_n they_o act_n as_o necessary_o as_o natural_a agent_n do_v yet_o in_o their_o imperfect_a state_n that_o be_v from_o their_o first_o deliberation_n to_o their_o last_o constant_a resolution_n they_o be_v absolute_o free_a to_o do_v or_o not_o to_o do_v in_o which_o case_n alone_o we_o assert_v the_o liberty_n of_o voluntary_a agent_n against_o which_o nothing_o either_o be_v or_o can_v be_v prove_v by_o the_o instance_n of_o the_o chance_n of_o a_o die_v 2._o and_o for_o the_o other_o instance_n of_o the_o wether_n that_o whatsoever_o come_v to_o pass_v rain_n or_o not_o rain_n it_o come_v so_o to_o pass_v necessary_o i_o answer_v first_o that_o this_o be_v impertinent_a to_o the_o question_n concern_v the_o liberty_n of_o voluntary_a agent_n who_o have_v no_o operation_n or_o concurrence_n to_o the_o event_n of_o wether_n and_o second_o the_o reason_n that_o be_v use_v to_o prove_v that_o necessary_a be_v insufficient_a in_o many_o respect_n as_o because_o it_o be_v necessary_a that_o one_o of_o the_o two_o must_v happen_v either_o rain_n or_o no_o rain_n therefore_o that_o which_o do_v happen_v come_v to_o pass_v necessary_o my_o first_o reason_n be_v because_o the_o truth_n of_o a_o disjunctive_a proposition_n as_o this_o be_v it_o must_v rain_v or_o not_o rain_n consist_v in_o disjunctione_fw-la partium_fw-la and_o not_o in_o disjunctis_fw-la partibus_fw-la for_o when_o you_o resolve_v this_o proposition_n into_o two_o categorick_n it_o shall_v rain_v for_o one_o and_o it_o shall_v not_o rain_v for_o another_o which_o resolution_n the_o event_n will_v make_v as_o the_o nature_n so_o the_o truth_n of_o the_o proposition_n be_v change_v for_o when_o the_o event_n have_v turn_v the_o disjunctive_a proposition_n into_o a_o categorick_a as_o that_o it_n rain_v it_o can_v partake_v of_o that_o necessity_n which_o consist_v only_o in_o the_o disjunctive_a and_o to_o make_v this_o plain_a i_o shall_v quit_v your_o instance_n with_o another_o suppose_v i_o be_o confine_v to_o live_v within_o the_o wall_n of_o london_n so_o as_o it_o be_v now_o necessary_a for_o i_o either_o to_o live_v in_o cheapside_n or_o in_o some_o other_o part_n of_o the_o city_n yet_o be_o i_o not_o tie_v by_o that_o confinement_n to_o london_n to_o any_o one_o place_n if_o i_o be_v tie_v and_o necessitate_v to_o any_o one_o place_n it_o must_v be_v either_o to_o that_o place_n i_o choose_v to_o live_v in_o or_o to_o that_o i_o do_v not_o
live_v in_o the_o latter_a i_o hope_v no_o man_n will_v imagine_v can_v be_v necessary_a to_o live_v where_o i_o do_v not_o and_o if_o the_o former_a be_v necessary_a that_o be_v to_o live_v where_o i_o do_v viz._n for_o example_n in_o cheapside_n then_o by_o virtue_n of_o that_o confinement_n to_o london_n i_o may_v be_v punish_v if_o i_o have_v not_o live_v in_o cheapside_n in_o which_o case_n a_o jury_n out_o of_o bethlem_n will_v not_o condemn_v i_o for_o that_o be_v to_o make_v it_o all_o one_o to_o be_v necessitate_v to_o live_v in_o london_n and_o to_o be_v necessitate_v to_o live_v in_o cheapside_n and_o the_o reason_n why_o from_o the_o necessity_n of_o the_o disjunction_n can_v be_v infer_v a_o necessity_n to_o the_o part_n of_o it_o separately_z be_v clear_a by_o the_o instance_n i_o have_v give_v the_o necessity_n that_o be_v lay_v upon_o i_o be_v to_o the_o whole_a latitude_n and_o compass_n of_o london_n which_o leave_v i_o free_a to_o any_o part_n within_o that_o latitude_n so_o the_o necessity_n that_o it_o shall_v rain_v or_o not_o rain_n be_v only_o to_o the_o compass_n and_o latitude_n that_o these_o two_o make_v rain_v or_o not_o rain_v but_o within_o that_o latitude_n as_o to_o the_o one_o alone_o or_o to_o the_o other_o there_o be_v no_o necessity_n if_o you_o say_v it_o be_v necessary_a for_o i_o to_o live_v in_o cheapside_n because_o i_o live_v in_o no_o other_o part_n of_o the_o city_n so_o that_o it_o be_v necessary_a it_o shall_v rain_v because_o it_o do_v not_o hold_v up_o i_o answer_v that_o this_o be_v a_o necessity_n of_o consequence_n which_o infer_v no_o necessity_n upon_o the_o consequent_a which_o be_v the_o necessity_n in_o question_n that_o be_v that_o my_o live_n in_o cheapside_n or_o the_o rain_v to_o morrow_n which_o be_v the_o consequent_n do_v come_v to_o pass_v by_o necessary_a cause_n and_o because_o i_o be_o afraid_a of_o mr._n hobbs_n his_o bitter_a sarcasm_n upon_o distinction_n that_o to_o say_v it_o be_v necessary_a necessitate_v consequentiae_fw-la but_o not_o consequentis_fw-la be_v all_o one_o to_o say_v it_o be_v necessary_a tityre_fw-la but_o not_o necessary_a tu_fw-la patulae_fw-la i_o will_v prevent_v it_o by_o show_v the_o difference_n in_o a_o instance_n if_o mr._n hobbs_n will_v not_o have_v the_o goose_n go_v barefoot_a it_o be_v necessary_a he_o shall_v shoe_n it_o this_o no_o doubt_v but_o be_v a_o necessary_a consequence_n and_o yet_o i_o suppose_v he_o will_v not_o think_v that_o the_o consequent_a be_v necessary_a as_o that_o it_o be_v necessary_a he_o shall_v shoe_n the_o goose_n and_o to_o say_v truth_n there_o be_v no_o more_o necessity_n it_o shall_v rain_v to_o morrow_n than_o there_o be_v to_o shoe_n a_o goose._n 3._o in_o this_o instance_n of_o the_o wether_n there_o be_v another_o impertinency_n about_o necessity_n for_o whereas_o the_o question_n be_v whether_o all_o thing_n come_v to_o pass_v necessary_o that_o be_v out_o of_o such_o necessary_a cause_n that_o it_o be_v not_o possible_a they_o shall_v not_o come_v to_o pass_v the_o proof_n of_o this_o be_v take_v from_o such_o a_o necessity_n as_o belong_v only_o to_o proposition_n not_o to_o production_n which_o necessity_n of_o proposition_n consist_v only_o in_o a_o necessary_a coherence_n of_o the_o part_n together_o so_o as_o the_o enunciation_n be_v never_o false_a as_o when_o the_o genus_fw-la be_v predicate_v of_o the_o species_n or_o the_o proper_a accident_n of_o the_o subject_a as_o homo_fw-la est_fw-la animal_n &_o homo_fw-la est_fw-la visibilis_fw-la be_v proposition_n necessary_o true_a because_o they_o be_v always_o true_a and_o nothing_o can_v happen_v that_o shall_v make_v they_o false_a so_o it_o be_v necessary_a that_o it_o shall_v rain_v or_o not_o rain_v to_o morrow_n that_o be_v it_o be_v a_o proposition_n necessary_o true_a and_o can_v but_o be_v true_a but_o no_o intimation_n of_o the_o necessity_n in_o question_n which_o be_v the_o necessary_a production_n of_o these_o event_n from_o necessary_a cause_n for_o if_o this_o necessity_n be_v employ_v in_o that_o disjunction_n than_o every_o necessary_a proposition_n shall_v consist_v of_o a_o necessary_a effect_n predicate_v of_o sufficient_a and_o necessary_a cause_n which_o every_o mean_a logician_n know_v to_o be_v false_a and_o therefore_o to_o use_v mr._n hobbs_n his_o own_o word_n because_o he_o be_v like_a to_o be_v best_a please_v with_o they_o this_o be_v all_o one_o as_o to_o say_v it_o be_v necessary_a tityritè_fw-fr ergo_fw-la it_o be_v necessary_a tupatulicé_fw-la after_o he_o have_v give_v his_o proof_n as_o he_o think_v in_o full_a weight_n like_o a_o free_a chapman_n he_o cast_v in_o one_o argument_n over_o and_o above_o take_v from_o god_n decree_n and_o prescience_n because_o mr._n hobbs_n himself_o do_v not_o warrant_v this_o to_o be_v good_a logic_n i_o can_v in_o civility_n charge_v he_o for_o it_o but_o if_o his_o design_n be_v in_o that_o caution_n if_o i_o think_v it_o good_a logic_n to_o make_v we_o believe_v that_o he_o make_v a_o conscience_n of_o keep_v these_o rule_n i_o be_o sorry_a for_o his_o ill-luck_n that_o he_o choose_v to_o do_v it_o here_o for_o if_o he_o have_v but_o dip_v his_o finger_n blindfold_a upon_o any_o other_o part_n of_o his_o discourse_n he_o may_v with_o more_o colour_n have_v accuse_v himself_o than_o in_o this_o for_o i_o pray_v against_o what_o rule_n of_o logic_n do_v he_o trespass_n that_o use_v what_o argument_n he_o please_v but_o so_o apt_a be_v he_o to_o mistake_v in_o reprehend_v other_o that_o h●_n can_v blame_v himself_o without_o a_o error_n yet_o for_o all_o this_o though_o there_o be_v no_o want_n of_o logic_n in_o use_v this_o argument_n yet_o there_o be_v not_o much_o in_o the_o argument_n he_o use_v first_o in_o general_n both_o for_o the_o decree_n and_o prescience_n together_o they_o be_v divine_a action_n that_o proceed_v from_o god_n attribute_n and_o the_o use_n of_o such_o for_o argument_n of_o truth_n in_o other_o thing_n mr._n hobbs_n himself_o in_o his_o postscript_n confess_v to_o be_v the_o cause_n of_o those_o many_o error_n that_o man_n fall_v into_o yet_o have_v he_o not_o the_o grace_n to_o forbear_v but_o fall_v himself_o into_o the_o same_o condemnation_n he_o decree_v to_o other_o as_o if_o he_o will_v prove_v his_o error_n by_o his_o fault_n for_o what_o but_o a_o fatal_a necessity_n can_v make_v he_o to_o do_v that_o which_o with_o the_o same_o breath_n almost_o he_o condemn_v but_o to_o particular_n first_o of_o the_o decree_n that_o it_o be_v frustrate_v by_o liberty_n 1._o i_o answer_v that_o to_o prove_v necessity_n from_o god_n decree_n be_v to_o prove_v obscurum_fw-la per_fw-la obscurius_fw-la for_o of_o all_o the_o point_n of_o divinity_n it_o be_v confess_v by_o all_o that_o write_v of_o it_o that_o nothing_o be_v more_o obscure_a than_o the_o nature_n and_o efficacy_n of_o divine_a decree_n that_o be_v one_o elenche_n and_o fallacy_n in_o logic_n 2._o another_o be_v that_o decree_n be_v a_o equivocal_a word_n and_o admit_v of_o diverse_a sense_n and_o construction_n as_o for_o instance_n god_n decree_v to_o destroy_v some_o city_n that_o it_o may_v be_v either_o conditional_a as_o if_o it_o repent_v not_o or_o absolute_a whether_o it_o repent_v or_o no._n 2._o that_o absolute_a may_v be_v either_o as_o to_o the_o destruction_n of_o the_o city_n only_o and_o not_o to_o the_o mean_n by_o which_o it_o be_v to_o be_v destroy_v or_o to_o both_o for_o though_o god_n shall_v decree_v absolute_o to_o destroy_v the_o city_n yet_o it_o be_v yet_o free_a that_o it_o be_v do_v either_o by_o the_o mutual_a dissension_n of_o the_o citizen_n or_o the_o invasion_n of_o a_o enemy_n either_o of_o which_o be_v a_o sufficient_a neither_o a_o necessary_a mean_n dissension_n be_v not_o necessary_a because_o it_o may_v be_v by_o invasion_n and_o invasion_n be_v not_o because_o it_o may_v be_v by_o dissension_n 3._o it_o may_v be_v absolute_a both_o to_o the_o thing_n and_o to_o the_o mean_n as_o for_o the_o purpose_n that_o it_o may_v be_v by_o dissension_n among_o the_o citizen_n yet_o that_o mean_n may_v come_v to_o effect_n it_o two_o way_n either_o upon_o foresight_n that_o they_o will_v dissent_v of_o themselves_o or_o by_o another_o decree_n of_o god_n that_o they_o shall_v dissent_v 4._o god_n may_v also_o decree_v that_o two_o way_n either_o by_o work_v upon_o the_o will_n by_o a_o power_n irresistible_a pe●motionem_fw-la physicam_fw-la as_o they_o call_v it_o or_o per_fw-la moralem_fw-la that_o be_v such_o inducement_n and_o inclination_n as_o will_n ducere_fw-la not_o trahere_fw-la by_o either_o of_o which_o way_n god_n decree_n may_v be_v accomplish_v this_o variety_n partly_o in_o the_o decree_n partly_o in_o the_o construction_n that_o be_v make_v of_o they_o which_o do_v all_o imply_v a_o
allow_v mr._n hobbs_n to_o say_v that_o those_o thing_n which_o be_v future_a to_o we_o though_o not_o to_o god_n be_v yet_o foresee_v by_o he_o provide_v that_o use_n be_v not_o make_v of_o it_o to_o argue_v from_o his_o foresight_n as_o a_o act_n that_o be_v past_a upon_o which_o as_o a_o cause_n must_v depend_v a_o effect_n that_o must_v follow_v after_o it_o for_o god_n vision_n do_v not_o prevent_v the_o thing_n see_v but_o accompany_v it_o for_o that_o be_v the_o nature_n of_o every_o act_n that_o it_o suppose_v the_o object_n in_o some_o kind_n of_o be_v and_o so_o be_v mere_o accidental_a to_o the_o nature_n of_o it_o and_o can_v lay_v no_o necessity_n upon_o it_o and_o though_o it_o be_v hard_a to_o comprehend_v how_o god_n shall_v now_o be_v say_v to_o be_v present_a with_o those_o thing_n which_o be_v yet_o to_o come_v and_o yet_o on_o the_o other_o side_n it_o be_v as_o hard_a to_o apprehend_v how_o it_o can_v be_v otherwise_o that_o god_n shall_v be_v eternal_a and_o yet_o not_o present_a with_o any_o part_n of_o time_n as_o well_o future_a as_o past_a when_o mr._n hobbs_n shall_v teach_v we_o how_o god_n can_v see_v that_o which_o be_v not_o to_o be_v see_v for_o that_o which_o be_v future_a be_v not_o and_o therefore_o be_v not_o to_o be_v see_v and_o to_o say_v they_o be_v to_o be_v see_v in_o their_o cause_n be_v liable_a to_o the_o same_o difficulty_n because_o the_o particular_a cause_n of_o the_o thing_n be_v as_o well_o future_a as_o the_o thing_n itself_o that_o be_v if_o he_o can_v show_v a_o better_a way_n than_o this_o that_o those_o thing_n be_v present_a to_o god_n which_o be_v future_a to_o we_o i_o will_v let_v go_v my_o hold_n in_o the_o mean_a time_n it_o shall_v serve_v for_o my_o first_o answer_n to_o the_o argument_n from_o god_n prescience_n that_o because_o all_o vision_n suppose_v the_o thing_n see_v to_o be_v it_o be_v accidental_a to_o it_o and_o can_v necessitate_v it_o 2._o admit_v foresight_n in_o god_n as_o a_o act_n past_a and_o the_o thing_n to_o follow_v it_o must_v follow_v in_o the_o same_o condition_n it_o be_v foresee_v grant_v i_o that_o which_o i_o shall_v present_o prove_v that_o cod_n can_v foresee_v contingent_a thing_n that_o which_o in_o the_o nature_n of_o it_o be_v contingent_a can_v become_v necessary_a by_o be_v foresee_v for_o than_o he_o shall_v not_o see_v as_o they_o be_v but_o you_o will_v say_v if_o god_n foresee_v they_o it_o be_v necessary_a they_o shall_v come_v to_o pass_v i_o say_v so_o too_o but_o how_o in_o that_o quality_n that_o god_n foresee_v they_o that_o be_v contingent_o for_o it_o be_v as_o necessary_a that_o those_o thing_n that_o be_v produce_v of_o contingent_a cause_n shall_v come_v to_o pass_v as_o those_o that_o be_v produce_v of_o necessary_a upon_o supposition_n of_o god_n foresight_n and_o it_o be_v no_o bull_n in_o that_o sense_n to_o say_v that_o contingent_a thing_n be_v necessary_a for_o there_o be_v a_o double_a necessity_n one_o of_o illation_n and_o discourse_n a_o other_o of_o production_n and_o operation_n to_o affirm_v the_o latter_a of_o contingent_a thing_n imply_v a_o contradiction_n but_o not_o so_o the_o former_a that_o be_v god_n prescience_n be_v a_o necessary_a argument_n to_o prove_v because_o he_o can_v be_v mistake_v but_o not_o a_o necessary_a cause_n to_o produce_v the_o effect_n of_o which_o only_a necessity_n the_o question_n be_v move_v this_o argument_n therefore_o have_v a_o term_n too_o many_o there_o be_v one_o necessity_n in_o the_o premise_n another_o in_o the_o conclusion_n praescientia_fw-la dei_fw-la necessariò_fw-la probat_fw-la non_fw-la necessariò_fw-la producit_fw-la 3._o if_o mr._n h._n shall_v deny_v that_o which_o i_o promise_v to_o prove_v that_o god_n can_v foresee_v contingent_a event_n because_o they_o have_v no_o necessary_a cause_n then_o he_o can_v also_o foresee_v what_o shall_v come_v to_o pass_v or_o not_o come_v to_o pass_v upon_o the_o performance_n or_o not_o performance_n of_o a_o condition_n but_o that_o god_n can_v foresee_v such_o thing_n i_o hope_v he_o will_v not_o deny_v yet_o because_o he_o be_v a_o liberal_a and_o fierce_a denier_n i_o shall_v put_v in_o he_o mind_n of_o one_o instance_n god_n tell_v david_n that_o the_o man_n of_o keilah_n will_v deliver_v he_o into_o saul_n hand_n but_o with_o this_o tacit_a condition_n if_o he_o stay_v among_o they_o and_o for_o the_o consequence_n i_o prove_v it_o thus_o in_o this_o prediction_n and_o prevision_n of_o what_o the_o man_n of_o keilah_n will_v do_v there_o be_v no_o necessary_a cause_n as_o be_v plain_a for_o that_o it_o do_v not_o bring_v to_o pass_v the_o effect_n for_o the_o man_n of_o keilah_n do_v not_o though_o god_n foresee_v it_o deliver_v david_n into_o saul_n hand_n and_o if_o god_n can_v foresee_v what_o will_v have_v be_v but_o what_o be_v not_o why_o may_v he_o not_o rather_o foresee_v any_o thing_n that_o shall_v be_v though_o it_o may_v not_o have_v be_v that_o be_v any_o future_a contingent_a for_o if_o the_o reason_n why_o future_a contingent_n can_v be_v see_v or_o foresee_v be_v that_o they_o have_v no_o necessary_a cause_n then_o conditional_a prevision_n and_o prediction_n of_o such_o thing_n as_o for_o failance_n of_o the_o condition_n come_v not_o to_o pass_v can_v not_o be_v foresee_v also_o for_o that_o they_o have_v no_o necessary_a cause_n as_o appear_v by_o the_o event_n these_o be_v all_o mr._n hobbs_n his_o argument_n yet_o because_o he_o have_v find_v another_o invention_n a_o kind_n of_o lieutenant-argument_n to_o which_o we_o be_v ever_o and_o anon_o remit_v when_o argument_n be_v out_o of_o the_o way_n which_o he_o call_v reflection_n and_o he_o may_v take_v it_o ill_a if_o it_o go_v away_o unlooked_a on_o it_o will_v be_v necessary_a to_o exchange_v a_o word_n or_o two_o about_o it_o also_o of_o reflection_n let_v we_o see_v how_o well_o it_o deserve_v to_o stand_v in_o the_o musterroll_n of_o his_o militia_n and_o have_v do_v such_o fact_n for_o the_o subdue_a of_o those_o monstrous_a error_n of_o our_o ignorant_a forefather_n as_o be_v pretend_v and_o for_o which_o he_o dress_v a_o particular_a discourse_n this_o you_o will_v easy_o perceive_v both_o by_o the_o nature_n of_o it_o and_o the_o effect_n and_o achievement_n of_o it_o 1._o the_o nature_n of_o it_o be_v as_o far_o as_o i_o can_v guess_v to_o consider_v what_o i_o myself_o think_v of_o that_o which_o another_o say_v and_o prove_v not_o that_o be_v i_o demand_v of_o he_o and_o will_v know_v whether_o that_o be_v true_a which_o he_o affirm_v he_o bid_v i_o go_v look_v now_o be_v that_o a_o way_n to_o teach_v i_o knowledge_n to_o send_v i_o to_o myself_o that_o be_v to_o one_o that_o be_v ignorant_a to_o inform_v i_o and_o this_o be_v that_o columbus_n of_o our_o new_a world_n of_o philosophy_n reflection_n this_o be_v that_o which_o by_o a_o digression_n on_o purpose_n be_v celebrate_v to_o posterity_n as_o a_o excellent_a new_a engine_n that_o will_v fetch_v truth_n out_o of_o the_o very_a bottom_n of_o democritus_n his_o pit_n and_o yet_o perhaps_o there_o be_v more_o in_o it_o than_o we_o be_v at_o the_o first_o sight_n able_a to_o apprehend_v especial_o be_v blind_v with_o our_o old_a and_o hereditary_a error_n 2._o therefore_o he_o show_v to_o the_o world_n two_o noble_a experiment_n of_o the_o virtue_n of_o it_o which_o he_o have_v find_v in_o himself_o two_o such_o rarity_n as_o can_v never_o be_v find_v in_o all_o the_o book_n and_o philosopher_n that_o ever_o you_o meet_v with_o one_o be_v that_o think_v a_o thing_n to_o be_v good_a and_o love_v it_o be_v all_o one_o the_o other_o that_o eternity_n be_v not_o nunc_fw-la stans_fw-la these_o be_v the_o two_o rare_a experiment_n which_o like_o a_o prudent_a mountebank_n he_o hang_v out_o for_o the_o better_a reputation_n and_o vend_v his_o reflection_n i_o must_v needs_o grant_v that_o these_o be_v two_o admirable_a strange_a effect_n of_o it_o for_o in_o the_o first_o reflection_n make_v he_o see_v that_o which_o be_v not_o and_o in_o the_o second_o it_o make_v he_o not_o see_v that_o which_o be_v for_o first_o that_o think_v a_o thing_n to_o be_v good_a and_o love_v it_o be_v all_o one_o who_o ever_o see_v such_o a_o sight_n before_o time_n who_o can_v believe_v that_o any_o thing_n shall_v make_v think_v and_o love_v all_o one_o for_o my_o part_n i_o be_o still_o in_o as_o much_o doubt_n as_o ever_o i_o be_v for_o no_o reflection_n can_v prevail_v with_o i_o before_o these_o reason_n 1._o because_o they_o proceed_v from_o several_a faculty_n of_o the_o soul_n one_o from_o the_o intellectual_a the_o other_o from_o the_o effective_a part_n it_o be_v not_o in_o the_o power_n of_o reflection_n to_o
hear_v such_o word_n no_o argument_n can_v be_v sufficient_a because_o experience_n and_o matter_n of_o fact_n be_v not_o verify_v by_o other_o man_n argument_n but_o by_o every_o man_n own_o sense_n and_o memory_n for_o example_n how_o can_v it_o be_v prove_v that_o to_o love_v a_o thing_n and_o to_o think_v it_o good_a be_v all_o one_o to_o a_o man_n that_o do_v not_o mark_v his_o own_o meaning_n by_o those_o word_n or_o how_o can_v it_o be_v prove_v that_o eternity_n be_v not_o nunc_fw-la stans_fw-la to_o a_o man_n that_o say_v these_o word_n by_o custom_n and_o never_o consider_v how_o he_o can_v conceive_v it_o himself_o in_o his_o mind_n also_o the_o 6_o point_n that_o a_o man_n can_v imagine_v any_o thing_n to_o begin_v without_o a_o cause_n can_v no_o other_o way_n be_v make_v know_v but_o by_o cry_v how_o he_o can_v imagine_v it_o but_o if_o he_o try_v he_o shall_v find_v as_o much_o reason_n if_o there_o be_v no_o cause_n of_o the_o thing_n to_o conceive_v it_o shall_v 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the_o hand_n the_o measure_n of_o force_n apply_v by_o the_o caster_n the_o posture_n of_o the_o part_n of_o the_o table_n and_o the_o like_a in_o sum_n there_o be_v nothing_o want_v which_o be_v necesary_o requisite_a to_o the_o produce_v of_o that_o particular_a cast_n and_o consequent_o that_o cast_n be_v necessary_o throw_v for_o if_o it_o have_v not_o be_v throw_v there_o have_v want_v somewhat_o requisite_a to_o the_o throw_v of_o it_o and_o so_o the_o cause_n have_v not_o be_v sufficient_a in_o the_o like_a manner_n it_o may_v be_v prove_v that_o every_o other_o accident_n how_o contingent_a soever_o it_o be_v be_v produce_v necessary_o which_o be_v that_o that_o my_o l._n bishop_n dispute_v against_o the_o same_o also_o may_v be_v prove_v in_o this_o manner_n let_v the_o case_n be_v put_v for_o example_n of_o the_o wether_n it_o be_v necessary_a that_o to_o morrow_n it_o shall_v rain_v or_o not_o rain_v if_o therefore_o it_o be_v not_o necessary_a it_o shall_v rain_v it_o be_v necessary_a it_o shall_v not_o rain_v otherwise_o there_o be_v no_o necessity_n that_o the_o proposition_n it_o shall_v rain_v or_o not_o rain_v shall_v be_v true_a i_o know_v there_o be_v some_o that_o say_v it_o may_v necessary_o be_v true_a that_o one_o of_o the_o two_o shall_v come_v to_o pass_v but_o not_o single_o that_o it_o shall_v rain_v which_o be_v as_o much_o as_o to_o say_v one_o of_o they_o be_v necessary_a yet_o neither_o of_o they_o be_v necessary_a and_o to_o seem_v to_o avoid_v that_o absurdity_n they_o make_v a_o distinction_n that_o neither_o of_o they_o be_v true_a determinatè_fw-fr but_o indeterminatè_fw-la which_o distinction_n either_o signify_v no_o more_o but_o this_o one_o of_o they_o be_v true_a but_o we_o know_v not_o which_o and_o so_o the_o necessity_n remain_v though_o we_o know_v it_o not_o or_o if_o the_o meaning_n of_o the_o distinction_n be_v not_o that_o it_o have_v no_o meaning_n and_o they_o may_v as_o well_o have_v say_v one_o of_o they_o be_v true_a tytiricè_fw-la but_o neither_o of_o they_o tupatulicé_n the_o last_o thing_n in_o which_o also_o consist_v the_o whole_a controversy_n namely_o that_o there_o be_v no_o such_o thing_n as_o a_o agent_n which_o when_o all_o thing_n necessary_a to_o action_n be_v present_a can_v nevertheless_o forbear_v to_o produce_v it_o or_o which_o be_v all_o one_o that_o there_o be_v no_o such_o thing_n as_o freedom_n from_o necessity_n be_v easy_o infer_v from_o that_o which_o have_v be_v before_o allege_v for_o if_o it_o be_v a_o agent_n it_o can_v work_v and_o if_o it_o work_v there_o be_v nothing_o want_v of_o what_o be_v requisite_a to_o produce_v the_o action_n and_o consequent_o the_o cause_n of_o the_o action_n be_v sufficient_a and_o if_o sufficient_a then_o also_o necessary_a as_o have_v be_v prove_v before_o and_o thus_o you_o see_v how_o the_o inconvenience_n which_o his_o lordship_n bishop_n bramhal_o object_v must_v follow_v upon_o the_o hold_n of_o necessity_n be_v avoid_v and_o the_o necessity_n itself_o demonstrative_o prove_v to_o which_o i_o can_v add_v if_o i_o think_v it_o good_a logic_n the_o inconvenience_n of_o deny_v necessity_n as_o that_o it_o destroy_v both_o the_o decree_n and_o the_o prescience_n of_o god_n almighty_n for_o whatsoever_o god_n have_v purpose_v to_o bring_v to_o pass_v by_o man_n as_o a_o instrument_n or_o forsee_v shall_v come_v to_o pass_v a_o man_n if_o he_o have_v liberty_n such_o as_o his_o lordship_n affirm_v from_o necessitation_n may_v frustrate_v and_o make_v not_o to_o come_v to_o pass_v and_o god_n shall_v either_o not_o foreknow_v it_o and_o not_o decree_v it_o or_o he_o shall_v foreknow_v such_o thing_n shall_v be_v as_o shall_v never_o be_v and_o decree_n that_o which_o shall_v never_o come_v to_o pass_v this_o be_v all_o that_o have_v come_v into_o my_o mind_n touch_v this_o question_n since_o i_o last_o consider_v it_o and_o i_o humble_o beseech_v your_o lordship_n to_o communicate_v it_o only_o to_o my_o lord_n bishop_n and_o so_o pray_v god_n to_o prosper_v your_o lordship_n in_o all_o your_o design_n i_o take_v leave_n and_o be_o my_o most_o noble_a and_o most_o oblige_a lord_n roven_n aug._n 20._o 1645._o your_o most_o humble_a servant_n tho_o hobbs_n the_o postscript_n argument_n seldom_o work_v on_o man_n of_o wit_n and_o learning_n when_o they_o have_v once_o engage_v themselves_o in_o a_o contrary_a opinion_n if_o any_o thing_n do_v it_o it_o be_v the_o show_v they_o the_o cause_n of_o their_o error_n which_o be_v this_o pious_a man_n attribute_v to_o god_n almighty_a for_o honour_n sake_n whatsoever_o they_o see_v be_v honourable_a in_o the_o world_n as_o see_v hear_v will_a know_v justice_n wisdom_n etc._n etc._n but_o deny_v he_o such_o poor_a thing_n as_o eye_n ear_n brain_n and_o other_o organ_n without_o which_o we_o worm_n neither_o have_v nor_o can_v conceive_v such_o faculty_n to_o be_v and_o so_o far_o they_o do_v well_o but_o when_o they_o dispute_v of_o god_n action_n philosophical_o than_o they_o consider_v they_o again_o as_o if_o he_o have_v such_o faculty_n and_o in_o that_o manner_n as_o we_o have_v they_o this_o be_v not_o well_o and_o thence_o it_o be_v they_o fall_v into_o so_o many_o difficulty_n we_o ought_v not_o to_o dispute_v of_o god_n nature_n he_o be_v no_o fit_a subject_n for_o our_o philosophy_n true_a religion_n consist_v in_o obedience_n to_o christ_n lieutenant_n and_o in_o give_v god_n such_o honour_n both_o in_o attribute_n and_o action_n as_o they_o in_o their_o several_a lieutenancy_n shall_v ordain_v observation_n upon_o a_o letter_n of_o mr._n t._n hobbs_n to_o the_o duke_n of_o newcastle_n which_o he_o call_v his_o opinion_n about_o liberty_n and_o necessity_n the_o design_n of_o the_o letter_n or_o as_o he_o himself_o speak_v in_o one_o part_n of_o it_o that_o in_o which_o the_o whole_a controversy_n consist_v be_v that_o voluntary_a agent_n do_v always_o act_v necessary_o or_o which_o be_v all_o one_o act_n without_o liberty_n that_o be_v from_o necessity_n and_o this_o opinion_n of_o he_o be_v first_o set_v down_o in_o 8_o point_n and_o then_o as_o the_o title_n of_o the_o next_o part_n import_v so_o many_o reason_n to_o those_o point_n the_o first_o point_n be_v that_o by_o spontaneity_n be_v mean_v inconsiderate_a proceed_v etc._n etc._n without_o deliberation_n i_o call_v this_o the_o first_o point_n not_o because_o i_o find_v spontaneity_n describe_v here_o but_o because_o at_o the_o entrance_n of_o his_o reason_n he_o declare_v that_o to_o be_v his_o design_n it_o be_v true_a that_o he_o say_v somewhat_o of_o the_o bishop_n opinion_n concern_v it_o but_o very_o doubtful_o as_o he_o have_v cause_n for_o he_o shall_v not_o find_v among_o any_o that_o maintain_v the_o difference_n between_o spontaneous_n and_o
voluntary_a action_n that_o spontaneity_n consist_v in_o inconsiderateness_n or_o indeliberation_n as_o he_o will_v have_v it_o when_o he_o say_v it_o must_v mean_v that_o or_o nothing_o whereas_o indeed_o his_o adversary_n will_v be_v as_o well_o content_a it_o shall_v mean_v nothing_o as_o that_o for_o inconsideration_n be_v the_o privation_n and_o want_n of_o consider_v where_o it_o shall_v and_o ought_v to_o have_v be_v i._n e._n in_o agent_n of_o reason_n and_o will_n for_o we_o do_v not_o say_v that_o natural_a agent_n that_o have_v no_o reason_n and_o will_n do_v act_n inconsiderate_o for_o when_o the_o water_n do_v sponte_fw-la fluere_fw-la and_o the_o fire_n calefacere_fw-la we_o can_v say_v they_o do_v it_o inconsiderate_o or_o for_o want_n of_o that_o deliberation_n of_o which_o they_o be_v not_o capable_a for_o you_o may_v as_o well_o say_v they_o act_v so_o for_o want_n of_o reason_n and_o if_o want_v of_o reason_n and_o deliberation_n make_v a_o