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A69820 The expiation of a sinner in a commentary vpon the Epistle to the Hebrevves.; Commentarius in Epistolam ad Hebraeos. English Crell, Johann, 1590-1633.; Lushington, Thomas, 1590-1661. 1646 (1646) Wing C6877; ESTC R12070 386,471 374

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or censer whereon he was first to burne incense must needs bee without the oracle or else he could not first come at it And the arke of the Covenant overlaid round about with gold The Arke was a strong chest or coffer the matter forme and measures whereof see Exod. 25.10 This was called the Arke of the Covenant for the use of it which was to inclose the tables wherein the first Covenant was written Wherein was the golden pot that had Manna Wherein must be referred to the Arke as appears by the beginning of the next verse for in this verse the Author would shew what was in the Arke and in the next what was over it This pot of Manna was gathered before the building of the Tabernacle and commanded to be laid up before the Testimony there to be kept when the Tabernacle should be built See Ex. 16.33.34 And Aarons rod that budded Concerning Aarons rod how it budded and upon what occasion and for what purpose it did so See Num. 17. And the tables of the Covenant There were severall parcels of the old Covenant for there were the tables of the Covenant which the Lord wrote with his owne finger in stone containing the Decalog and there was the booke of the Covenant which Moses wrote and read in the audience of the people and sprinkled it with bloud when the Covenant was confirmed with a solemne sacrifice See Exod. 24.4 and afterward in this Chapter vers 19. Now wee finde none but the tables of the Covenant to bee laid up in the Arke yet not those tables that were first written for they were broken upon the indignation which Moses had at the worshipping of the golden Calfe but the tables written afterward were there reserved But how could the pot of Manna and Aarons rod bee in the Arke when wee read expresly that nothing was in the Arke save the two tables of stone 1 King 8.9 and 2 Chron. 5.10 The Answer is Either wee must say that in successe of time the pot of Manna and Aarons rod came to bee put into the Arke which before were not so Or wee must say that the particle In here must be a little extended in sense to include those things that were adjacent to the Arke being neare or about it So John is said to baptise in Bethabara because he baptised neare or about it John 1.28 So Joshua is said to be in Jericho when he was by or neare it Josh 5.13 And in this sense the Author first expresseth those things which were by or neare the Arke as the pot of Manna and Aarons tod then the things in the Arke as the tables of the Covenant And lastly in the following verse the things over the Arke as the Cherubims And this might happily bee the cause why under the particle in hee would first comprise the things by the. Arke before those in it that he might make use of this gradation 5. And over it the Cherubims of glory shadowing the Mercy-seate The Cherubims were two Images of solid gold fashioned like winged men whose wings did over shadow the Mercy-seate being one at the one end of it and the other at the other having their faces looking one towards another Of them see Exod. 25.17 And they were called the Cherubims of glory by an Hebraisme for glorious Cherubims because of their lustre and brightnesse which in Scripture is often called glory The Mercy-seate had two uses one to bee a Cover for the Arke to shut up the Tables of the Covenant the other to represent the seat or throne of God where God would speake with Moses to give answers for the people and to shew himselfe mercifull And the originall word in the Hebrew carries a twofold sence to answer and fit this two-fold use for Capporeth derived from the verbe Caphor which signifies to cover a vessell and to cover sinne which last is the proper act of mercy Therefore though the Hebrew word might have beene simply and fully enough rendred the Cover yet the Septuagint following the other signification of the word have translated Hilasterion i. a Propitiatory or Mercy-seate which distinguisheth this cover from all others as a peculiar use and property of it And it is very consonant to reason that by the ambiguity of the word the Spirit of God would signifie so much Of which we cannot now speake particularly Though each of these particulars concerning the first Covenant might require particular explication and serve highly for advancing the dignity of Christs Priesthood and of the new Covenant yet the time will not now permit it because our purpose calls us on to other matters 6. Now when these things were thus ordained Having briefly described the Tabernacle and the severall furniture of it now he comes to describe the way of divine service therein which according to the two partitions or roomes of the Tabernacle was twofold whereof he toucheth the first in this verse and handleth the other in those following The Priests went alwayes into the first Tabernacle accomplishing the service of God The ordinary Priests went onely into the first Tabernacle for none but the high Priest went into the second And into the first they went alwayes that is every day daily for herein they are opposed to the high Priest who went into the second Tabernacle once every yeare The daily services of God accomplished by the Priests in the first Tabernacle were to burne Incense on the golden Censer and to light up or mend the Lamps of the Candlestick c. 7. But into the second went the high Priest alone once every yeare The high Priest went in alone and therefore he onely yet he went not in daily but yearely once every yeare at the solemne fast of Expiation whereof see Levit. 16. Not without bloud which he offered Not without bloud is with bloud and with bloud onely for the high Priest offered in the second Tabernacle nothing else but bloud For he must enter thither with the bloud of a Bullock and of a Goate and offer it by sprinkling it with his finger upon and before the Mercy-seate seven times Whence it appeares that this offering of the high Priest did not consist in the slaughter of those beasts whose bloud he offered and therefore neither did the offering of Christ answerable thereto whereof the Author treates consist in the death of Christ but by his entrance into heaven after his death Indeed the death of Christ is called an offering and sacrifice yet it is so called for the resemblance of it with the free-will and peace-offerings and therefore especially because it was most gratefull and acceptable to God in which respect also other notable works of piety may be and are called in Scripture offerings and sactifices unto God For himselfe and for the errours of the people Here is a little trajection of the words for the right sence is thus for the errours of himselfe and of the people For in this sacrifice the Priest
themselves in the former chapter he denied that they had already received the promise of God and were made perfect but that their state and condition is such that perfection and eternall happinesse is now remaining to them in a way immutable so that the certainty of attaining it is such as if they did already really enjoy it In this very sense Saint Paul useth the same word of himselfe when hee saith Not as though I had already attained either were already perfect Phil. 3.12 that is not that I am now in that state as if I could no way faile of that blessed resurrection for of this it was that he spake in the former verse for otherwise that he had not yet really attained eternall life no man could be ignorant and it were a fond thing to affirme it The Author therefore shews that those just ones though they had not attained eternall salvation in perfection in regard now nothing of them was extant but their spirits yet without all doubt should certainely enjoy it by the immutable decree of God Hence it appeares what it is for God to be Judge of all and what happinesse is therein contained if a man come both to the Judge and to the spirits of the just and be admitted into their society For thereby he is certain though his life here-faile him yet he shall not faile of the reward of eternall life 24. And to Iesus the Mediatour of the new Testament The Israelites heretofore came to Moses the Mediatour of the old Testament but Christians come to Jesus the Mediatour of the New But how much Jesus is better then Moses and the new Covenant better then the old we have shewed before chap. 3.8 and chap. 8.6 The word Mediatour is in a manner proper to the holy Scripture and peradventure no where used among profane Authors as others have noted Yet it is found out of the Sciptures in Philo who being a Jew used a forme of language that had some affinity with the sacred writers And what this word signifies being used of Christ we are easily taught by the example of Moses to whom that name was first attributed For although of it owne nature it may signifie any one who intervenes as a meane betweene two parties yet the example of Moses and the name of Covenant added that thereby is signified no other but an herald or hee who intervenes as a mean between God and men to make a Covenant for the joyning of them in a mutuall and firme peace and friendship For the effecting whereof it is not forthwith necessary to appease and mitigate the minde either of one or both parties when it may be either both parties as it was in the making of the old Covenant or one of them as it was under the new namely God doth freely incline to peace and friendship yea doth alone seeke offer and procure it And to the blood of sprinkling An Hebraisme for the blood which is sprinkled or wherewith aspersion is made Hee alludes to that blood of the old Covenant wherewith Moses after hee had rehearsed all the precepts of the Law sprinkled both the booke of the Law and the whole people whereof he said This is the bloud of the Testament which God hath enjoyned unto you as we had it before chap. 9. vers 19 20. We Christians are in like manner sprinkled with bloud and that with the most precious blood of Christ himselfe And wee are sprinkled with the bloud of Christ when in our hearts wee conceave and embrace the force of that bloudy death which he suffered to confirme the new Covenant in such manner that thereby wee have an infallible assurance made us of the promises comprehended in the Covenant whence it comes to passe that wee are made parties to the Covenant and obtaine a right of attaining to all the blessings promised therein That speaketh better things then that of Abel He commends this bloud wherewith Christians are sprinkled by mentioning the force and effect of it that they may joy the more for their aspersion with it and may moreover more carefully endeavour that they wash not the droppes of that bloud from their soules that is that they never fall away from the new Covenant nor cease to feel the force of the bloud of Christ and so deprive themselves of that great blessing which they gained by the shedding of it namely a right to eternall happinesse To the blood of Christ hee ascribes speech in a figurative sense as likewise to the bloud of Abel Both their blouds speake or as the Scripture saith of the bloud of Abel both cry unto God but Abels bloud cryes for vengeance upon his fratricide but Christs bloud cryes for remission and pardon even upon paricides for they may justly be called paricides who murdered Christ And unto these no lesse then unto all other sinners the bloud of Christ begs pardon from God of all their sinnes if they will repent and be converted from them And he begs it as hee engageth God to grant forgivenesse of sinnes to all penitent persons whatsoever their sinnes have been And he engageth God as hee was employed of God to confirme and establish the new Covenant which is so remarkable for that promise 25. See that yee refuse not him that speaketh To his former passages hee now subjoynes an Exhortation and fortifies it with new reasons And herein he seemes to allude to that fact of the Israelites whereof we spake before when they were stricken with such terrour of Gods Majesty that they entreated that God would speak no more unto them which fact of theirs was a kinde of presage or token that afterward they would not carry an ear and mind obedient to the voice of God He therefore admonisheth Christians that now after they have given their ear and mind to the voyce of God in the Gospel they would not againe turne their ear and mind from it which is done both by Apostacy and by disobedience See i. take diligent heed for they who take diligent heed cast about their eyes every way that they may escape the danger imminent For if they escaped not By an argument of comparison hee shewes that if they doe otherwise they shall not escape a grievous punishment for they the Israelites escaped not namely the punishment and avenging hand of God whereof wee treated chapters the 3. and 4. where wee saw that the Israelites for their unbeliefe and disobedience were debarred from entrance into that land of Promise wherein they should have rested after their grievous servitude in Egypt and perished in the wildernesse by divers destructions Who refused him that spake on earth much more shall not we escape if we turne away from him that speaketh from heaven He opposeth him who spake on earth to him who spake from heaven Now there can be no doubt but by him who spake from heaven hee understands God himselfe for presently after he addes verse 26. Whose voice then shooke the
in use among men and to be of force before it was ratified by the bloudshed of beasts For this bloud gave beginning to that testament in respect of the force of it The Author useth the very same word afterward Chap. 10.20 where our English Translation renders it consecrated By a new and living way which he hath consecrated unto us whereof in it due place 19. For when Moses had spoken every precept to all the people That the first Testament was not dedicated without bloud hee now proves by a narration of the carriage of the action shewing the dedication or confirmation of that Testament both for the manner and matter wherby it was confirmed and his narration hereof is for the most part taken out of Scripture Exod. 24. Moses did both speake and read all the precepts to the people For first he spake them by word of mouth as the Lord had delivered them to him and upon his rehearsing or speaking of them the people gave their unanimous approbation and consented to doe them Exod. 24.3 Then he wrote them in a book and read them in the audience of the people and the people againe the second time gave their approbation ibid. ver 7. The word spoken includes both these actions of reciting and reading for all reading is speaking also because he that reads speaks out of a booke The precepts by Moses confirmed were all those Lawes of the Old Testament that did binde universally both persons and times which all persons were bound to observe perpetually for such were properly the precepts of Gods league with the people although happily they were not all assigned to the preceding Chapters in Exod. but are related in other places and in the following books of Moses For those preceps which after the confirmation of the league or testament are described in the following Chapters of Exodus are not properly Lawes but certaine Ordinances of God for the present concerning the framing and ordering of the Tabernacle the furniture of it and other things whereby the worship of God was then to bee performed And yet there besome who think that the passages recited Exod. 24. concerning the confirmation of the Covenant are spoken only by way of historicall anticipation And this opinion is not without some shew of probability According to the Law This is a limitation of the universall word every precept to shew that he spake not of all precepts in generall but of every precept in the Law delivered to Moses and written by Moses in the booke and read by Moses to the people Hee tooke the bloud of calves and of goats It is not expressed in the story of Moses that he tooke or shed the bloud of goats for that action Yet it is very credible that there were goats among the burnt-offerings and peace-offerings then slaine unto God For that Moses nameth only calves it might therefore be because they are the more worthy creatures Unlesse wee should rather say that first the whole people was sprinkled and expiated by Moses which the Author chiefly respected and might know it some other way for the bloud of goats was usually shed to expiate the sinnes of the whole people With water and scarlet wooll and hysop Neither doe wee read this in the fore-cited place of Moses but the Author who undoubtedly was very skilfull in the Jewish customes doth perhaps therefore mention water because hee knew that water was mingled with the bloud which was sprinkled as was usuall in other purifyings for bloud unlesse it bee mingled with water doth quickly congeale and being congealed is unfit for sprinkling But of hysop and scarlet wooll tyed to a cedar sticke was made a sprinkler whereof as of water mixt with bloud see Exod. 12.22 and Levit. 4.4,5,6 And sprinkled both the booke and all the people Of the booke being sprinkled we likewise read not in Moses Yet this divine Author knew the certainty of this no lesse then of the rest But all the people is said to be sprinkled because they among the people who stood nearest were sprinkled and in that respect represented the person of the whole people so that thereby all the people were accounted sprinkled 20. Saying this is the bloud of the Testament In the Hebrew for this is Behold but the sense is the same Now the bloud of calves and goats is called the bloud of the Testament because by means of it the Old Testament was confirmed and established Which God hath enjoyned unto you In the Hebrew it is which God hath made with you God had not yet made it preteritively but did then make it presentively and therefore the preter tense is there figuratively put for the present But because God himselfe in his owne person did not confirme that Covenant with the people but Moses did it at the command and in the name of God therefore the Author expressing the verity of the thing for the word made puts the word enjoyned as if Moses had said This is the bloud of the Testament which God hath enjoyned me to make with you Yet this injunction or command did not rest upon the person of Moses only but was extended unto the people also for as the confirmation of the testament was enjoyned to Moses that he should speed it is Gods name So the observation of it was enjoyned unto the people that they should keep it because the Testament for the matter contained Laws and Precepts which God enjoyned to the people as if Moses had further said This is the bloud of the Testament which God enjoyned unto me to confirme and hath enjoyned unto you to observe 21. Moreover he sprinkled with the bloud both the Tabernacle and all the vessels of the Ministery Hee shews that not only the Old Testament it selfe was confirmed with bloud but also that under the Old Testament divers consecrations and expiation were made by bloud especially of sinnes as hee mentions it ver 22. This hee doth that from hence he might gather that under the New Testament also the shedding of bloud must fitly intervene to consecrate and expiate the conscience and a bloud so much more pretious as he is more pretious by whom the conscience is expiated And the Author doth so joyne the consecration of the Tabernacle and the vessels of it made with bloud with the confirmation of the Testament it selfe that he specifies no difference of time between them And if the Tabernacle and ministeriall vessels were consecrated at the time wherin the Testament was confirmed then without all doubt the history of confirming the Testament Exod. 24. is delivered by way of anticipation seeing that after that Confirmation mentioned there precepts are delivered in the following chapters for the making of the Tabernacle and ministeriall vessels and for ordering of the publike worship and service of God as also the making and consecration of them is particularly described But from the words of the Author it cannot bee gathered that both these were done
at the same time seeing hee to his former words of confirming the Testament by bloud doth simply subjoyne that Moses did also sprinkle the Tabernacle and the ministerial vessels with bloud which may as well be taken of another time as of the same Although Moses saith not openly that the Tabernacle and ministeriall vessels after they were all finished were sprinkled with bloud but only anointed with the holy oyle Yet because we read that the Altar was not onely anointed with oyle but also sprinkled and consecrated with bloud therefore hence we may gather that in the consecration of the Tabernacle it selfe and of the ministeriall vessells sprinkling of blood was joyned with their anointing For Josephus delivers this in plain words in his Antiquitie lib. 3. cap. 9. Where describing the Ceremonie and forme of that Consecration hee saith Then hee sprinkled the garments of Aaron and his sonnes with the bloud of the Sacrifices-purifying them with running water and with the ointment c. He sprinkled also the Tabernacle and his vessels with the ointment and with the bloud of bullocks and rams slaine every other day after their kind From this verse therefore it may appeare that anciently there were many things among the Jewes especially concerning external rites of manifest truth which notwithstanding are not written in the bookes of Moses and therefore wee need not marvell that this Author doth affirme some things which we finde not delivered in the books of Moses as we have noted already in this chapter verse 4. and verse 19. 22. And almost all things by the law are purged with bloud He amplifies his former instances drawing them from particulars almost to an universall to conclude his assertion by way of Induction Not only the Tabernacle and Ministeriall vessels which were the principall utensils about the worship of God but almost all things else were purged with bloud He saith almost all things because some things were purged without bloud for some were purged or cleansed onely by the washing of water as hee that carried out the Scape-goat must cleanse himselfe by washing his clothes and bathing his flesh in water Levit. 16.26 And the Priest who became uncleane by the touch of a person or thing unclean must cleanse himself by washing his flesh with water Levit. 22.6 And some other things were first purged by melting in the fire and afterward repurged over with the water of separation as silver and gold and all other mettals that could abide to passe through the fire Numb 31.22,23 According to the Law i. According as the Law prescribed things should be purged And without shedding of blood is no remission How ever other things were purged yet this is certaine that under the Law sinnes were not remitted without shedding of bloud Whence wee may rationally gather that the shedding of bloud must also intervene for the purging of our consciences or to expiate those sinnes that pollute our consciences That which the Author here affirmes is most certaine universally and suffers no exception unlesse in case of extreme poverty when the persons to bee purged were so poore that for the purging of their sinne they were not able to bring for their offering a paire of Turtles or a paire of yong Pigeons whereof see Levit. 5.12 Otherwise the rule holds vniversally not onely for a sinne of the whole people but also for the sin of any single person whatsoever bloud must be shed and a sacrifice must be offered See Levit. chap. 4. chap. 5. and chap. 6. 23. It was therefore necessary that the paterns of things 〈◊〉 the heavens should be purified with these Hitherto the Author hath taught that bloud was required for the purging both of the Tabernacle and of sins Now some man might say Although blood were required for this purifying yet it was not necessary that the blood of Christ should be shed for it but the bloud of beasts might have served the turne as it did under the Law To this tacite objection the Author answeres in these words and sheweth that heavenly things were to be purged with farre better Sacrifices then the Sacrifices of beasts For the purging of earthly holy things the sacrifices of beasts did suffice but for the purging of heavenly holy things which of all other are most excellent there needed a most excellent Sacrifice And none could be more excellent then Christ And besides for the purging of any Sanctuarie there must needs be a Sacrifice or at least some thing of the Sacrifice must be brought into it But neither beasts themselves nor their bloud or bodies neither must nor can be brought into that heavenly Sanctuary But Christ himselfe and his body made immortall was brought in thither Therefore for heavenly holy things the bloud of Christ must be shed and not the bloud of beasts Againe the holy things under the Law were not onely purged when they were first made and dedicated but also were yearly to be purged by the annuall Sacrifice For they were accounted pollutted by the yearely sinnes and uncleannesses of the people Whereof see Levit. 16.15 How the earthly holy things were paternes of those things which are in heaven and for what cause we have already shewed chap. 8. ver 5. The things in the heavens are put for the holy heavenly things from which the heaven it self that invisible heaven which is the most holy Sanctuary must not be excluded But the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices then these The heavenly things are the heavenly holy things as the verse following shewes But it may be demanded how those heavenly holy things can be said to be purged seeing they never were polluted Wee answer That this is said of the heavenly Sanctuary onely by way of Comparison as a thing very usuall And the nature of Comparisons is to breed many abusions For if we respect the scope of the Author it is enough for us to understand that the Sacrifice to be offered in the heavenly Sanctuary must be much more excellent then those which of old were wont to be offered in the earthly Sanctuarie For this both the nature of the heavenly Sanctuary wholly requires and also the effect of the oblation sutable to heaven But if any man yet demand a more neere resemblance it may be said That heavenly Sanctuary was indeed purged by the Sacrifice and offering of Christ First in as much as it was so consecrated thereby that an accesse is made open for us unto it and as I may say it is dedicated for our use hereafter As the old Tabernacle and many things else were not open and free for mens use before they were consecrated and they for their uncleannesse as it was accounted but this for our uncleannesse which must bee purged away before a right and an use of that heavenly Sanctuary can be granted us So that in this sence by a contrary way of speech and yet not unusuall the Author said that heaven must be purged for our