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A38818 Gymnasiarchon, or, The schoole of potentates wherein is shewn, the mutability of worldly honour / written in Latine by Acatius Evenkellius ; Englished, with some illustrations and observations, by T. N. ...; Sejanus, seu, De praepotentibus regum ac principum ministris, commonefactio. English Ennenckel, Georgius Acacius, b. 1573.; Nash, Thomas, 1567-1601. 1648 (1648) Wing E3526A; ESTC R39517 168,645 466

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looks Antigonus was used to say Proditores tantisper amo dum produnt ast ubi prodiderunt odi that hee loved the Traytor untill hee had done his work but then hee hated him Princes will not endure to look upon such villanes but with threatning looks so Nero beheld Anicetus that slew his Mother as we may read in the fourteenth book of the Annals of Tacitus so David beheld the Amalekite that kild King Saul and Ioab that slew Abner and Amasa as wee may likewise read in the beginning of the seventh Book of Iosephus of the antiquity of the Iewes and in the second of Samuell the first chap. so Caesar Herotodus and Achillas that presented him with the head of Pompey as Plutarch hath it in Pomp. so Clodovaeus them that betrayed Cannacarius unto him as Paul Amilius hath it in Clodov Quintus Curtins in his fifth and seventh Book of the gests of Alexander saith that it was one of the last requests that Darius made unto Alexander ut ultionem sceleris erga se perpetrati non negligeret that hee would not forget to punish the villaine that betrayed him but make him an example to the ages to come yet not so much for the wrong done unto him as for the safety of Princes and the terrour of such as should dare to lift up their hands against their soveraigns and as the some Authour saith Alexander was not unmindefull of him for after that hee had delivered him into the hands of Oraxes the Brother of Darius to the end to cut off his eares his nose and to torture him he caused him o be put to death and rewarded the Souldiers that brought him unto him * 42. Exprobrat Hermolaus Alexandrum Hermolaus was not afraid to upbraid Alexander Ex desperatione crescit audatia cum spei nihil est sumit armaformido libenter cupit commori qui sinc dubio scit se moriturum he that is out of all hope to live will not be afraid to speak his minde freely Hermolaus being resolved to dye upbraided Alexander so farr that his aged father Persepolis was ashamed to heare him called him Traytor and would have stopped his mouth but Alexander desirous to heare what hee would say suffered him to speak whereupon hee spake thus as Curtius in his eighth Book hath it quota pars Macedonum saevitiae tuae superest small is the number of the Macedonians remaining that have escaped your cruelty Attalus Philotas Parmenio Lincestes and Clitus are now dead they were the men when time was that exposed themselves to dangers that you might ride in triumph before your enemies and you have well rewarded them with the blood of some of them you have besprinkled your table and not suffred some others of them to dye a simple death thus the Captaines of your people have you tortured a pleasant sight indeed to their enemies the Persians to behold Paermenio by whom you slew your servant Attalus was put to death without judgement and thus you use the hands of us poore men to kill one another and such as even now you imployed to torment others straightway you command to bee tormented by others * 43. Experti sunt Sytalcles Cleander Sytalcles and Cleander found by experience that Princes will not endure the instruments of villany When Sytalcles and Cleander Agathon and Heracleon who by the Kings appointment had put Parmenio to death returned from the Province whereof they had the government accusers of all conditions followed them the Priests accused them that they had made spoyle of every thing not abstaining from the Temples and the sacred things the Virgins and the Ladyes of the Province accused them that they had laid violent hands upon them and ravisht them especially Cleander who after hee had ravisht a Virgin of a Noble Family servo suo ut pellicem dederat gave her to his slave to use as his Concubine lib. 10 yet saith Curtius the foulnesse of these enormous offences did not make them so odious in the sight of the people as the killing of Parmenio * 44. Non patitur quenquam c. It is an inconvenience which attends ambition that it never suffers any man to rest satisfied Sensit Alexander testa cum vidit in illa Magnum habitorem luv Sat. 14. quantò faelicior hic qui Nil cuperet quam qui totum sibi posceret orbem When Alexander beheld the Cynick in his Tub he envyed his happinesse saying happier is hee that looks after nothing then hee that desires to have the world at will non qui parum habet sed qui plus cupit pauper est saith the wise Heathen Sen. Ep. 2. he is not poore that lives in a cottage with content k Cui satis est quod habet satis illum constat habere Cui nihil est quod habet satis illum constat egere but he is poore that possesseth the whole world and is not content what can hee enjoy that is possessed with an uncleane spirit ambitious thoughts are like so many furies torturing of Orestes O si pateant pectora ditûm quantus intus sublimis agit fortuna metusque saith Senec in Hercule Oetae● if the mi●ds of ambitious men were laid open a man should see them rent in sunder for as the body with stripes so is the minde with ambitious thoughts tortured and tormented si cogitationes ejus essent venti desideria ejus aquae multo periculosius esset in animo ejus navigare quam in alto mari if his thoughts were winde and his desires water it were safer by many degrees to saile in the Ocean then in his tempestuous stomack as saith Gueverra one while hee inclines to the cape of the good hope where being arrived in safety hee desires to goe ultra Sauromatas glacialem Oceanum and is as far from his journeys end as hee was at hi● first setting forth nunquid enim improbae spei satis est eò majora cupiunt quo majora venerant the greedy minded man is never satisfied the more hee hath the more hee desireth wherefore Erasmus wittily longe periculosior est ebrietas ambitionis quam vini nam Cyrus temulentus in comaedia postquam obdormivit sobriè loquutus est at animus ambitione ebrius raro aut nunquam expergisci aut resipiscere solet it is far more dangerous to surfeit with ambition then wine for that hee that hath surfeited with the one after hee hath slept may recover himselfe but seldome or never doth the other become himselfe againe In Titii jecore in Tantali fame in Ixionis rota in Sisiphi saxo misera ambitiosorum conditio scitè demonstratur per Poetam * 45 Nutu aut manu loquebatur Hee never exprest himselfe at home but either by nod or hand Our Authour out of Tacitus doth observe it to bee a badge of pride in Pallas that hee never did expresse himselfe at home but either by nod or hand but I am more
performe and left his Office of Legate à latere which he executed a yeare and a halfe to the great prejudice of the Church of England and the sea of Rome at last he put off his accustomed habit and in a womans apparell hee determined to crosse the Seas but at Dover his dalliance with a wench being discovered by a Marriner he was hill at beaten and afterwards drag'd through the streets to prison from whence as soon as he was fully delivered he most ignominiously and basely stole into Normandy his end was the more miserable by how much his fortunes were the greater Afterwards there * 28 Fuit quidam Comes Warwicensis qui à Rege E. 4. ●summam potestatem erectus oral 28 was an Earle of Warwick in the same Kingdome that was raised to such a height both of power and Estate by King Edward the fourth that he was not afraid to lay violent hands upon the Queenes Father and with many of his children and nearest friends to put him to death he placed such Officers about the King as he thought would do him best service and in the end took him Prisoner But not longe after the King escaping into Burgondy being assisted by Charles the then Duke he returned home overcame the Earle and made him fly for succour into France the Earle thence returning being assisted with divers Attendants put the King to the worst and made him fly into Holland for succour A second time the King returning being assisted by the aforesaid Duke set upon him overcame him and slew him with his Brother and many others In the Raign of King Henr● the eighth there was one named * 29 Tho. Wols●us sub H. 8. 29 Thomas Wolsey that was very great with the King a man meanly descended but so proud and haughty that he became an eyesore not only to the Peeres and Nobility but even the King himselfe By the Kings speciall grace and favour he was promoted to the highest dignities to be Arch-Bishoh of York Bishop of Winchester to be a Cardinall to be sent Ambassadour and indeed next to the King to beare the greatest sway in the Kingdom but amongst other acts of his this was not the least that brought him in disgrace when King Henry began to distast Queene Catherine and to dote upon Anne of Boloyne this man undertook to procure a dispensation from the Pope which taking not so well as the King and he thought it would have done by degrees he fell out of the Kings favour and being apprehended by Thomas Duke of Norfolk was banished the Court and confined to his Bishoprick of Winchester which hee taking to heart with very griefe dyed The Kingdome of France will afford us many Examples in this kinde and amongst those it is reported of the Earle of S. Paul that having been advanced by Lewis the eleventh to bee Constable of France and to many other honours and preferments out of which he raised a very great revenue that in the end he somuch forgate himselfe that he studyed how to make the King stand in awe of him and for that purpose * 30 Mediocriter se gessit inter tres principes 30 he ever carried himselfe indifferently between the King his Master the King of England and the Duke of Burgondy one while standing for the one another while for the other ever desiring to keepe them at variance that so the one or the other might still stand in need of him And so it happened that the King his Master desiring to speak with him hee would not come unto him but with a power able to withstand him if occasion were offered he met him upon a Bridg where he talked with him as sawsily as if he had been his equall and familiar supposing that to be the way to preserve and increase the power he had obtained but he was deceived for all men seeing his malepertnesse and insolency were offended at him and studyed how to pull him down And it so happened that coming to the Duke of Burgondy upon safe conduct the Duke apprehended him and sent him to the King his Master with all such Letters as he had formerly written to him against the King Vpon which being araigned as also upon such Letters as he had written unto the King of England was thereupon condemned his estate confiscated and he put to death In the same Kingdome under Philip the faire one Taggerrandus Marrianus attained to so much power that nothing was done in the Kingdome without his approbation * 31 Peculatus accusatus suspendio affectus est 31 yet this man for robbing the Kings Treasures was accused condemned and hang'd * 32 Petrus Landaicus apud ducem Britaniae potens 32 Peter Landais likewise with the Duke of Brittaine attained to the like favour yet by the violence of the multitude he was taken from the Duke and judicially condemned and hanged as Paulus Aemilius in his History of France relates the story To passe over into Spaine in the Kingdom of Castile there was * 33 Alvarus de Lunâ 33 Alvarus de Luna borne in Arragon of a Noble house but a Bastard borne out of Wedlocke that grew to such a heighth of power with King John that no man in the Kingdome was so powerfull as he he tooke armes against John King of Navarre and used all meanes to oppresse Henry Knight of the order of Saint James but it so fell out that the Queen opposing him by the assistance of the second King of Navarre and Henry Knight of the order they surprized the King and compelled Alvarus to live upon his owne possessions and happy had hee beene if hee could have so contented himselfe but hee that once tasted of the sweetnesse of Soveraignty can hardly finde contentment in a private life hee begins then a second time to bethink himselfe how hee might attaine to his former height from which hee was throwne downe hee sets the King at liberty installs him in the Kingdome sits at the sterne keeps under his Enemies and incenses the King against them but this prosperity continued not and brought him to an untimely death for when as by the Kings speciall Commandement one of the Nobility delivered a message unto him which was not pleasing he caused the Messenger to be throwne out of the window for the which the King did afterwards ever more hate him then he did formerly love him for caused him to be apprehended and being judicially condemned to be put to death Vnto the former I will adde the Example of a Germane out of the seventh book of the Annals of Aventinus With Rudolfe Palsgrave of Rheyne and Duke of Bavaria there was Ortho Crondorser in the greatest grace and favour he came of meane Parentage and comming to Court by his double diligence in readily observing and gravely executing whatsoever was committed to his charge within a very short time became very gracious in the eyes of the Prince by
* 33 Alvarus de luna jussu Regis Alvarus de luna was by the Kings Command put to death Aeneas Sylvius in the forty seventh book of his History of Europe speaking of the manner of the death of Alvarus saith non ignavus occubuit non lachrymans aut ejulans sed alacri vultu quasi ad epulas invitatus numeratis suis in Regem ●egnumque meritis cervicem gladio praebuit he dyed not a childe weeping and wailing but relating the good service he had done for his King and Country chearefully submitted to the sentence of the Law * 34. Ludovicus potentissimus Rex Lewis the powerfull King of Hungary It is worthy our labour to enquire wherein his power did consist was it in the extent of his dominions no for they were no other then were left him was it in the multitude of his people or in the abundance of his Treasures no for many of his predecessours did equalize him and exceed him in them e Caetera vi aut fraude pertumpas h●●c arx inaccessa hoc inexpugnabile munimentum Cicer. but it was in the true and hearty affections of his people for never Prince did more affect his Subjects nor ever a people more affect a Prince as was manifested by the inconceivable sorrow that was expressed for him both in the time of his sicknesse at his death and after his death Bonsinius writing his History saith that when the people heard of his sicknesse ita vulgo trepidari caeptum est ut suae quisque vitae timere videretur every one began to feare and tremble as if they had been in danger of death publick prayers were made for his recovery and the people in every town and Village went to Church to beg of God not to take him from them moerent juvenesque senesque and when they heard of his death omnia luctus Omnia solliciti plena timoris erant Quocunque aspicies gemitus luctusque sonabant Formaque non taciti funeris instar erat There was nothing heard but lamentations and mourning the mothers with their children came out of every place to bewaile his death with pitifull cries and lamentations as if they had lost the dearest friend in the world some cried they had lost the most indulgent father others the most sweete Prince some the best master others the best Governour there was no praelate or Peere to bee seen with dry eyes universa Hungaria veste pulla triennio luctum regionatim celebrabat nusquam risus sonus jocus chorea aut aliquod festivitatis genus spectatum est by a publick decree it was commanded that for the space of three yeares every one should mourne and all sports should bee laid aside so as in the Prince and People were those old Verses verified Totum est unus homo Regnum Rex caput est Populus caetera membra gerit * 35. Carolum parvum ex Apuleia accersunt They sent for Carolus parvus out of Apuleia The man that was imployed in the businesse was a Bishop named Zagabriensis who upon his arrivall into Apuleia saluted the King with an eloquent Oration to this effect c. The sacred memory of your most Noble Progenitors never to bee forgotten who have ever governed our Kingdom with the greatest Wisdom hath invited us to come u●to you hoping that in th●se our extremities you will not forsake us we are not ignorant most Noble Prince that you are the next Heire to the Crowne and that the government of the Kingdom of right belongs unto you wherefore I am sent unto you by the most powerfull Peeres of the Kingdom to intreate you to take into your consideration our distressed estate and not to preferr an usurpt new authority before the ancient right of the Crowne of Hungary how just our cause is I shall briefly declare unto you After the death of our Noble King who deserved well not only of us but of all the Christian World for his sake we elected his only daughter Maria to be our King and commanded that shee should bee stiled by no other name then by the name of King and caused her to be Crowned with such an applause that there was not more sorrow conceived at the death of her Father then there was joy at her Coronation But it so happened that the Queen-Mother assuming to her selfe the Government of the State during the Minority of the young Queen took into her Counsell one Count Gara and what hee adviseth onely is put in execution the Counsell of the rest of the Nobility being wholly neglected so that neither our Queene Maria nor the Queen-Mother but the Count only governes the Kingdome hee advanceth whom hee will and deposeth whom hee will at which the Peers People are so much offended that setting aside law justice and honesty many robberies are committed many Townes burnt many mens cattell driven away civill discord ariseth between the Peers and many other enormous outrages have been and are committed among the people for reformation whereof I am now sent to your Excellency to intreate you with as much expedition as you can to come into Hungary and to take into your Possession the Kingdom not delivered unto you by us but of right belonging unto you as your ancient Inheritance which you cannot refuse to doe without incurring the most ignominious blurs of sloth and pusillanimity after the delivery of this speech which Bonsinius hath most exactly written in Latine Zagabriensis delivered unto the King the Letters of divers of the Nobility of the Kingdome of Hungary whereby hee assured him of their fidelity towards him the King having read them heartily thanked the Lords and Zagabriensis for their good will towards him and because it was a businesse of the greatest consequence he took three daies respite to returne an answere and in the meane time commanded that Zagabriensis should bee honorably entertained but before the three daies were expired he acquainted his Queene with the effect of the Ambassage who thereupon fell into a great passion and with teares cried out O quam malis hue auspiciis infausti ad nos legatiad-venêre O quam depravato cuncta judicio mi Carole pensitasti nescis heu nescis quam gravis fuerit Vngaria malorum omnium officina how unhappily are these Ambassadours come unto us O my Charles how art thou mistaken in entertaining their Ambassage thou doest no● know alas thou doest not know how Hungary hath been the storehouse of all manner of wickednesse how there is nothing but fraud and dissimulation to be found there how they never speak what they think and change their mindes ten times in an houre wherefore my sweet husband O my sweet husband beleeve not their faire promises if you desire the safety of you and yours let the remembrance of King Lewis your noble friend that deserved so well of you and your father never depart out of your memory call to minde I pray you how not long before his death he
difficillimum but to governe well is the hardest thing Socrates upon a time hearing some country fellowes talking what they would doe if they were Kings and Consuls wisht that there were a law to punish such as should presume to take into their mouthes things of so high a nature being out of the reach of their vulgar capacity See the fable of Phaeton in the second Book of Ovids Metamorphosis how Phaeton was punisht for taking upon him a matter wherein he had no skill in which is shewed quod repellendi sunt a gubernaculo Reip. qui nullam habent rerum experientiam * 73. Galba trium arbitrio regi solebat Galba was governed by his three Paedagouges Galba his Paedagouges were Titus Junius his Leiuetnnant in Spaine Cornelius Laco the Captaine of the guard and Icelus one of his freed men whom he honored with the degree of Knighthood the first was basely covetous the second was intolerably proud the third as bad as either of them * 74. Talis ipse judicatur Hee is thought to bee of that condition as they are whom hee doth use in the managing of his affaires Chara est formicae formica cicada cicadae The Greek Orator in his Oration unto Nicocles King of Sicion adviseth him in the administration and government of the affaires of the Commonwealth never to make use of any ignorant or infamous person 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 because that all such as are strangers unto thee will judge of thee by them whom thou usest in the managing of thy affaires the Italian saies la molta famigliarita col cativo fa suspettosa la vita di buono who so doth make a knave his mate though hee be good encurrs much hate and the Poet saies Qui juxta claudos habitat subclaudicat idem Admistusque malis di itur esse malus hee that is a companion of unworthy men or that uses such men in the managing of his affaires will bee thought to bee of their condition wherefore Lipsius saith nullum majus judicium bonae mentis Princes potest ostendere quam ut adjungat sibi familiaritèr utatur viris honestis fama candidis that a Prince cannot shew a more manifest token of a Noble minde then by courteously entertaining and receiving into his service worthy and deserving men it was an observation long agoe that the Common-Wealth doth not suffer so much detriment in this that the Prince is effeminate and given to his delights as it doth in his neglect in choosing worthy men to manage his affairs Plutarch in an Epistle which hee wrote unto Trajan the Emperour saith that it did much rejoyce him to heare all men say that there was nothing in him that deserved dispraise but was sorry to heare them say that there was nothing in his officers that deserved prayse and that hee should more gladly have heard that which was spoken of his officers to have been spoken of him and that which was spoken of him to have been spoken of them because the people can easily brook the imperfections of their Prince but not the exorbitances of his officers Seneca in an Epistle which hee wrote unto Lucilius told him that hee tooke it for a speciall favour that hee should make a journey to Rome of purpose to visit him but if by reason of his absence his officers should make a prey of the people hee should have been better pleased if hee had staid at home It is a true rule that Common-Wealths florish or decline according to the dispositions and inclinations of the Irenarchae and of such as are in Authority under Princes if an injust Censor be a Superintendent in a City the City declines if a just one it prospers Aelius Spartianus in the life of Antonius Pius reports that hee upon a time taking a progresse to enquire of the behaviour of his Censors comming into Capua one of the Towne told him that upon his knowledge the Censor that was set over them was a most unjust man for that when time was he being importuned by a friend requested of him four things having no desire to have him grant them because hee knew hee could not doe it by the rule of justice yet without making any scruple he granted them all and hee verily thought if he had been his familiar friend as hee was a stranger unto him hee might aswell have had foure hundred things as foure Of such Officers Princes ought to take heed because it is most inconvenient that they should have power to condemn that ought to bee condemned but in another manner doth Cicero speake of M. Cato happy wast thou O Cato saith he unto whom no man durst once open his mouth in an injust cause hee was used to say that it is not enough for a censor to be just in his judgements but that he should bee of such esteem amongst the people for his integrity that no man wittingly should dare to open his mouth to him in an unjust cause Not without just cause therefore doth Commines conclude it to bee the greatest part of wisedome in a Prince to make choice of honest men to serve him quia aliena haec fama valdè ad suam famam pertinet because that their good report redounds to his honour in making such a choice and as it is a point of the greatest wisedom in a Prince to make choice of such men to manage his affairs so it is the greatest happines that can befall unto a nation if God so dispose of the affections of the Prince as to settle them upon such men as tender nothing more then his safety and the welfare of his people and the greatest misery when he suffers the Prince for the sinnes of the people to dote upon unworthy men During Ner'os Quinquennium whilst Byrrhus and Seneca sate at the sterne all things succeeded prosperously in the Empire but when Tigellinus had a predominant power all the miseries that could bee imagined fell upon it wherefore the daily prayers of the people of all nations should bee that God would so dispose of the affections of Princes as to settle them upon honest men tales enim talem in ipsos principes potestatem habent qualem ipse princeps in caeteros his se totos ferè trudunt arcana omnia communicans eorum arbitratu rem familiarem remp administrant as saith Muretus for these men generally have the same power over the Prince as he hath over other men into their breasts hee freely emptieth his seorets and commends aswell the managing of his private affaires as the affaires of the Commonwealth * 75. Omnium suae aetatis optimus Hee was one of the best men of his time Vt pupilla in oculo anima in corpore ita Agrippa in rep oui nemo par nemo secundus as the apple in the eye and the soule in the body so was Agrippa in the Commonwealth having no equall or any that came near in goodnesse to him Augustus