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A42773 The ark of the covenant opened, or, A treatise of the covenant of redemption between God and Christ, as the foundation of the covenant of grace the second part, wherein is proved, that there is such a covenant, the necessity of it, the nature, properties, parties thereof, the tenor, articles, subject-matter of redemption, the commands, conditions, and promises annexed, the harmony of the covenant of reconciliation made with sinners, wherein they agree, wherein they differ, grounds of comfort from the covenant of suretiship / written by a minister of the New Testament. Gillespie, Patrick, 1617-1675. 1677 (1677) Wing G766; ESTC R3490 407,671 492

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ascribed to his intercession which he is now performing in heaven and therefore he must intercede in Heaven as Surety of the better Testament Heb. 7.22 to 25. with Rom. 5.10 and Rom. 8.34 Who is he that condemneth it is Christ that died yea rather that is risen again who is even at the right hand of God who also maketh intercession for us 3. Consider that unless he were a Surety in Heaven and acted therein that Covenant-relation by his intercession all his other actings as Surety of the Covenant would be to little purpose for our behoof for it is this part of his Suretiship that maketh his satisfaction to the Law effectual for the good of the Elect this is it which putteth life in the death of him who died in our stead and room and without this the blood of the Surety had been shed in vain For this is the very application of it and sprinkling the blood of the Covenant upon us Heb. 9.19 20 24 For when Moses had spoken every precept to all the people according to the law he took the blood of Calves and Goats with water and scarlet wool and Hysop and sprinkled both the book and all the people saying this is the blood of the Teestament which God hath enjoined unto you For Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands which are the figures of the true but into heaven it self now to appear in the presence of God for us Heb. 7.22 25. By so much was Jesus made Surety of a better Testament Wherefore he is able also to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by him seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them 1 Joh. 2.1 2 My little children these things write I unto you that ye sin not and if any man sin we have an advocate with the father Jesus Christ the righteous and he is the propitiation for our sins 4. Consider that as his soul and his life was at the stake and was pawned for that part of his Suretiship that was to be performed on earth to wit the paying of a price to Justice so his honour lies yet at the stake and in pawn for that part of his engagement which is to be performed in heaven by his intercession so that as it behoved him to have lien in prison for ever and the soul to have been left in the grave unless he had payed his Debt and made satisfaction to Justice his Soul being in our souls stead as a Surety so his honour I say lieth still at the stake for all his peoples compleat Salvation insomuch that Heaven cannot hold him if he bring not them there he shall not have the glory of a perfected Saviour and Surety if he perform not his engagement to save them to the utmost yea he must quit heaven if he bring not his people thither for whom he undertook See Joh. 6.57 As the living father hath sent me and I live by the father so he that eateth me even he shall live by me Joh. 17.1 4 12 24 Glorifie thy son that thy son also may glorifie thee I have glorified thee on the earth I have finished the work which thou gavest me to do While I was with them in the world I kept them in thy name those that thou gavest me I have kept and none of them is lost but the son of perdition that the scripture might be fulfilled Father I will that they also whom thou hast given me be with me where I am that they may behold my glory which thou hast given me for thou lovedst me before the foundation of the world Heb. 2.10 For it became him for whom are all things and by whom are all things in bringing many sons unto glory to make the captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings He speaks for his brethren as Judah did for little Benjamin Gen. 43.9 3. Christ is a Surety in our stead and in our behalf 1. I say in most things which Christ did as a Surety of the Covenant he did them in our stead and room he did them as a person representing us and we did them in him by vertue of that communion that is betwixt the Surety and the Debtor when he died he died in our stead and we died in him there we paid the Debt when he arose and ascended he rose in our stead and we rose and ascended in him there we had a discharge and liberation when he had it c. Rom. 6.6 8 Knowing this that our old man is crucified with him that the body of sin might be destroyed that henceforth we should not serve sin Now if we be dead with Christ we believe that we shall also live with him 1 Cor. 15.22 For as in Adam all die even so in Christ shall all be made alive Eph. 2.5 6 Even when we were dead in sins he hath quickened us together with Christ by grace ye are saved and hath raised us up together and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus 2. Yet there are some things which Christ the Surety performed wholly for us indeed and on our behalf but he cannot be said to perform them in our stead or to act our part in them that is to act these things as that which we should have done such was his incarnation and taking of our nature upon him and the taking of our Law-place upon him which were acts of Christ the Surety of the Covenant and unto which he had voluntarily engaged himself by his Covenant of Suretiship with God See Mr. Tho. Goodwin Christ set forth Sect. 5. c. 4. pag. 149. Gal. 4.4 But when the fulness of the time was come God sent forth his Son made of a woman made under the law Heb. 10.5 7 Wherefore when he cometh into the world he saith Sacrifice and offering thou wouldst not but a body hast thou prepared me then said I Lo I come in the volume of the book it is written of me to do thy will O God Yet he cannot be said properly to have done these things in our stead though he did them on our behalf and wholly for us for these were the very foundation of all that he acted in our stead and opened the way to his acting as our Surety in our stead by these acts he put himself in our stead that he might act our part being found in our nature state and condition Rom. 8.3 For what the law could not do in that it was weak through the flesh God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin condemned sin in the flesh Phil. 2.6 7 Who being in the form of God thought it not robbery to be equal with God But made himself of no reputation and took upon him the form of a servant and was made in the likeness of men Such also is his intercession in heaven for though he intercede as a Surety in Heaven and on our behalf yet he doth it
after Gods will Phil. 2.13 For it is God that worketh in you both to will and to do of his good pleasure Psal 110.3 Thy people shall be willing in the day of thy power And how sweet and comfortable is it that Salvation is by the Covenant of Suretiship taken off the mutable will of man the slippery yea and nay of mans free-will and laid upon the immutability of his counsel Heb. 6.17 and will with whom there is no variableness Rom. 9.15 I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion Jam. 1.18 Of his own will begat he us with the word of truth 4. That by the Covenant of Suretiship the fountain and well-spring of Life and Salvation and of all the influences that must needs act us toward it lay out of our selves and are placed in Christ Psal 8.7 All my springs are in thee Col. 3.3 Your life is hid with Christ in God The Well-head of Life to Adam was in himself and that which was placed in himself went dry he had no other Fountain whence he had assurance to draw and fetch any more but by Christs Suretiship the spring of Life and Salvation to us is placed in him which makes it indefectible to us and O how sweet is that to the believer that his Salvation is fountained in Christ thus when his water fails within he needs do no more but turn the water cock of Faith that is in his own heart and take in fresh supplies from Jesus the resurrection and the life Joh. 11.25 Isa 27.3 Lest any hurt it I will keep it night and day I will water it every moment Joh. 4.14 The water that I shall give him shall be in him a well of water springing up into everlasting life Joh. 14.19 Because I live ye shall live also 5. By the Covenant of Suretiship our Rights and Charters I mean the promises not of Heaven and Salvation only but of all our concernments are in a surer hand than our own and under better keeping for now by that Covenant they are in Christs keeping to whom the promises are made Gal. 3.16 Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made he saith not and to seeds as of many but as of one and to thy seed which is Christ He is the first heir of all things Heb. 1.2 to whom the first title and right to the promises which are our Charters doth belong they were first his before they were ours yea and he was the first possessor too upon Christ did all the acts of Gods Covenant-love to us fall first Act. 13.34 I give you the sure mercies of David Most of the promises were made formally to Christ even those which directly relate to our Calling Justification Salvation Isa 53.10 11 And the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand He shall see of the travel of his soul and shall be satisfied By his knowledg shall my righteous servant justifie many for he shall bear their iniquities And these that were not made formally to him such as the promise of a new heart a new spirit remission of sins yet these were made to him eminenter they were laid down in him and consigned in his hand for Christ is not only the fountain and original cause of all the promises who merited by his Blood Remission Righteousness and Life which the Lord makes ours by free promise but he is also the first subject of the promises Christ receiveth all the Covenant-promises which are our Rights and Charters and he keepeth them and manageth them for our use as may most tend to our good Christ is made by his Suretiship that excellent Ark which keepeth the tables of the Covenant and the book of the Law and Covenant Deut. 31.26 1 Kings 8.9 How sweet and satisfying is it that our Rights of Heaven is in such a Charter-chest and in the hands of such a keeper even under Christs custody who shall give a good account to his Father of all that is committed to him Joh. 17.12 Those whom thou gavest me I have kept and none of them is lost and whose keeping is in high account with all those who know him 2 Tim. 1.12 For I know whom I have believed and I am perswaded that he is able to keep that which I have committed unto him against that day 6. By the Covenant of Suretiship Christ and the believer are in a manner in one Writ for notwithstanding that there be differences between the Covenant made with him and that which is made with us as is before shewed yet it may be said that Christ and the believer are some way in one Writ 1. Because these two Covenants are all of a piece they are to be distinguished but not divided it is the same design of Grace the same business of redeeming and saving lost Man that is carried on in both 2. Although Christ and the believer be not formally and as parties in this Writ of Christs Sureti-covenant to God yet they are virtually and as to their interests and concernments It is Christs business and concernment and the believers too even all his eternal concernments that are in that Covenant and ours these meet together and are transacted in one Writ and thus even among men a person may be said to be in a Writ where his concernments are handled 3. Because of the contexture and interweaving not only of Christ and the believers interests but also of their Names in the same Writ For in the Covenant where his Name is put alone as undertaker and which is his single bond to wit the Covenant of Suretiship even there is the believers Name put as being the person for which he payed a price and for whom he undertook and who were promised to him for a seed as a satisfying-sight for the travel of his Soul And again in the Writ given to us we stand not alone in Covenant-dealings with God but in the same Writs of the promises made to the believer Christs name stands as principal party Covenanting for us and receiving the promises as is manifest from what is already said 4. There is not only a contexture but a commutation with Christ and the believers Name in the Covenant-writs for his Name is put in our Bond for he wrote himself the sinner legally and in the sinners place under the Law accursed and our Name is put in the Writ of Justification given to him and the new Law of Faith writes the believer righteous and blessed 2 Cor. 5.21 For he hath made him to be sin for us who knew no sin that we might be made the righteousness of God in him Gal. 3.13 14 Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law being made a curse for us for it is written Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentles through faith Rom. 3.22 Even the righteousness of God which
glory and power for thou hast created all things and for thy pleasure they are and were created Whereas natural necessity excludes freedom both in the principle of action and the act it self Having now shewed what kind of necessity there was for the being of the Covenant of Redemption betwixt God and Christ and that the necessity does mainly respect the final cause and ends which God had purposed in himself Let us in the next place consider particularly to what intents and purposes it was necessary that God should enter into a Covenant of Suretiship and Redemption with his own Son Christ These intents and purposes may be reduced to two chief heads supposing that God had purposed in himself to glorifie his mercy and Justice in procuring our Salvation the Covenant of Suretiship and Redemption was necessary for both these ends and purposes 1. For the honour of God 2. For the salvation and good of his chosen people both which were attained through the Covenant made betwixt God and Christ 1. For the honour and glory of God I mean the declarative glory of God that shines ad extra or the manifestation of his glory as the same is shewed forth and manifested in his dealings with the Creatures whereof see Psal 19.1 The heavens declare the glory of God Exod. 15.11 Who is like unto thee O Lord amongst the Gods who is like thee glorious in holiness fearful in praises doing wonders Not his essential glory that shines ad intra whereby he was infinitely and eternally glorious before any the works of Creation and Providence and should have been glorious eternally though these had never been Prov. 8.22 30 The Lord possessed me in the beginning of his way before his works of old Then I was by him as one brought up with him and I was daily his delight rejoycing always before him I say the being of this Covenant of Redemption was necessary for the declarative glory of God whether we consider God essentially or personally 1. For the glory of God considered essentially or in regard of his glorious nature and essence or his natural essential attributes I mean his wisdom goodness justice mercy faithfulness c. And that 1. For glorifying these universally even all and every one of his attributes all which received a new and glorious lustre through the Covenant of Redemption and God's sending of Christ to do that work which should never have been known nor manifested on Earth nor in Heaven but in the face of Jesus Christ and by virtue of God's Covenant-dealings with him about our Redemption therefore saith the Apostle 2 Cor. 4.6 For God who commanded light to shine out of darkness hath shined in our hearts to give the light of the knowledg of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ Therefore also Christ is called the brightness of his glory Heb. 1.3 Christ Mediator is the brightness of the glory of God in and through whom his glorious attributes and nature was made conspicuous and the declarative glory thereof had a more glorious lustre than by all the works of Creation and Providence beside upon the same account also Christ is called the Image of the invisible God Col. 1.15 because the glorious excellencies of God otherwise invisible are gloriously revealed by him and to be seen in him I pass this here in a word referring a more particular consideration thereof to that part of this subject-matter that concerns the Mediator's person and office 2. For the glorifying of these harmoniously that the harmony of attributes in God might be manifested in this transaction to wit how sweetly mercy justice did meet when peace and righteousness Law-demands and Gospel-condescentions Law-severity and Gospel-lenity did meet together and were made friends by this Covenant Psal 85.10.11 Mercy and truth are met together righteousness and peace have kissed each other c. For by this means God brought forth to heaven and earth and all the Creatures the glorious harmony of Justice Truth Mercy Power Wisdom Grace Rev. 5.12 13 Saying with a loud voice worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power and wisdom and riches and strength and honour and glory and blessing And every creature which is in heaven and on the earth and under the earth and such as are in the sea and all that are in them heard I saying Blessing honour glory and power be unto him that sitteth upon the throne and unto the lamb for ever and ever 2. This Covenant of Redemption was necessary for the glory of God considered personally and that 1. In regard of the distinct subsistences and glorious persons of the blessed Trinity 2. In regard of the distinct offices of the three persons all which were gloriously manifested in God's Covenant-dealings with Christ I say the greatest declarative glory and clearest manifestation of the distinct subsistences and Persons of the Godhead and of the distinct offices of these Persons in the ever-glorious and blessed Trinity that ever the world saw or heard of was in God's Covenant-dealings with Christ about the work of our Redemption for where are there any such clear discoveries of these great mysteries to be found as in God's foederal dealings with Christ and the Scriptures which reveal the same God was but darkly known in the distinct subsistences and offices of the Persons of the Trinity till this light of his Covenant with Christ did break forth but in Gods sending his Son and the Son 's undertaking and offering himself willingly to his Father to do this work and the Holy Ghost's exercising the power of the Godhead fitting and enabling him the man Christ Jesus to do the work there was a glorious manifestation of the distinction of Persons in the Godhead and of the offices of these Persons whereof also more particularly afterward See Isa 42.1 Behold my servant whom I uphold mine elect in whom my soul delighteth I have put my spirit upon him he shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles Heb. 9.14 How much more shall the blood of Christ who through the eternal spirit offered himself without spot to God purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God And 10.7 Then said I Lo I come in the volume of the book it is written of me to do thy will O God Psal 2.7 8 I will declare the decree the Lord hath said unto me Thou art my Son this day have I begotten thee Ask of me and I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession Joh. 14.26 But the Comforter which is the Holy Ghost whom the Father will send in my name he shall teach you all things and bring all things to your remembrance whatsoever I have said unto you Mal. 3.16 17 And he saw the spirit of God descending like a dove and lighting upon him And lo a voice from heaven saying This is my beloved Son in whom I am well pleased and such like
which was offended and doth receive the satisfaction 2. Christ God-man in one person having man's nature that offended united into a personal union with the Godhead was thereby fitted so to stand in our place and upon our side as a party different from God that he might therein satisfie wrath and therein merit by making a full and real compensation to offended Justice 3. Christ God-man who makes the satisfaction as he is God being one with the Father while he satisfies the Father's Justice he satisfies his own but as he is God-man being a party different from the Father he is by the Soveraignty of free Grace given to be a Surety and the satisfaction which he makes in our Nature as our Surety is accepted by his Father as by another party Assert 4. Christ was chosen and predestinated Lord Mediator and we are chosen in him before he is a party covenanting with Jehovah about the work of our Redemption I say 1. He is first in order in the eternal purpose of God designed and set apart to do this work before he gave an actual consent unto the Covenant of Suretiship This followeth necessarily upon the former Assertion for if the Covenant be made with Christ God-man with Christ Mediator betwixt God and man then he must needs be Mediator by some eternal act of the counsel of God antecedent in order of nature to this Covenant with him which is made with him considered as God to be made manifest in the flesh 2. I say not only Christ is chosen but we also are chosen in him unto the fruit of that great labour and service which he was designed to undergo for a Covenant of Suretiship and Redemption does not only suppose a Redeemer and Surety predestinated to be undertaker for a lost people but also a people designed to be partakers of the Redemption which he was to work So that I say this Covenant that was made with Christ God-man does suppose Christ's headship and our membership by eternal predestination and by a co-ordination which may be express'd in this order first the chosen head and then the body God did not not first chuse a body and then had a head to seek for them nor did he chuse a head to be without a body or as one that knew not of a body for that head but Election which was the first act of God's love in eternity fell first upon Christ whom God did chu●● to be the head of his body the Church and the Captain of Salvation to all the chosen company and having chosen him he chused us in him as our head and as the first-born of the elect house and family Rom. 8.29 For whom he did foreknow he also did predestinate to be conformed to the Image of his Son that he might be the first born among many brethren Eph. 1.4 According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world that we should be holy and without blame before him in love CHAP. IV. Of the Tenor Articles and Subject-matter of the Covenant of Redemption or of the Commands Conditions and Promises thereof THE Subject-matter and Articles of the Covenant of Suretiship which were agreed and concluded betwixt Jehovah and Christ by an eternal Compact which also may be divided into commands conditions and promises of that Covenant were mainly these seven Who should be the Redeemed Who the Redeemer What his work When to be done How to be applied What his reward And what assurance given betwixt the parties for mutual performance Now because some of these Articles may seem to be the same upon the matter which I have before asserted to be supposed as antecedent in order of nature to the Covenant of Redemption Let it be remembred that they may well be supposed in our manner of conceiving thereof as antecedent in God's purpose and yet be Articles of this Covenant and fall under Christ's actual consent which makes a closed Covenant about them for it is not repugnant that the same thing be concluded in the eternal purpose of God's Will and in his eternal agreement with Christ 1. By this Covenant it was agreed betwixt Jehovah and Christ God-man who should be the Redeemed people there was a definite certain number of Redeemed ones agreed upon for whom Christ should pay a price he was not Surety and undertaker for all Mankind nor for all the visible Church to whom the Gospel shall be preached for his undertaking is no wider nor larger than his dying purchasing Redemption bearing Iniquity Praying c. these being of equal extent and efficacy for whom Christ was undertaker to his Father for them he dyed and purchased Redemption by his death for them he did pray and make intercession c. Now 't is manifest that he did not purchase Redemption and make intercession for all Mankind but for a chosen people Heb. 9.15 And for this cause he is the Mediator of the New Testament that by means of death for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first Testament they who are called might receive the promise of eternal inheritance Joh. 17.9 I pray for them I pray not for the world but for them that thou hast given me for they are thine Neither was Christ undertaker for a people under any general notions or qualifications such as them that should believe in him or the like not knowing definitely who the persons were but he was Surety and undertaker only for the elect and for a definite number of people who were by number and name given to him by his Father and received by him to be redeemed by his blood which doth plainly appear by the description of the Redeemed people who are ordinarily called those whom the Father gave unto Christ Joh. 17.3 6 9 11. 6.37 39. and who were chosen in him Eph. 1.4 and whose names are written in the book of life and in the Lambs book of life as if the Father who gave them to Christ had kept one record of their number and names and the Lord Mediator who undertook for them had kept another Rev. 20.12 and 21.27 2. By this Covenant it was agreed betwixt Jehovah and Christ who should be the Redeemer I say it was agreed who should be the person to undertake this great work of Redemption and Salvation for these elect people for although we may conceive that Christ was predestinated unto this work before his actual consent yet we must conceive the agreement is by his own actual consent and compact with God See the agreement and consent of both the parties that Christ shall be the Lord Jehovah his servant in this work Isa 49.5 6 And now saith the Lord that formed me from the womb to be his servant to bring Jacob again to him though Israel be not gathered yet shall I be glorious in the eyes of the Lord and my God shall be my strength And he said it is a light thing that thou shouldst be my