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A57966 The covenant of life opened, or, A treatise of the covenant of grace containing something of the nature of the covenant of works, the soveraignty of God, the extent of the death of Christ ... the covenant of grace ... of surety or redemption between the by Samuel Rutherford ... Rutherford, Samuel, 1600?-1661. 1655 (1655) Wing R2374; ESTC R20879 369,430 394

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that are freely given us by promise are given to us 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 with Christ or after that he hath given us Christ and assignies and younger brethren come in under the first Heir Our blood-relation to the Family stands by Christ interest to promises comes all this way The Lords method is Get first Christ then all the promises are yours for they follow him And Christ well manages Covenant-promises as they most tend to the good of his own And this is specially to be considered that Christ from the womb to the grace does act and suffer nothing but as a publike person For us he was born Isai. 9.6 For unto us a Child is born unto us a Son is given Luke 2.11 Rejoice saith the Angel for unto you not to us Angels nay neither for himself unto you is born a Saviour 2. Why For whose sake came he this journey to the earth Luke saith it was no private business of his own c. 19.10 He came to seek and to save that which was lost and to save saith Paul sinners 1 Tim. 1.15 3. Why died he He was made a curse 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 for us Gal 3.13 Sin for us 2 Corin. 5.21 Died for his sheep John 10.11 for his friends Joh. 15.13 was made poor for our sake 2 Cor. 8.9 is our forerunner who is entred into heaven 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 for us Heb. 6.20 We have a great high Priest touched with our infirmities Heb. 4.14 15. Who hath entered into the heavens to appear in the presence of God for us 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 Christs publike Spirit who breathed not for himself lived not for himself died not for himself nor ascended to heaven for himself nor enjoyes he heaven for himself should show us the necessity we have of Christ. The Physician is needfull to the sick the ransone to the captive bread to him that famisheth but Christ is more necessary to the sinner We know not how many are in Christs debt for heaven Angels Sun and Moon seas and fountains men and all things subsist by him Col. 1.17 Heb. 1.3 Yet most of men judge fire and water more needfull then Christ and think they no more need Christ or Covenant-interest in him then the cart needs the third wheel or the great Ocean a drop of dew nor is it every necessity of Christ that we presse There is a necessity of a Physician to a whole Pharisee as a dead man stands in need of life But it is a literall necessity by which the whole saith Christ Matth. 9. needs not the Physician but it is the sick paining necessity such as this I die a hundreth times if I get not CHRIST This takes away sleep in the night and brings a fixed aim to sell all and buy Him CHAP. IX The 13. Argument from the necessity of Gods call 2. Of Typicall sprinkling of the blood of the Covenant and of the Testament The place Heb. 13.20 the blood of the everlasting Covenant opened Of the place Heb. 7.22 the act of suretyship the assurance of our state AN Argument 13. is taken from the necessity of this Covenant of Redemption 1. From the call of God Christ took not on him to be a Priest nor did he glorify himself to be made an High Priest but that he said unto him Heb. 5. Thou art my Son to day have I begotten thee That is I have ordained thee to have the honourable calling of the High Priest The Apostle also Heb. 1. applyeth this in part to the eternall generation of the Son And Act. 13.33 the Apostle applyes this to Christs rising from the dead because in these two latter manifestly appears the God Head of the Son in that he is true High Priest who by offering himself hath taken away our sins which only God can do In the other Rom. 1.4 He is declared to be the Son of God with power by the resurrection from the dead He who took not upon him to be High Priest while God called him and neither took upon him to be King while God called him and said Psal. 2.6 I have Anointed him my King upon my holy Hill of Zion and willingly consented to the call of God to be King and Priest He must be made Priest and King by Covenant between him and God for Priests and Kings were called by Covenant Mal. 2. v. 5. 2 King 11.17 2 Sam. 5.3 2. It is necessarie that the promises that are our Writs and Charters of Heaven be in a surer hand then in our own to wit in the keeping of Christ For this is an absolute promise made to us Ezek. 36.26 A new heart also will I give you and a new spirit will I put within you and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh This promise is not formally made to Christ yet it is a speciall Covenant-promise Jer. 31. Ezek. 11. Heb. 8. for there is no stony heart in Christ yet the promise is laid down in him and made to him eminenter for by the merit of his blood for he sanctified the people with his own blood Heb. 13.12 he sprinkles many Nations Isai. 52.15 Some say as Calvin Luther Musculus by the Preached Gospel But it is clear he alludeth to the Law of sprinkling Exod. 24.8 And Moses took the blood and sprinkled it on the people and said Behold the blood of the Covenant which the Lord hath made with you concerning all these words Now of that blood it is said Exod. 24.6 And Moses took half of the blood of the oxen that the young men of the children of Israel offered v. 5. and put it in basons and half of the blood he sprinkled on the altar 1. The half of the blood was divided betwixt the altar and the people to note say the English Divines the mutuall stipulation of God of Christ God the true Altar to his people and his people to him who were atoned and made one by the blood of Christ v. 7. 2. Moses took the book of the Covenant and red it in the audience of the people Not the Book of the Covenant of the ten Commandements for Moses had not as yet brought the two Tables of Stone containing the ten Commandements down from the mountain Then it was the Book of the Judiciall Lawes and Promises Heb. 9.19 For when Moses had spoken every Precept to all the people according to the Law he took the blood of calves and of goats with water lest the blood should thicken and congeal nor being mixt with water notting also some other mysteries 1 Joh. 5.6 8. and scarlet wool and hysop and sprinkled both the Book and all the people It s true there is no mention of wool and hysop and scarlet Exod. 24. but the Author to the Hebrews adds nothing of his own to Moses for there 's a ground for these Num. 19.6 and Moses speaks not of the sprinkling of the Book but the Book lying upon the
sprinkled Altar was also sprinkled with blood for saith the Holy Ghost Heb. 9.22 Almost all things are by the Law purged with blood and without shedding of blood there is no forgivenesse of sins There was no guiltinesse in the Book but these written Lawes and Ceremonies were the hand-writing of Ordinances which was against us which was contrary to us which Christ by his bloody death behoved to blot out take out of the way and nail to His Crosse Colos. 2.14 But another Question riseth Exod. 24.6 What needed the sprinkling of the people with one half of the blood and the sprinkling of the Altar that is Christ the Mediator with the other For 1. Neither the work of dying to redeem man can be divided between Christ and the people nor needed Christ our true Altar forgivenesse of sins Ans. The typicall sprinkling of the people is expounded Heb. 9.14 the purging of the conscience from dead works to serve the living God to obey the Gospel 1 Pet. 1.3 But the sprinkling of the Altar Christ with the blood is a far other thing So the Holy Ghost Heb. 9. He who is constitute the Mediator of a Testament his death must interveen to ratify and make valide in Law the Testament v. 16 17. That the friends of the Testator may have right to the goods that are bequeathed to them in the Testament But Christ is the Mediator of the New Testament v. 15. Ergo c. Now we are to know that Christs dying is considered 1. As a paying of ransone for captives by which in Law and by way of meri●e the ranson of the blood of God exceedeth the worth of the bought captives or the crime committed by the captives and so Christs death meriteth to his friends ransoned righteousnesse life pardon 2. His dying is considered as a Testament of a dying friend Now the living friends by vertue of a Testament as a Testament have not ●us and right by buying and selling to the goods tested The essence and nature of a Testament is saved whether the goods that are bequeathed in legacy be the free gift of the Testator not bought with a price by him or goods of the father of the friend to which the friend being a German-brother hath as good right or the same right by birth that the Testator hath How ever the comparison holds in this Christ 1. hath bequeathed to believers these goods 2. The Testament is no Testament nor valide in Law except the Testator be dead No man can sue by Law tested goods if the Testator himself be living Nor can we have right to a new heart forgivenesse perseverance eternall life to grace and glory except Christ our Testator had died But because the Tested goods are more then goods left to us in Testament they are left to us by such a Testament as is both a Testament and a death perfectly meritorious this is superadded to the nature of a Testament and beyond all Testaments yea a death which is a price to ransone us from the wrath to come Therefore Christ so dying in our stead of justice meriteth that the friends should have these goods though they belong by meer grace and free promise to the friends Now this is a most clear ground Christ hath a well purchased right by giving a condign price for the goods and bles●sings promised in the Covenant of Grace to us This right he hath by paying a price laying down his life for us This buying is not by necessity of nature of justice but by a voluntary free and uncompelled agreement and Covenant Joh. 10.18 Isai. 53.6 No man can exact upon him Psal. 89.22 2. If the Old Testament was confirmed by the blood of beasts then must the New Testament be confirmed by the blood of Christ prefigured in these But the Old Testament was so confirmed Heb. 9. v. 18 19 20 21 22 23. Ergo now neither Testament nor Covenant was confirmed by blood simply but by the blood of a living creature slain 3. Hence the making of a Covenant was by cutting a calf or a beast in twain and passing between the parts thereof Jer. 34.18 and so they entered into a curse Nehem. 10.29 devoted themselves to destruction wishing they might be cut 〈◊〉 which is a strange kinde of death Math. 24.51 if they should break the Covenant Hence the Phrase of striking a Covenant So the Romans slew a sow So the Romans and Albani made a Covenant as Livius A Herauld or Officer at Arms slew the beast and prayed a curse on the people of Rome that they might be the same way stricken if they should break the Covenant It s like they had it from the Jewes So Christ died to ratifie and confirm the Covenant Exod. 24.6 This is the blood of the Covenant Now the Covenant hath no blood This blood of slain beasts for it is a figurative speech is a signe confirming the Covenant that believers shall have remission of sins in that blood of Christ which is shaddowed forth by the blood of these beasts So Christ the great Shepheard of the flock Heb. 13.20 is said to be brought from the dead 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 by the blood of the everlasting Covenant Ju●ius the Article is understood Or as the Hebrew Phrase 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 is put for 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 as Calvin and Piscator The question may be How did God b●ing Christ again from the death by the blood of the everlasting Covenant had the blood of Christ any influence to bring himself back from the dead Or did he by dying merit his own resurrection Ans. Some read the word thus and shun the Question The God of peace who brought again from the dead the great sheepherd of the sheep Understanding 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 being the great sheepherd or feeder by the blood of the everlasting Covenant So Beza who maks these words 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 to be referred to 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 So as Christs right to be Pastor is in and by his blood and suffering And the words 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 so is not to be constructed with the particle 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 But Beza confesseth that he changed the situation of the words But if Christ be made a Pastor and feeder of the sheep by the blood of the eternall Covenant then is he called to be a Pastor by Covenant And what influence hath his death in his Pastoral Office Is it by way of merit Or did Christ merit to himself Hardly if not curiously can we say that though I nothing doubt but Christ gave perfect obedience as man to the Covenant of Works and he did merit as man jure operum life eternall the way that Adam should have merited life eternal so he had never fallen But the words naturally bear this sense as Deodati expounds them that Christ is risen by vertue of his death As it is well said the just surety
vita eterna in fideles difluit The promise Gal. 3.16 is not made to Christ mysticall The Seed Christ Gal. 3.16 is neither meant of Christ as a private person nor of CHRIST Mysticall but of Christ as a publick person and Head the second Adam Christ always to be looked on as a publick person The right necess●●ie we are in to buy Christ. He who took not on him to be Priest and King but upon the call of God must be made Priest and King by Covenant The sprinkling of the Altar with bloud The sprinkling of the Book with bloud How the Covenant i● a Testament We have right to the goods bequeathed to us in a Testament not simply as a Testament but as such a Testament in which the death of the Testator in the meritorious cause of the goods tested The Testament is confirmed by blood of some living creature slain Livius li. 1. Populus inquit Flecialis Romanus prior non deficiet Si prior defecit publ●co consilio malo dolo Tu illo die Jupi●er populum Romanum sic ferito ut ego hunc porcum feriam tanteque magis ferito quanto magis potes pollesque Id uhi dixit p●rcum si●ice sa●oque percussit Beza in Amitaque ut hoc planius fieret non dubitavi verborum collocationem mutare Christ justified in his cause coms out of the prison of the grave by paying of the ransome of blood Heb. 9.28 Christ is not a surety by nature but is made a surety by a Covenant-consent of Johovah and by his own consent 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 That Christ was made a surety in a Capitall crime to die for us is suitable to the Law of nations M Thomas Goodwine Support of faith from Ch. Resur ● 111. How mercy calleth by a sort of need for a surety Justice suits not that the debter repay to the surety any thing in some cases See Andre Essenius in Triumpho Crucis de satisfact Chri●sti l. 2. Sect. 3. c. 1. pag. 468 469 500. Socin de Serva l. 3. c. 3. Vlpianus L. S. quis reum D. cust exhib reorum Vale. Maximus de Dionysior Siculo tametsi debita tot sacrilegii● supplicia non exolvit dedecore tamen filli poenas rependit quas vivus effugerat Punishment suffered by a Surety can remove punishment from the guiltyman but cannot remove formally the inherent guilt and make him formally and physically and inherently innocent except the punishment of the Surety so excellent procure by way of merite the expelling of sin and the incoming of inherent holinesse in its room as Heb. 10 10. What will of GOD Heb. 10.10 sanctifieth us Mr. David Dickson Exposit. of the Epistle to the Hebrews cap. 10. v. 10. Solid comfort in knowing these number of these gifted to the Son I am one of them Sin is no cause why a justified one should doubt of his justification M. D. Dickson Psa. 89.19 Much of the Lord his gracious will is in the Covenant of suretyship M. D Dickson Ps. 89. v. 26. Christ the first heir of the promises undertaks for all his More grace if we may compare in the Redeemers Covenant then in ours Fountain-grace and fountain-mercy in this Covenant Gods essential love to the Son in this Covenant Jac. Armi. orat de Sacerdotio Chrsti pag. 16 17. Postulavit Deus ut animam suam poneret hostiam pro peccato c. The Covenant between the Lord and the Sonne that Arminius teacheth is not the true Covenant of redemption The Lord cannot promise by the Arminian way that Christ shall have a seed because the Lord by their way hath no dominion over the free will of any man The Lord King of the will The Son cannot pray for the heathen to be his inheritance by the Arminian Covenant betwix● Christ and the Father M. D. Dickson on Psal. 2. Christ both by free Covenant and by merit of condignity and justice may challenge a seed they are both promised to him and he gave a due price for them There is mercy in the bill of our suits merite and justice in the bill of the suits of Christ for us Christ was delivered from the act of suretyship Christ hath the first right of us by justice and more right then we have of our selves Our doubtings being once justified reflect upon the Covenant of Suretyship Christ hath laid bands by office upon himself to compassionate us It s needful to beleeve the sufficiencie of Christ to save The believed Covenant hath more influence on us then the Law-faith can have The eternall undertakings of Jehovah of Christ for us This Covenant answers our tentations In one Psalm some things spoken onely prophetically of Christ other things historically and typically both of David others That which is caled Davids thron is Christs throne The Covenant Ps. 89 must in the maine he●ds agree to JESUS CHRIST Athanas. Serm. 4. contra Arianos Cyprian l. 2. c. 1. Cyrillus Hierosolymit Catech. 7. 12. August de civit de l. 17. c. 9. Hieronim in Isa. 53. Calv. Com. in locum Vnd● sequitur non posse constare vaticimi hujus effectum donec ad Christum ventum fuerit in quo solo demum reperietur vera Aeternitas The justified mans question of his state re●ecteth upon God his truth How selfie we are in the unbeleeving challenging of our Justification When ye cannot apply its good to feed the thoughts upō Christs apply●ng himself the Covenant to you and to other single persons Christ undertaks that the Gospel shal be preached to the elect for themselves and to the reprobat only as mixed with the elect for other ends The necessary distinction of the Covenant as preached to many and as acted upon the heart of the few chosen God and all within the visible Church who hear the word of the Gospel are the parties contracters in the Covenant Preached but God the el●ct only are contracters of the Covenant as acted upon the heart The Gospel comes from Chr●st as undertaker for the elect for their sake The distinction of Gods will of approbation what is good or evill in poynt of our duty whether it come to passe or not and of his will of pleasure what the Lord hath decreed shall come to passe or not come to passe whether good or evill is of speciall consideration in this point We are to adore the Lord in regard of the beauty of his work even when the foulest works fall out We are to pray against the event of the decree of God in some cases and yet to submit unto the decree it self and to adore the Holy Lord therein The Lord speaks of the Covenant Jer. 31.31 32. Jer. 32. Ezek. 11. Ezek. ch 36. Isai. 59. according to his decree and what he works in our heart and not according to his will of command and what we ought of duety to do The mistake of Socinians and Arminians touching the places Jer. 31.
hath right and Law to come out of prison by paying the summe and neither Justice nor Creditor can keep him in prison solutus aere est solutus carcere Christ having satisfied our debt and payed the ransome of his blood to the death and being dead and under the dominion of death by justice is freed from either remaining in death or dying any more he is now justified not in his person for Christ in person was habitually righteous and from the womb Luk. 1.35 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 That holy thing Jesus was sinlesse and so never condemned but justified in his cause and in his condition by Law for us and so appeareth 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 the second time without sin unto salvation the second time without sin hath relation to the first time without sin that is he shall appear the second time no lesse without sin and so justified in regard of his condition in Law then he was when he was conceived by the Holy Ghost and so that eminently holy thing born of the Virgin Mary Luk. 1.35 that is as justified as if he had never been made sin and never had been under the Law-burden of our sins as Isai. 53.6 And 1 Tim. 3.16 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 He was justified in the Spirit declared to be just and the innocent Son of God by his resurrection from the dead Rom. 1.4 so that in the Spirit is in the eternall Spirit Heb. 9.14 the Godhead For he came from under that act and band of Cautionrie and Suretyship without sin that is acquit from sin which he was made and was laid upon him 2 Cor. 5.21 Isai. 53.6 4. We know Heb. 7.22 Jesus 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 He was made the Surety of a better Covenant as the LXX ever translate it of a better Testament Now here is a judiciall and a Law-act of suretyship put upon Christ. 1. He was made Surety then he was not Surety by nature but so made by a free transaction and Covenant For in Christs coming under that act when he was made Surety there be two things 1. His eternall condiscending to take on him our nature and to empty himself and be a servant 2. His agreeing and plighting of his faith and truth to take on our condition in Law that God should lay upon him the iniquity of us all Isa. 53.6 and that God should make him who knew no sin to be sin for us 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 in our Law place and room 2 Cor. 5.21 not against his Fathers will nor yet without his own free consent That is against all reason For that which God made Christ that he was not by nature but that God willingly made him and that he was willingly and by free Covenant made But God gave him a body Heb. 7.5 and God made him sin 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 2 Cor. 5.11 So a Surety is one that promises to satisfie for another and comes from a Verbe which signifies to promise by striking of hands Prov. 22.26 Be not thou among them that strike hands or of them that are surety for debts The Seventy give not thy self 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 as a Surety Aries Montan. Inter percutientes fide jubendo The Verbe in the Hebrew is from a root that signifies to mix together as the owle light when light and darknesse after the Sun-set are mixed together And by a Metaphor it notes suretyship and mixture of persons as M. Legh when one is tyed for another and mixed with him in his place As Christ put himself in the bond and writ of blood that we were in We were in the Law-writ Deut. 27. ●6 under a curse and Christ shifted the beleevers out and was made a curse by his own consent for us Gal. 3.10 and was written and acted in the law-Law-book the sinner and answered all the demands of Law and Justice and put in our names in the Gospel writ And that from everlasting God was in Christ 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 reconciling the world of the elect not imputing their sins unto them 2 Cor. 5.19 And in time we beleeving are written blessed and righteous in him Gal. 3.13 14. 2 Cor. 5.21 And what could more be done by Christ who substitute himself by Covenant in our place and put us in his place Nor is this Suretyship just in debts only but also what ever Socinus Crellius and others say on the contrair in Capitall punishments For M. Thomas Goodwine pag. 50. E●oritus did 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 willingly become a surety for Suephenus Yea and in hostages and pledges in war Plutarch saith that the Thessali●ns slew two hundreth and fifty hostages The Romans saith Livie did the like to three hundreth of the Volsti and cast the Taratines over rocks de 〈◊〉 Tarp●i● and these were humane people The children of Tyrants were killed with the Tyrants by some Cities of Greece as Cice●o and Halicarnaseus say Curtius saith that the Maced●nians put to death such as were near of blood to traitors Marcellinus saith so much also of the Persians The just Lord punishing the sins of the fathers upon the children to the third and fourth generation ●eacheth that conjunction of blood such as was between Christ our Kinsman 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 〈◊〉 Job 19.25 and us may well make it most just that Christ be punished for us the Surety for the sinner though the sinner be under the hand of the Judge for he is unable to satisfie Justice and mercy saith that there is no essentiall reason in Law-justice why the same head which sinned and no other should suffer But grace may interveen so that though God need no surety yet tender mercy or God decreeing to show mercy in some good sense needs such a Surety as Christ. Neither is it much that justice saith that the Surety ought to have satisfaction made to him and restitution by the broken debter because justice gives his due to every man For 1. if the surety be more then a man and have absolute soveraignty over what he exp●nds as Christ hath over his own life to lay it down and take it up again Joh. 10.18 As of free grace he payed for us so of free grace he pleads not in Law that the broken man pay him back and make restitution of his losses and this saith demonstratively that God doth neither punish nor show mercy by necessity of justice 2. When the surety hath a band of relief and as it were a back-band that his soul shall not be left in grave Psal. 16.10 but that he shall be victorious and more he may give out and look for nothing in again And the necessity of a surety to say remove the scaffold the guilty man shall not die pleads that if the Lord shall be merciful to sinners as he decreed then must Christ transact so with God as the everlasting out-goings of mercy may be with the free consent as it