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Word A Word B Word C Word D Occurrence Frequency Band MI MI Band Prominent
cause_n effect_n necessary_a voluntary_a 1,389 5 11.0339 5 false
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ID Title Author Corrected Date of Publication (TCP Date of Publication) STC Words Pages
A44006 Of libertie and necessitie a treatise, wherein all controversie concerning predestination, election, free-will, grace, merits, reprobation, &c. is fully decided and cleared, in answer to a treatise written by the Bishop of London-derry, on the same subject / by Thomas Hobs. Hobbes, Thomas, 1588-1679. 1654 (1654) Wing H2252; ESTC R20187 27,647 98

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a_o man_n that_o deliberate_v but_o one_o while_o proceed_v towards_o action_n another_o while_n retire_v from_o it_o as_o the_o hope_n of_o great_a good_a draw_v he_o or_o the_o fear_n of_o great_a evil_n drive_v he_o away_o a_o child_n may_v be_v so_o young_a as_o to_o do_v what_o it_o do_v without_o all_o deliberation_n but_o that_o be_v but_o till_o it_o have_v the_o chance_n to_o be_v hurt_v by_o do_v of_o somewhat_o or_o till_o it_o be_v of_o age_n to_o understand_v the_o rod_n for_o the_o action_n wherein_o he_o have_v once_o have_v a_o check_n shall_v be_v deliberate_v on_o the_o second_o time_n fool_n and_o madman_n manifest_o deliberate_v no_o less_o than_o the_o wise_a man_n though_o they_o make_v not_o so_o good_a a_o choice_n the_o image_n of_o thing_n be_v by_o disease_n alter_v for_o bee_n and_o spider_n if_o my_o lord_n bishop_n have_v have_v so_o little_a to_o do_v as_o to_o be_v a_o spectator_n of_o their_o action_n he_o will_v have_v confess_v not_o only_o election_n but_o art_n prudence_n and_o policy_n in_o they_o very_o near_o equal_a to_o that_o of_o mankind_n of_o bee_n aristotle_n say_v their_o life_n be_v civil_a again_o his_o lordship_n be_v deceive_v if_o he_o think_v any_o spontaneous_a action_n after_o once_o be_v check_v in_o it_o differ_v from_o a_o action_n voluntary_a and_o elective_a for_o even_o the_o set_n of_o a_o man_n foot_n in_o the_o posture_n for_o walk_v and_o the_o action_n of_o ordinary_a eat_n be_v once_o deliberate_v of_o how_o and_o when_o it_o shall_v be_v do_v and_o though_o afterward_o it_o become_v easy_a and_o habitual_a so_o as_o to_o be_v do_v without_o forethought_a yet_o that_o do_v not_o hinder_v but_o that_o the_o act_n be_v voluntary_a and_o proceed_v from_o election_n so_o also_o be_v the_o rashe_v action_n of_o choleric_a person_n voluntary_a and_o upon_o deliberation_n for_o who_o be_v there_o but_o very_o young_a child_n that_o have_v not_o consider_v when_o and_o how_o far_o he_o ought_v or_o safe_o may_v strike_v or_o revile_v see_v then_o his_o lordship_n agree_v with_o i_o that_o such_o action_n be_v necessitate_v and_o the_o fancy_n of_o those_o that_o do_v they_o determine_v to_o the_o action_n they_o do_v it_o follow_v out_o of_o his_o lordship_n own_o doctrine_n that_o the_o liberty_n of_o election_n do_v not_o take_v away_o the_o necessity_n of_o elect_v this_o or_o that_o individual_a thing_n and_o thus_o one_o of_o his_o argument_n fight_v against_o another_o the_o 2_o argument_n from_o scripture_n consist_v in_o history_n of_o man_n that_o do_v one_o thing_n when_o if_o they_o will_v they_o may_v have_v do_v another_o the_o place_n be_v two_o one_o be_v 1_o king_n 3.11_o where_o the_o history_n say_v god_n be_v please_v that_o solomon_n who_o might_n if_o he_o will_v have_v ask_v riches_n or_o revenge_n do_v nevertheless_o ask_v wisdom_n at_o god_n hand_n the_o other_o be_v the_o word_n of_o s._n peter_n to_o ananias_n act_n 5.4_o after_o it_o be_v sell_v be_v it_o 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meaning_n be_v the_o sum_n of_o all_o thing_n which_o be_v now_o existent_a conduce_v and_o concur_v to_o the_o production_n of_o that_o action_n hereafter_o whereof_o if_o any_o one_o thing_n now_o be_v want_v the_o effect_n can_v not_o be_v produce_v this_o concourse_n of_o cause_n whereof_o every_o one_o be_v determine_v be_v such_o as_o it_o be_v by_o a_o like_a concourse_n of_o former_a cause_n may_v well_o be_v call_v in_o respect_n they_o be_v all_o set_v and_o order_v by_o the_o eternal_a cause_n of_o all_o thing_n god_n almighty_a the_o decree_n of_o god_n but_o that_o the_o foreknowledge_n of_o god_n shall_v be_v a_o cause_n of_o any_o thing_n can_v be_v true_o say_v see_v foreknowledge_n be_v knowledge_n and_o knowledge_n depend_v on_o the_o existence_n of_o the_o thing_n know_v and_o not_o they_o on_o it_o the_o influence_n of_o the_o star_n be_v but_o a_o small_a part_n of_o the_o whole_a cause_n consist_v of_o the_o concourse_n of_o all_o agent_n nor_o do_v the_o concourse_n of_o all_o cause_n make_v one_o simple_a chain_n or_o concatination_n but_o a_o innumerable_a number_n of_o chain_n join_v together_o not_o in_o all_o part_n but_o in_o the_o first_o link_n god_n almighty_a and_o consequent_o the_o whole_a cause_n of_o a_o event_n do_v not_o always_o depend_v on_o one_o single_a chain_n but_o on_o many_o together_o natural_a efficacy_n of_o object_n do_v determine_v voluntary_a agent_n and_o necessitate_v the_o will_n and_o consequent_o the_o action_n but_o for_o moral_a efficacy_n i_o understand_v not_o what_o he_o mean_v the_o last_o dictate_n of_o the_o judgement_n concerning_o the_o good_a or_o bad_a that_o may_v follow_v on_o any_o action_n be_v not_o proper_o the_o whole_a cause_n but_o the_o last_o part_n of_o it_o and_o yet_o may_v be_v say_v to_o produce_v the_o effect_n necessary_o in_o such_o manner_n as_o the_o last_o feather_n may_v be_v say_v to_o break_v a_o horse_n back_o when_o there_o be_v so_o many_o lay_v on_o before_o as_o there_o want_v but_o that_o one_o to_o do_v it_o now_o for_o his_o argument_n that_o if_o the_o concourse_n of_o all_o the_o cause_n necessitate_fw-la the_o effect_n that_o then_o it_o follow_v adam_n have_v no_o true_a liberty_n i_o deny_v the_o consequence_n for_o i_o make_v not_o only_o the_o effect_n but_o also_o the_o election_n of_o that_o particular_a effect_n necessary_a in_o as_o much_o as_o the_o will_n itself_o and_o each_o propension_n of_o a_o man_n during_o his_o deliberation_n be_v as_o much_o necessitate_v and_o depend_v on_o a_o sufficient_a cause_n as_o any_o thing_n else_o whatsoever_o as_o for_o example_n it_o be_v no_o more_o necessary_a that_o fire_n shall_v burn_v than_o that_o a_o man_n or_o other_o creature_n who_o limb_n be_v move_v by_o fancy_n shall_v have_v election_n that_o be_v liberty_n to_o do_v what_o he_o have_v a_o fancy_n to_o do_v though_o it_o be_v not_o in_o his_o will_n or_o power_n to_o choose_v his_o fancy_n or_o choose_v his_o election_n and_o will_n this_o doctrine_n because_o my_o lord_n bishop_n say_v he_o hate_v i_o doubt_v have_v better_o be_v suppress_v as_o it_o shall_v have_v be_v if_o both_o your_o lordship_n and_o he_o have_v not_o press_v i_o to_o a_o answer_n the_o argument_n of_o great_a consequence_n be_v the_o three_o and_o the_o five_o and_o they_o fall_v both_o into_o one_o namely_o if_o there_o be_v a_o necessity_n of_o all_o event_n that_o it_o will_v follow_v that_o praise_n and_o reprehension_n and_o reward_n and_o punishment_n be_v all_o vain_a and_o unjust_a and_o that_o if_o god_n shall_v open_o forbid_v and_o secret_o necessitate_v the_o same_o action_n punish_v man_n for_o what_o they_o can_v not_o avoid_v there_o will_v be_v no_o belief_n among_o they_o of_o heaven_n and_o hell_n to_o oppose_v hereunto_o i_o must_v borrow_v a_o answer_n from_o s._n paul_n rom._n 9.11_o from_o the_o 11_o verse_n of_o the_o chapter_n to_o the_o 18_o be_v lay_v down_o the_o very_a same_o objection_n in_o these_o word_n when_o they_o meaning_n esau_n and_o jacob_n be_v yet_o unborn_a and_o have_v do_v neither_o good_a nor_o evil_a that_o the_o purpose_n of_o god_n according_a to_o election_n not_o by_o work_n but_o by_o he_o that_o call_v may_v remain_v firm_a it_o be_v say_v unto_o she_o viz_o rebecca_n that_o the_o elder_a shall_v serve_v the_o young_a etc._n etc._n what_o then_o shall_v we_o say_v be_v there_o injustice_n with_o god_n god_n forbid_v it_o be_v not_o therefore_o in_o he_o that_o will_v nor_o in_o he_o that_o run_v but_o in_o god_n that_o show_v mercy_n for_o the_o scripture_n say_v to_o pharaoh_n i_o have_v stir_v thou_o up_o that_o i_o may_v show_v my_o power_n in_o thou_o and_o that_o my_o name_n may_v be_v set_v forth_o in_o all_o the_o
can_v for_o to_o honour_v any_o thing_n be_v nothing_o else_o but_o to_o think_v it_o to_o be_v of_o great_a power_n the_o other_o be_v that_o we_o signify_v that_o honour_n and_o esteem_v by_o our_o word_n and_o action_n which_o be_v call_v cultus_fw-la or_o worship_n of_o god_n he_o therefore_o that_o think_v that_o all_o thing_n proceed_v from_o god_n eternal_a will_n and_o consequent_o be_v necessary_a do_v he_o not_o think_v god_n omnipotent_a do_v he_o not_o esteem_v of_o his_o power_n as_o high_o as_o be_v possible_a which_o be_v to_o honour_n god_n as_o much_o as_o may_v be_v in_o his_o heart_n again_o he_o that_o think_v so_o be_v he_o not_o more_o apt_a by_o external_a act_n and_o word_n to_o acknowledge_v it_o than_o he_o that_o think_v otherwise_o yet_o be_v this_o external_a acknowledgement_n the_o same_o thing_n which_o we_o call_v worship_n so_o that_o this_o opinion_n fortify_v piety_n in_o both_o kind_n external_a and_o internal_a therefore_o be_v far_o from_o destroy_v it_o and_o for_o repentance_n which_o be_v nothing_o else_o but_o a_o glad_a return_n into_o the_o right_a way_n after_o the_o grief_n of_o be_v out_o of_o the_o way_n though_o the_o cause_n that_o make_v he_o go_v astray_o be_v necessary_a yet_o there_o be_v no_o reason_n why_o he_o shall_v not_o grieve_v and_o again_o though_o the_o cause_n why_o he_o return_v into_o the_o way_n be_v necessary_a there_o remain_v still_o the_o cause_n of_o joy_n so_o that_o the_o necessity_n of_o the_o action_n take_v away_o neither_o of_o those_o part_n of_o repentance_n grief_n for_o the_o error_n and_o joy_n for_o return_v and_o for_o prayer_n whereas_o he_o say_v that_o the_o necessity_n of_o thing_n destroy_v prayer_n i_o deny_v it_o for_o though_o prayer_n be_v none_o of_o the_o cause_n that_o move_v god_n will_v his_o will_n be_v unchangeable_a yet_o since_o we_o find_v in_o god_n word_n he_o will_v not_o give_v his_o blessing_n but_o to_o those_o that_o ask_v the_o motive_n of_o prayer_n be_v the_o same_o prayer_n be_v the_o gift_n of_o god_n no_o less_o than_o the_o blessing_n and_o the_o prayer_n be_v decree_v together_o in_o the_o same_o decree_n wherein_o the_o blessing_n be_v decree_v it_o be_v manifest_a that_o thanksgiving_n be_v no_o cause_n of_o the_o blessing_n past_a and_o that_o which_o be_v past_a be_v sure_a and_o necessary_a yet_o even_o among_o man_n thanks_o be_v in_o use_n as_o a_o acknowledgement_n of_o the_o benefit_n past_a though_o we_o shall_v expect_v no_o new_a benefit_n for_o our_o gratitude_n and_o prayer_n to_o god_n almighty_a be_v but_o thanksgiving_n for_o god_n blessing_n in_o general_a and_o though_o it_o precede_v the_o particular_a thing_n we_o ask_v yet_o it_o be_v not_o a_o cause_n or_o mean_n of_o it_o but_o a_o signification_n that_o we_o expect_v nothing_o but_o from_o god_n in_o such_o manner_n as_o he_o not_o as_o we_o will_n and_o our_o saviour_n by_o word_n of_o mouth_n bid_v we_o pray_v thy_o will_n not_o our_o 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which_o have_v no_o cause_n but_o that_o which_o have_v not_o for_o cause_v any_o thing_n that_o we_o perceive_v as_o for_o example_n when_o a_o traveller_n meet_v with_o a_o shower_n the_o journey_n have_v a_o cause_n and_o the_o rain_n have_v a_o cause_n sufficient_a to_o produce_v it_o but_o because_o the_o journey_n cause_v not_o the_o rain_n nor_o the_o rain_n the_o journey_n we_o say_v they_o be_v contingent_a one_o to_o another_o and_o thus_o you_o see_v that_o though_o there_o be_v three_o sort_n of_o event_n necessary_a contingent_a and_o free_a yet_o they_o may_v be_v all_o necessary_a without_o destruction_n of_o the_o beauty_n or_o perfection_n of_o the_o universe_n to_o the_o first_o argument_n from_o reason_n which_o be_v that_o if_o liberty_n be_v take_v away_o the_o nature_n and_o formel_n reason_n of_o sin_n be_v take_v away_o i_o answer_v by_o deny_v the_o consequence_n the_o nature_n of_o sin_n consist_v in_o this_o that_o the_o action_n do_v proceed_v from_o our_o 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make_v sin_n less_o frequent_a for_o god_n to_o punish_v such_o sinner_n as_o i_o have_v say_v before_o be_v no_o injustice_n and_o thus_o you_o have_v my_o answer_n to_o his_o lordship_n objection_n both_o out_o of_o scripture_n and_o from_o reason_n certain_a distinction_n which_o his_o lordship_n suppose_v may_v be_v bring_v to_o evade_v his_o argument_n be_v by_o he_o remove_v he_o say_v a_o man_n may_v perhaps_o answer_v that_o the_o necessity_n of_o thing_n hold_v by_o he_o be_v not_o a_o stoical_a necessity_n but_o a_o christian_a necessity_n etc._n etc._n but_o this_o distinction_n i_o have_v not_o use_v nor_o indeed_o ever_o hear_v before_o nor_o can_v i_o think_v any_o man_n can_v make_v stoical_a and_o christian_a two_o kind_n of_o necessity_n though_o they_o may_v be_v two_o kind_n of_o doctrine_n nor_o have_v i_o draw_v my_o answer_n to_o his_o lordship_n argument_n from_o the_o authority_n of_o any_o sect_n but_o from_o the_o nature_n of_o the_o thing_n themselves_o but_o here_o i_o must_v take_v notice_n of_o certain_a word_n of_o his_o lordship_n in_o this_o place_n as_o make_v against_o his_o own_o tenet_n where_o all_o the_o cause_n say_v he_o be_v join_v together_o and_o subordinate_a one_o to_o another_o do_v make_v but_o one_o total_a cause_n if_o any_o one_o cause_n much_o more_o the_o first_o in_o the_o whole_a series_n or_o subordination_n of_o cause_n be_v necessary_a it_o determine_v the_o rest_n and_o without_o doubt_n make_v the_o effect_n necessary_a for_o that_o which_o i_o call_v the_o necessary_a cause_n of_o any_o effect_n be_v the_o join_v together_o of_o all_o cause_n subordinate_a to_o the_o first_o into_o one_o total_a cause_n if_o any_o of_o these_o say_v he_o especial_o the_o first_o produce_v its_o effect_n necessary_o than_o all_o the_o rest_n be_v determine_v now_o it_o be_v manifest_a that_o the_o first_o cause_n be_v a_o necessary_a cause_n
be_v the_o same_o thing_n and_o that_o of_o a_o voluntary_a agent_n it_o be_v all_o one_o to_o say_v he_o be_v free_a and_o to_o say_v he_o have_v not_o make_v a_o end_n of_o deliberate_v five_o i_o conceive_v liberty_n to_o be_v right_o define_v in_o this_o manner_n liberty_n be_v the_o absence_n of_o all_o the_o impediment_n to_o action_n that_o be_v not_o contain_v in_o the_o nature_n and_o intrinsical_a quality_n of_o the_o agent_n as_o for_o example_n the_o water_n be_v say_v to_o descend_v free_o or_o to_o have_v liberty_n to_o descend_v by_o the_o channel_n of_o the_o river_n because_o there_o be_v no_o impediment_n that_o way_n but_o not_o across_o because_o the_o bank_n be_v impediment_n and_o though_o the_o water_n can_v ascend_v yet_o man_n never_o say_v it_o want_v the_o liberty_n to_o ascend_v but_o the_o faculty_n or_o power_n because_o the_o impediment_n be_v in_o the_o nature_n of_o the_o water_n and_o intrinsical_a so_o also_o we_o say_v he_o that_o be_v tie_v want_v the_o liberty_n to_o go_v because_o the_o impediment_n be_v not_o in_o he_o but_o in_o his_o band_n whereas_o we_o say_v not_o so_o of_o he_o that_o be_v sick_a or_o lame_a because_o the_o impediment_n be_v in_o himself_o six_o i_o conceive_v that_o nothing_o take_v beginning_n from_o itself_o but_o from_o the_o action_n of_o some_o other_o immediate_a agent_n without_o itself_o and_o that_o therefore_o when_o first_o a_o man_n have_v a_o appetite_n or_o will_n to_o something_o to_o which_o immediate_o before_o he_o have_v no_o appetite_n nor_o will_n the_o cause_n of_o his_o will_n be_v not_o the_o will_n itself_o but_o something_o else_o not_o in_o his_o own_o dispose_n so_o that_o whereas_o it_o be_v out_o of_o controversy_n that_o of_o voluntary_a action_n the_o will_n be_v the_o necessary_a cause_n and_o by_o this_o which_o be_v say_v the_o will_n be_v also_o cause_v by_o other_o thing_n whereof_o it_o dispose_v not_o it_o follow_v that_o voluntary_a action_n have_v all_o of_o they_o necessary_a cause_n and_o therefore_o be_v necessitate_v seven_o i_o hold_v that_o to_o be_v a_o sufficient_a cause_n to_o which_o nothing_o be_v want_v that_o be_v needful_a to_o the_o produce_n of_o the_o effect_n the_o same_o also_o be_v a_o necessary_a cause_n for_o if_o it_o be_v possible_a that_o a_o sufficient_a cause_n shall_v not_o bring_v forth_o the_o effect_n than_o there_o want_v somewhat_o which_o be_v needful_a to_o the_o produce_n of_o it_o and_o so_o the_o cause_n be_v not_o sufficient_a but_o if_o it_o be_v impossible_a that_o a_o sufficient_a cause_n shall_v not_o produce_v the_o effect_n than_o be_v a_o sufficient_a cause_n a_o necessary_a cause_n for_o that_o be_v say_v to_o produce_v a_o effect_n necessary_o that_o can_v but_o produce_v it_o hence_o it_o be_v manifest_a that_o whatsoever_o be_v produce_v be_v produce_v necessary_o for_o whatsoever_o be_v produce_v have_v have_v a_o sufficient_a cause_n to_o produce_v it_o or_o else_o it_o have_v not_o be_v and_o therefore_o also_o voluntary_a action_n be_v necessitate_v last_o shall_v that_o ordinary_a definition_n of_o a_o free_a agent_n namely_o that_o a_o free_a agent_n be_v that_o which_o when_o all_o thing_n be_v present_a which_o be_v needful_a to_o produce_v the_o effect_n can_v nevertheless_o not_o produce_v it_o imply_v a_o contradiction_n and_o be_v nonsense_n be_v as_o much_o as_o to_o say_v the_o cause_n may_v be_v sufficient_a that_o be_v to_o say_v necessary_a and_o yet_o the_o effect_n shall_v not_o follow_v my_o reason_n for_o the_o first_o five_o point_n wherein_o it_o be_v explicate_v 1._o what_o spontanity_n be_v 2._o what_o deliberation_n be_v 3._o what_o will_v propension_n and_o appetite_n be_v 4._o what_o a_o free_a agent_n be_v 5._o what_o liberty_n be_v there_o can_v no_o other_o proof_n be_v offer_v but_o every_o man_n own_o experience_n by_o reflection_n on_o himself_o and_o remember_v what_o he_o use_v in_o his_o mind_n that_o be_v what_o he_o himself_o mean_v when_o he_o say_v a_o action_n be_v spontaneous_a a_o man_n deliberate_v such_o be_v his_o will_n that_o agent_n or_o that_o action_n be_v free_a now_o he_o that_o reflect_v so_o on_o himself_o can_v but_o be_v satisfy_v that_o deliberation_n be_v the_o consideration_n of_o the_o good_a and_o evil_a sequel_n of_o a_o action_n to_o come_v that_o by_o spontanity_n be_v mean_v inconsiderate_a action_n or_o else_o nothing_o be_v mean_v by_o it_o that_o will_n be_v the_o last_o act_n of_o our_o deliberation_n that_o a_o free_a agent_n be_v he_o that_o can_v do_v if_o he_o will_v and_o forbear_v if_o he_o will_v and_o that_o liberty_n be_v the_o absence_n of_o external_a impediment_n but_o to_o those_o that_o out_o of_o custom_n speak_v not_o what_o they_o conceive_v but_o what_o they_o hear_v and_o be_v not_o able_a or_o will_v not_o take_v the_o pain_n to_o consider_v what_o they_o think_v when_o they_o hear_v such_o word_n no_o argument_n can_v be_v sufficient_a because_o experience_n and_o matter_n of_o fact_n be_v not_o verify_v by_o other_o man_n argument_n but_o by_o every_o man_n own_o sense_n and_o memory_n for_o example_n how_o can_v it_o be_v prove_v that_o to_o love_v a_o thing_n and_o to_o think_v it_o good_a be_v all_o one_o to_o a_o man_n that_o do_v not_o mark_v his_o own_o meaning_n by_o those_o word_n or_o how_o can_v it_o be_v prove_v that_o eternity_n be_v not_o nunc_fw-la stans_fw-la to_o a_o man_n that_o say_v those_o word_n by_o custom_n and_o never_o consider_v how_o he_o can_v conceive_v the_o thing_n in_o his_o mind_n also_o the_o six_o point_n that_o a_o man_n can_v imagine_v any_o thing_n to_o begin_v without_o a_o cause_n can_v no_o other_o way_n be_v make_v know_v but_o by_o try_v how_o he_o can_v imagine_v it_o but_o if_o he_o try_v he_o shall_v find_v as_o much_o reason_n if_o there_o be_v no_o cause_n of_o the_o thing_n to_o conceive_v it_o shall_v begin_v at_o one_o time_n as_o another_o that_o he_o have_v equal_a reason_n to_o think_v it_o shall_v begin_v at_o all_o time_n which_o be_v impossible_a and_o therefore_o he_o must_v think_v there_o be_v some_o special_a cause_n why_o it_o begin_v then_o rather_o than_o soon_o or_o late_a or_o else_o that_o it_o begin_v never_o but_o be_v eternal_a for_o the_o seven_o point_n which_o be_v that_o all_o event_n have_v necessary_a cause_n it_o be_v there_o prove_v in_o that_o they_o have_v sufficient_a cause_n further_o let_v we_o in_o this_o place_n also_o suppose_v any_o event_n never_o so_o casual_a as_o the_o throw_v for_o example_n ames_n ace_n upon_o a_o pair_n of_o die_n and_o see_v if_o it_o must_v not_o have_v be_v necessary_a before_o it_o be_v throw_v for_o see_v it_o be_v throw_v it_o have_v a_o beginning_n and_o consequent_o a_o sufficient_a cause_n to_o produce_v it_o consist_v partly_o in_o the_o die_n partly_o in_o outward_a thing_n as_o the_o posture_n of_o the_o part_n of_o the_o hand_n the_o measure_n of_o force_n apply_v by_o the_o caster_n the_o posture_n of_o the_o part_n of_o the_o table_n and_o the_o like_a in_o sum_n there_o be_v nothing_o want_v which_o be_v necessary_o requisite_a to_o the_o produce_n of_o that_o particular_a cast_n and_o consequent_o the_o cast_n be_v necessary_o throw_v for_o if_o it_o have_v not_o be_v throw_v there_o have_v want_v somewhat_o requisite_a to_o the_o throw_n of_o it_o and_o so_o the_o cause_n have_v not_o be_v sufficient_a in_o the_o like_a manner_n it_o may_v be_v prove_v that_o every_o other_o ac●ident_n how_o contingent_a soever_o it_o seem_v or_o how_o voluntary_a soever_o it_o be_v be_v produce_v necessary_o which_o be_v that_o that_o my_o l._n bishop_n dispute_v against_o the_o same_o may_v be_v prove_v also_o in_o this_o manner_n let_v the_o case_n be_v put_v for_o example_n of_o the_o weather_n it_o be_v necessary_a that_o to_o morrow_n it_o shall_v rain_v or_o not_o rain_n if_o therefore_o it_o be_v not_o necessary_a it_o shall_v rain_v it_o be_v necessary_a it_o shall_v not_o rain_v otherwise_o there_o be_v no_o necessity_n that_o the_o proposition_n it_o shall_v rain_v or_o not_o rain_v shall_v be_v true_a i_o know_v there_o be_v some_o that_o say_v it_o may_v necessary_o be_v true_a that_o one_o of_o the_o two_o shall_v come_v to_o pass_v but_o not_o single_o that_o it_o shall_v rain_v or_o that_o it_o shall_v not_o rain_v which_o be_v as_o much_o as_o to_o say_v one_o of_o they_o be_v necessary_a yet_o neither_o of_o they_o be_v necessary_a and_o therefore_o to_o seem_v to_o avoid_v that_o absurdity_n they_o make_v a_o distinction_n that_o neither_o of_o they_o be_v true_a determinate_a but_o indeterminate_a which_o distinction_n either_o signify_v no_o more_o but_o this_o one_o of_o they_o be_v true_a but_o we_o know_v not_o which_o and_o so_o the_o necessity_n remain_v though_o we_o know_v it_o not_o or_o if_o the_o meaning_n of_o the_o distinction_n be_v not_o that_o it_o have_v no_o meaning_n and_o they_o may_v as_o well_o have_v say_v one_o of_o they_o be_v true_a titirice_n but_o neither_o of_o they_o tu_fw-la patulice_fw-la the_o last_o thing_n in_o which_o also_o consist_v the_o whole_a controversy_n namely_o that_o there_o be_v no_o such_o thing_n as_o a_o agent_n which_o when_o all_o thing_n requisite_a to_o action_n be_v present_a can_v nevertheless_o forbear_v to_o produce_v it_o or_o which_o be_v all_o one_o that_o there_o be_v no_o such_o thing_n as_o freedom_n from_o necessity_n be_v easy_o infer_v from_o that_o which_o have_v be_v before_o allege_v for_o if_o it_o be_v a_o agent_n it_o can_v work_v and_o if_o it_o work_v there_o be_v nothing_o want_v of_o what_o be_v requisite_a to_o produce_v the_o action_n and_o consequent_o the_o cause_n of_o the_o action_n be_v sufficient_a and_o if_o sufficient_a then_o also_o necessary_a as_o have_v be_v prove_v before_o and_o thus_o you_o see_v how_o the_o inconvenience_n which_o his_o lordship_n object_v must_v follow_v upon_o the_o hold_n of_o necessity_n be_v avoid_v and_o the_o necessity_n itself_o demonstrative_o prove_v to_o which_o i_o can_v add_v if_o i_o think_v it_o good_a logic_n the_o inconvenience_n of_o deny_v necessity_n as_o that_o it_o destroy_v both_o the_o decree_n and_o the_o prescience_n of_o god_n almighty_a for_o whatsoever_o god_n have_v purpose_v to_o bring_v to_o pass_v by_o man_n as_o a_o instrument_n or_o foresee_v shall_v come_v to_o pass_v a_o man_n if_o he_o have_v liberty_n such_o as_o his_o lordship_n affirm_v from_o necessitation_n may_v frustrate_v and_o make_v not_o to_o come_v to_o pass_v and_o god_n shall_v either_o not_o foreknow_v it_o and_o not_o decree_v it_o or_o he_o shall_v foreknow_v such_o thing_n shall_v be_v as_o shall_v never_o be_v and_o decree_n that_o which_o shall_v never_o come_v to_o pass_v this_o be_v all_o have_v come_v into_o my_o mind_n touch_v this_o question_n since_o i_o last_o consider_v it_o and_o i_o humble_o beseech_v your_o lordship_n to_o communicate_v it_o only_o to_o my_o lord_n bishop_n and_o so_o pray_v god_n to_o prosper_v your_o lordship_n in_o all_o your_o design_n i_o take_v leave_v and_o be_o my_o most_o noble_a and_o most_o oblige_a lord_n your_o most_o humble_a servant_n thomas_n hobbs_n roven_n aug._n 20._o 〈◊〉_d finis_fw-la
of_o all_o the_o effect_n that_o be_v next_o and_o immediate_a to_o it_o and_o therefore_o by_o his_o lordship_n own_o reason_n all_o effect_n be_v necessary_a nor_o be_v that_o distinction_n of_o necessary_a in_o respect_n of_o the_o first_o cause_n and_o necessary_a in_o respect_n of_o second_o cause_v i_o it_o do_v as_o his_o lordship_n well_o note_v imply_v a_o contradiction_n but_o the_o distinction_n of_o free_a into_o free_a from_o compulsion_n and_o free_a from_o necessitation_n i_o acknowledge_v for_o to_o be_v free_a from_o compulsion_n be_v to_o do_v a_o thing_n so_o as_o terror_n be_v not_o the_o cause_n of_o his_o will_n to_o do_v it_o for_o a_o man_n be_v then_o only_o say_v to_o be_v compel_v when_o fear_n make_v he_o willing_a to_o it_o as_o when_o a_o man_n willing_o throw_v his_o good_n into_o the_o sea_n to_o save_v himself_o or_o submit_v to_o his_o enemy_n for_o fear_v of_o be_v kill_v thus_o all_o man_n that_o do_v any_o thing_n for_o love_n or_o revenge_n or_o lust_n be_v free_a from_o compulsion_n and_o yet_o their_o action_n may_v be_v as_o necessary_a as_o those_o that_o be_v do_v by_o compulsion_n for_o sometime_o other_o passion_n work_v as_o forcible_o as_o fear_v but_o free_a from_o necessitation_n i_o say_v no_o man_n can_v be_v and_o it_o be_v that_o which_o his_o lordship_n undertake_v to_o disprove_v this_o distinction_n his_o lordship_n say_v use_v to_o be_v fortify_v by_o two_o reason_n but_o they_o be_v not_o i_o the_o first_o he_o say_v be_v that_o it_o be_v grant_v by_o all_o divine_n that_o a_o hypothetical_a necessity_n or_o necessity_n upon_o supposition_n may_v stand_v with_o liberty_n that_o you_o may_v understand_v this_o i_o will_v give_v you_o a_o example_n of_o hypothetical_a necessity_n if_o i_o shall_v live_v i_o shall_v eat_v this_o be_v a_o hypothetical_a necessity_n indeed_o it_o be_v a_o necessary_a proposition_n that_o be_v to_o say_v it_o be_v necessary_a that_o that_o proposition_n shall_v be_v true_a whensoever_o utter_v but_o it_o be_v not_o the_o necessity_n of_o the_o thing_n nor_o be_v it_o therefore_o necessary_a that_o the_o man_n shall_v live_v nor_o that_o the_o man_n shall_v eat_v i_o do_v not_o use_v to_o fortify_v my_o distinction_n with_o such_o reason_n let_v his_o lordship_n confute_v they_o how_o he_o will_v it_o content_v i_o but_o i_o will_v have_v your_o lordship_n take_v notice_n hereby_o how_o easy_a and_o plain_o a_o thing_n but_o withal_o false_a with_o the_o grave_a usage_n of_o such_o term_n as_o hypothetical_a necessity_n and_o necessity_n upon_o supposition_n and_o such_o like_a term_n of_o schoolman_n may_v be_v obscure_v and_o make_v to_o seem_v profound_a learning_n the_o second_o reason_n that_o may_v confirm_v the_o distinction_n of_o free_a from_o compulsion_n and_o free_a from_o necessitation_n he_o say_v be_v that_o god_n and_o good_a angel_n do_v good_a necessary_o and_o yet_o be_v more_o free_a than_o we_o this_o reason_n though_o i_o have_v no_o need_n of_o yet_o i_o think_v it_o so_o farforth_o good_a as_o it_o be_v true_a that_o god_n and_o good_a angel_n do_v good_a necessary_o and_o yet_o be_v free_a but_o because_o i_o find_v not_o in_o the_o article_n of_o our_o faith_n nor_o in_o the_o decree_n of_o our_o church_n set_v down_o in_o what_o manner_n i_o be_o to_o conceive_v god_n and_o good_a angel_n to_o work_v by_o necessity_n or_o in_o what_o sense_n they_o work_v free_o i_o suspend_v my_o sentence_n in_o that_o point_n and_o be_o content_a that_o there_o be_v a_o freedom_n from_o compulsion_n and_o yet_o no_o freedom_n from_o necessitation_n as_o have_v be_v prove_v in_o that_o a_o man_n may_v be_v necessitate_v to_o some_o action_n without_o threat_n and_o without_o fear_n of_o danger_n but_o how_o my_o lord_n can_v avoid_v the_o consist_v together_o of_o freedom_n and_o necessity_n suppose_v god_n and_o good_a angel_n be_v free_a than_o man_n and_o yet_o do_v good_a necessary_o that_o we_o must_v examine_v i_o confess_v say_v he_o that_o god_n and_o good_a angel_n be_v more_o free_a than_o we_o that_o be_v intensive_o in_o degree_n of_o freedom_n not_o extensive_o in_o the_o latitude_n of_o the_o object_n according_a to_o a_o liberty_n of_o exercise_n not_o of_o specification_n again_o we_o have_v here_o two_o distinction_n that_o be_v no_o distinction_n but_o make_v to_o seem_v so_o by_o term_n invent_v by_o i_o know_v not_o who_o to_o cover_v ignorance_n and_o blind_v the_o understanding_n of_o the_o reader_n for_o it_o can_v be_v conceive_v that_o there_o be_v any_o liberty_n great_a than_o for_o a_o man_n to_o do_v what_o he_o will_v one_o heat_n may_v be_v more_o intensive_a than_o another_o but_o not_o one_o liberty_n than_o another_o he_o that_o can_v do_v what_o he_o will_v have_v all_o liberty_n possible_a and_o he_o that_o can_v have_v none_o at_o all_o also_o liberty_n as_o his_o lordship_n say_v the_o school_n call_v it_o of_o exercise_n which_o be_v as_o i_o have_v say_v 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course_n to_o shake_v they_o off_o for_o nothing_o be_v more_o apt_a to_o beget_v hatred_n than_o the_o tyrannize_n over_o man_n reason_n and_o understanding_n especial_o when_o it_o be_v do_v not_o by_o the_o scripture_n but_o by_o the_o pretence_n of_o learning_n and_o more_o judgement_n than_o that_o of_o other_o man_n in_o the_o next_o place_n his_o lordship_n bring_v two_o argument_n against_o distinguish_v between_o free_a from_o compulsion_n and_o free_a from_o necessitation_n the_o first_o be_v that_o election_n be_v opposite_a not_o only_o to_o coaction_n or_o compulsion_n but_o also_o necessitation_n or_o determination_n to_o one_o this_o be_v it_o he_o be_v to_o prove_v from_o the_o beginning_n and_o therefore_o bring_v no_o new_a argument_n to_o prove_v it_o and_o so_o those_o bring_v former_o i_o have_v already_o answer_v and_o in_o this_o place_n i_o deny_v again_o that_o election_n be_v opposite_a to_o either_o for_o when_o a_o man_n be_v compel_v for_o example_n to_o subject_v himself_o to_o a_o enemy_n or_o to_o die_v he_o have_v ●till_o election_n leave_v he_o and_o a_o deliberation_n to_o bethink_v which_o of_o the_o two_o he_o can_v better_o endure_v and_o he_o that_o ●●led_v to_o prison_n by_o force_n have_v election_n ●nd_v may_v deliberate_v whether_o he_o will_v ●e_z hale_v and_o train_v on_o the_o ground_n ●r_v make_v use_n of_o his_o own_o foot_n likewise_o when_o there_o be_v no_o compulsion_n but_o the_o strength_n of_o temptation_n to_o do_v ●n_o evil_a action_n be_v great_a than_o the_o motive_n to_o abstain_v it_o necessary_o determine_v he_o to_o the_o do_n of_o it_o ●et_o he_o deliberate_v while_o sometime_o the_o motive_n to_o do_v sometime_o the_o motive_n to_o forbear_v be_v work_v on_o ●im_n and_o consequent_o he_o elect_v which_o he_o will_v but_o common_o when_o we_o see_v and_o know_v the_o strength_n that_o move_v we_o we_o acknowledge_v necessity_n but_o when_o we_o see_v not_o or_o mark_v not_o the_o force_n that_o move_v we_o we_o then_o think_v there_o be_v none_o and_o that_o it_o be_v not_o cause_n but_o liberty_n that_o produce_v the_o action_n hence_o it_o be_v that_o they_o think_v he_o do_v not_o choose_v this_o that_o of_o necessity_n choose_v it_o but_o they_o may_v as_o well_o say_v fire_n do_v not_o burn_v because_o it_o burn_v of_o necessity_n the_o second_o argument_n be_v not_o so_o much_o a_o argument_n as_o a_o distinction_n to_o show_v in_o what_o sense_n it_o may_v be_v say_v that_o voluntary_a action_n be_v necessitate_v and_o in_o what_o sense_n not_o and_o therefore_o his_o lordship_n allege_v as_o from_o the_o authority_n of_o the_o school_n and_o that_o which_o rip_v up_o the_o bottom_n of_o the_o
question_n that_o there_o be_v a_o double_a act_n of_o the_o will_n the_o one_o he_o say_v be_v actus_fw-la imperatus_fw-la a_o act_n do_v at_o the_o command_n of_o the_o will_n by_o some_o inferior_a faculty_n of_o the_o soul_n as_o to_o open_v or_o shut_v one_o eye_n and_o this_o act_n may_v be_v compel_v the_o other_o he_o say_v be_v actus_fw-la elicitus_fw-la a_o act_n allure_v or_o draw_v forth_o by_o allurement_n out_o of_o the_o will_n as_o to_o will_n to_o choose_v to_o elect_v this_o he_o say_v can_v be_v compel_v wherein_o let_v pass_n that_o metaphorical_a speech_n of_o attribute_v command_n and_o subjection_n to_o the_o faculty_n of_o the_o soul_n as_o if_o they_o make_v a_o commonwealth_n or_o family_n within_o themselves_o and_o can_v speak_v one_o to_o another_o which_o be_v very_o improper_a in_o search_v the_o truth_n of_o a_o question_n you_o may_v observe_v first_o that_o to_o compel_v a_o voluntary_a act_n be_v nothing_o else_o but_o to_o will_v it_o for_o it_o be_v all_o one_o to_o say_v my_o will_n command_v the_o shut_n of_o my_o eye_n or_o the_o do_n of_o any_o other_o action_n and_o to_o say_v i_o have_v the_o will_n to_o shut_v my_o eye_n so_o that_o actus_fw-la imperatus_fw-la here_o may_v as_o easy_o have_v be_v say_v in_o english_a a_o voluntry_n action_n but_o that_o they_o that_o invent_v the_o term_n understand_v not_o any_o thing_n it_o signify_v second_o you_o may_v observe_v that_o actus_fw-la elicitus_fw-la be_v exemplify_v by_o these_o word_n to_o will_v to_o elect_v to_o choose_v which_o be_v all_o one_o and_o so_o to_o will_n be_v here_o make_v a_o act_n of_o the_o will_n and_o indeed_o as_o the_o will_n be_v a_o faculty_n or_o power_n in_o a_o man_n soul_n so_o to_o will_n be_v a_o act_n of_o it_o according_a to_o that_o power_n but_o as_o it_o be_v absurd_o say_v that_o to_o dance_n be_v a_o act_n allure_v or_o draw_v by_o fair_a mean_n out_o of_o the_o ability_n to_o dance_v so_o be_v it_o also_o to_o say_v so_o that_o to_o 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cause_n wherein_o the_o necessity_n of_o thing_n which_o they_o maintain_v consist_v and_o first_o he_o say_v the_o astrologer_n derive_v his_o necessity_n from_o the_o star_n second_o that_o the_o physician_n attribute_v it_o to_o the_o temper_n of_o the_o body_n for_o my_o part_n i_o be_o not_o of_o their_o opinion_n because_o neither_o the_o star_n alone_o nor_o the_o temperature_n of_o the_o patient_n alone_o be_v able_a to_o produce_v any_o effect_n without_o the_o concurrence_n of_o all_o other_o agent_n for_o there_o be_v hardly_o any_o one_o action_n how_o casual_a soever_o it_o seem_v to_o the_o cause_v whereof_o concur_v not_o whatsoever_o be_v in_o rerum_fw-la natura_fw-la which_o because_o it_o be_v a_o great_a paradox_n and_o depend_v on_o many_o antecedent_n speculation_n i_o do_v not_o press_v in_o this_o place_n three_o he_o dispute_v against_o the_o opinion_n of_o they_o that_o say_v external_a object_n present_v to_o man_n of_o such_o and_o such_o temparature_n do_v make_v their_o action_n necessary_a and_o say_v the_o power_n such_o object_n have_v over_o we_o proceed_v from_o our_o own_o fault_n but_o that_o be_v nothing_o to_o the_o purpose_n if_o such_o fault_n of_o we_o proceed_v from_o cause_n not_o in_o our_o own_o power_n and_o therefore_o that_o opinion_n may_v hold_v true_a for_o all_o that_o answer_n further_o he_o say_v prayer_n fast_v etc._n etc._n may_v alter_v our_o habit_n it_o be_v true_a but_o when_o they_o do_v so_o they_o be_v cause_n of_o the_o contrary_a habit_n and_o make_v it_o necessary_a as_o the_o former_a habit_n have_v be_v necessary_a if_o prayer_n fast_v etc._n etc._n have_v not_o be_v beside_o we_o be_v not_o move_v or_o dispose_v to_o prayer_n or_o any_o other_o action_n but_o by_o outward_a object_n as_o pious_a company_n godly_a preacher_n of_o something_o equivolent_a four_o he_o say_v a_o resolve_a mind_n be_v not_o easy_o surprise_v as_o the_o mind_n of_o ulysses_n who_o when_o other_o weep_v alone_o weep_v not_o and_o of_o the_o phylososopher_n that_o abstain_v from_o strike_v because_o he_o find_v himself_o angry_a and_o of_o he_o that_o pour_v out_o the_o water_n when_o he_o be_v thirsty_a and_o the_o like_a such_o thing_n i_o confess_v have_v or_o may_v have_v be_v do_v and_o do_v prove_v only_o that_o it_o be_v not_o necessary_a for_o ulysses_n then_o to_o weep_v nor_o for_o that_o philosopher_n to_o strike_v nor_o for_o that_o other_o man_n to_o drink_v but_o it_o do_v not_o prove_v that_o it_o be_v not_o necessary_a for_o ulysses_n then_o to_o abstain_v as_o he_o do_v from_o weep_v nor_o for_o the_o philosopher_n to_o abstain_v as_o he_o do_v from_o strike_v nor_o for_o the_o other_o man_n to_o forbear_v drink_v and_o yet_o that_o be_v the_o thing_n his_o lordship_n ought_v to_o have_v prove_v last_o his_o lordship_n confess_v that_o the_o disposition_n of_o object_n may_v be_v dangerous_a to_o liberty_n but_o can_v be_v destructive_a to_o which_o i_o answer_v it_o be_v impossible_a for_o liberty_n be_v never_o in_o any_o other_o danger_n than_o to_o be_v lose_v and_o if_o it_o can_v be_v lose_v which_o he_o confess_v i_o may_v infer_v it_o can_v be_v in_o no_o danger_n at_o all_o the_o four_o opinion_n his_o lordship_n reject_v be_v of_o they_o that_o make_v the_o will_v necessary_o to_o follow_v the_o last_o dictate_v of_o the_o understanding_n but_o it_o seem_v his_o lordship_n understand_v that_o tenet_n in_o another_o sense_n than_o i_o do_v for_o he_o speak_v as_o if_o they_o that_o hold_v it_o do_v suppose_v man_n must_v dispute_v the_o sequel_n of_o every_o action_n they_o do_v great_a and_o small_a to_o the_o least_o grain_n which_o be_v a_o thing_n his_o lordship_n with_o reason_n think_v untrue_a but_o i_o understand_v it_o to_o signify_v that_o the_o will_n follow_v the_o last_o opinion_n or_o judgement_n immediate_o proceed_v the_o action_n concerning_o whether_o it_o be_v good_a to_o do_v it_o or_o not_o whether_o he_o have_v weigh_v it_o long_o before_o or_o not_o at_o all_o and_o that_o i_o take_v to_o be_v the_o meaning_n of_o they_o that_o hold_v it_o as_o for_o example_n when_o a_o man_n strike_v his_o will_n to_o strike_v follow_v necessary_o that_o think_v he_o have_v of_o the_o sequel_n of_o his_o stroke_n immediate_o before_o the_o lift_n up_o of_o his_o hand_n now_o if_o it_o be_v understand_v in_o that_o sense_n the_o last_o dictate_v of_o the_o understanding_n do_v necessitate_v the_o action_n though_o not_o as_o the_o whole_a cause_n yet_o as_o the_o last_o cause_n as_o the_o last_o feather_n necessitate_v the_o break_n of_o a_o horse_n back_o when_o there_o be_v so_o many_o lay_v on_o before_o as_o there_o need_v but_o the_o addition_n of_o one_o to_o make_v the_o weight_n sufficient_a that_o which_o his_o lordship_n allege_v against_o this_o be_v first_o out_o of_o a_o poet_n who_o in_o the_o person_n of_o medea_n say_v video_fw-la meliora_fw-la proboque_fw-la deteriora_fw-la sequor_fw-la but_o that_o say_v as_o pretty_a as_o it_o be_v be_v not_o true_a for_o though_o medea_n see_v many_o reason_n to_o forbear_v kill_v her_o child_n yet_o the_o last_o dictate_v of_o her_o judgement_n be_v that_o the_o present_a revenge_n on_o her_o husband_n outweigh_v they_o all_o and_o thereupon_o the_o wicked_a action_n necessary_o follow_v then_o the_o story_n of_o the_o roman_a who_o of_o two_o competitor_n say_v one_o have_v the_o better_a reason_n but_o the_o other_o must_v have_v the_o office_n this_o also_o make_v against_o his_o lordship_n for_o the_o last_o dictate_v of_o his_o judgement_n that_o have_v the_o bestow_n of_o the_o office_n be_v this_o that_o it_o be_v better_a to_o take_v a_o great_a bribe_n than_o reward_v a_o great_a merit_n three_o he_o object_v that_o
say_v what_o necessary_a cause_n soever_o precede_v a_o action_n yet_o if_o the_o action_n be_v forbid_v he_o that_o do_v it_o willing_o may_v just_o be_v punish_v for_o instance_n suppose_v the_o law_n on_o pain_n of_o death_n prohibit_v steal_v and_o that_o there_o be_v a_o man_n who_o by_o the_o strength_n of_o temptation_n be_v necessitate_v to_o steal_v and_o be_v thereupon_o put_v to_o death_n do_v not_o this_o punishment_n deter_v other_o from_o theft_n be_v it_o not_o a_o cause_n that_o other_o steal_v not_o do_v it_o not_o frame_v and_o make_v their_o will_n to_o justice_n to_o make_v the_o law_n be_v therefore_o to_o make_v a_o cause_n of_o justice_n and_o to_o necessitate_v justice_n and_o consequent_o it_o be_v no_o injustice_n to_o make_v such_o a_o law_n the_o intention_n of_o the_o law_n be_v not_o to_o grieve_v the_o delinquent_n for_o that_o which_o be_v past_a and_o not_o to_o be_v undo_v but_o to_o make_v he_o and_o other_o just_a that_o else_o will_v not_o be_v so_o and_o respect_v not_o the_o evil_a act_n past_a but_o the_o good_a to_o come_v in_o so_o much_o as_o without_o the_o good_a intention_n for_o the_o future_a no_o past_a act_n of_o a_o delinquent_n can_v justify_v his_o kill_n in_o the_o sight_n of_o god_n but_o you_o will_v say_v how_o be_v it_o just_a to_o kill_v one_o man_n to_o amend_v another_o if_o what_o be_v do_v be_v necessary_a to_o this_o i_o answer_v that_o man_n be_v just_o kill_v not_o for_o that_o their_o action_n be_v not_o necessitate_v but_o because_o they_o be_v noxious_a and_o they_o be_v spare_v and_o preserve_v who_o action_n be_v not_o noxious_a for_o where_o there_o be_v no_o law_n there_o no_o kill_n nor_o any_o thing_n else_o can_v be_v unjust_a and_o by_o the_o right_n of_o nature_n we_o destroy_v without_o be_v unjust_a all_o that_o be_v noxious_a both_o beast_n and_o man_n and_o for_o beast_n we_o kill_v they_o just_o when_o we_o do_v it_o in_o order_n to_o our_o own_o preservation_n and_o yet_o my_o lord_n himself_o confess_v that_o their_o action_n as_o be_v only_o spontaneous_a and_o not_o free_a be_v all_o necessitate_v and_o determine_v to_o that_o one_o thing_n they_o shall_v do_v for_o man_n when_o we_o make_v society_n or_o commonwealth_n we_o lay_v not_o down_o our_o right_n to_o kill_v except_v in_o certain_a case_n as_o murder_v theft_n or_o other_o offensive_a action_n so_o that_o the_o right_a which_o the_o commonwealth_n have_v to_o put_v a_o man_n to_o death_n for_o crime_n be_v not_o create_v by_o the_o law_n but_o remain_v from_o the_o first_o right_n of_o nature_n which_o every_o man_n have_v to_o preserve_v himself_o for_o that_o the_o law_n do_v not_o take_v the_o right_a away_o in_o the_o case_n of_o criminal_n who_o be_v by_o the_o law_n except_v man_n be_v not_o therefore_o put_v to_o death_n or_o punish_v for_o that_o their_o theft_n proceed_v from_o election_n but_o because_o it_o be_v noxious_a and_o contrary_a to_o man_n preservation_n and_o the_o punishment_n conduce_v to_o the_o preservation_n of_o the_o rest_n in_o as_o much_o as_o to_o punish_v those_o that_o do_v voluntary_a hurt_n and_o none_o else_o frame_v and_o make_v man_n will_n such_o as_o man_n will_v have_v they_o and_o thus_o it_o be_v plain_a that_o from_o the_o necessity_n of_o a_o voluntary_a action_n can_v be_v infer_v the_o injustice_n of_o the_o law_n that_o forbid_v it_o or_o the_o magistrate_n that_o punish_v it_o second_o i_o deny_v that_o it_o make_v consultation_n to_o be_v in_o vain_a it_o be_v the_o consultation_n that_o cause_v a_o man_n and_o necessitate_v he_o to_o choose_v to_o do_v one_o thing_n rather_o than_o another_o so_o that_o unless_o a_o man_n say_v that_o that_o cause_n be_v in_o vain_a which_o necessitate_v the_o effect_n he_o can_v infer_v the_o superfluousness_n of_o consultation_n out_o of_o the_o necessity_n of_o the_o election_n proceed_v from_o it_o but_o it_o seem_v his_o lordship_n reason_n thus_o if_o i_o must_v do_v this_o rather_o than_o that_o i_o shall_v do_v this_o rather_o than_o that_o though_o i_o consult_v not_o at_o all_o which_o be_v a_o false_a proposition_n and_o a_o false_a consequence_n and_o no_o better_o than_o this_o if_o i_o shall_v live_v till_o to_o morrow_n i_o shall_v live_v till_o to_o morrow_n though_o i_o run_v myself_o through_o with_o a_o sword_n to_o day_n if_o there_o be_v a_o necessity_n that_o a_o action_n shall_v be_v do_v or_o that_o any_o effect_n shall_v be_v bring_v to_o pass_v it_o do_v not_o therefore_o follow_v that_o there_o be_v nothing_o necessary_o requisite_a as_o a_o mean_n to_o bring_v it_o to_o pass_v and_o therefore_o when_o it_o be_v determine_v that_o one_o thing_n shall_v be_v choose_v before_o another_o it_o be_v determine_v also_o for_o what_o cause_n it_o shall_v so_o be_v choose_v which_o cause_n for_o the_o most_o part_n be_v deliberation_n or_o consultation_n and_o therefore_o consultation_n be_v not_o in_o vain_a and_o indeed_o the_o less_o in_o vain_a by_o how_o much_o the_o election_n be_v more_o necessitate_v if_o more_o and_o less_o have_v any_o place_n in_o necessity_n the_o same_o answer_n be_v to_o be_v give_v to_o the_o three_o suppose_v inconvenience_n namely_o that_o admonition_n be_v in_o vain_a for_o the_o admonition_n be_v part_n of_o consultation_n the_o admonitor_n be_v a_o counsellor_n for_o the_o time_n to_o he_o that_o be_v admonish_v the_o four_o pretend_v inconveence_n be_v that_o praise_n dispraise_n reward_n and_o punishment_n will_v be_v in_o vain_a to_o which_o i_o answer_v that_o for_o praise_n and_o dispraise_v they_o depend_v not_o at_o all_o on_o the_o necessity_n of_o the_o action_n praise_v or_o dispraise_v for_o what_o be_v it_o else_o to_o praise_v but_o to_o say_v a_o thing_n be_v good_a good_a i_o say_v for_o i_o or_o for_o some_o body_n else_o or_o for_o the_o state_n and_o commonwealth_n and_o what_o be_v it_o to_o say_v a_o action_n be_v good_a but_o to_o say_v it_o be_v as_o i_o will_v wish_v or_o as_o another_o will_v have_v it_o or_o according_a to_o the_o will_n of_o the_o state_n that_o be_v to_o say_v according_a to_o the_o law_n do_v my_o lord_n think_v that_o no_o action_n can_v please_v i_o or_o he_o or_o the_o commonwealth_n that_o shall_v proceed_v from_o necessity_n thing_n may_v be_v therefore_o necessary_a and_o yet_o praise_v worthy_a as_o also_o necessary_a and_o yet_o dispraise_v and_o neither_o of_o they_o both_o in_o vain_a because_o praise_v and_o dispraise_v and_o likewise_o reward_n and_o punishment_n do_v by_o example_n make_v and_o conform_v the_o will_n to_o good_a and_o evil_a it_o be_v a_o very_a great_a praise_n in_o my_o opinion_n that_o velleius_n paterculus_n give_v cato_n where_o he_o say_v that_o he_o be_v good_a by_o nature_n et_fw-la quia_fw-la aliter_fw-la esse_fw-la non_fw-la potuit_fw-la to_o the_o five_o and_o six_o inconvenience_n that_o counsel_n art_n arm_n instrument_n book_n study_n medicine_n and_o the_o like_a will_v be_v superfluous_a the_o same_o answer_n serve_v as_o to_o the_o former_a that_o be_v to_o say_v that_o this_o consequence_n if_o the_o effect_n shall_v necessary_o come_v to_o pass_v than_o it_o shall_v come_v to_o pass_v without_o its_o cause_n be_v a_o